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The (Musical) Daily Pidgin - ʻOkina and Kahakō #6
The (Musical) Daily Pidgin - ʻOkina and Kahakō #6
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: Andy Bumatai
Kahakō and  ʻokina
Kahakō and ʻokina
Published: 2012/03/23
Channel: Brooke Hutchins
ʻOkina & kahakō on iPad (and iPhone) English keyboard
ʻOkina & kahakō on iPad (and iPhone) English keyboard
Published: 2012/05/13
Channel: H. Doug Matsuoka
ʻokina and kahakō on iPhone
ʻokina and kahakō on iPhone
Published: 2012/05/13
Channel: H. Doug Matsuoka
ʻOkina (Hawaiian Alphabet)
ʻOkina (Hawaiian Alphabet)
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: Golden K Music
第2のハワイ語のレッスン:ʻ (ʻokina/ッオキナ) に集中するビデオ
第2のハワイ語のレッスン:ʻ (ʻokina/ッオキナ) に集中するビデオ
Published: 2013/07/09
Channel: hawaiiankaaialii
PutMeToRest (prod by. LilRoronoa)
PutMeToRest (prod by. LilRoronoa)
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: Lil Roronoa
okina_kurino_kinoshitade.AVI
okina_kurino_kinoshitade.AVI
Published: 2010/03/19
Channel: hamada0302
Bear caught on security camers
Bear caught on security camers
Published: 2012/10/29
Channel: markmco1
Red Gardens (Prod. By LilRoronoa)
Red Gardens (Prod. By LilRoronoa)
Published: 2017/05/29
Channel: Lil Roronoa
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE 3 | SAND IN THE CRACK
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE 3 | SAND IN THE CRACK
Published: 2017/04/10
Channel: Peridoot
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE 2 | TENDER BEEF CHEEKS
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE 2 | TENDER BEEF CHEEKS
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Peridoot
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE ONE | PILOT
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE ONE | PILOT
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: Peridoot
OKINA DIKKUIESU S2 | EPISODE 4: FACIAL FACADE
OKINA DIKKUIESU S2 | EPISODE 4: FACIAL FACADE
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Peridoot
OKINA DIKKUIESU S2 | EPISODE 3: MOTHER
OKINA DIKKUIESU S2 | EPISODE 3: MOTHER'S DAY SPECTACULARPALOOZA
Published: 2017/05/14
Channel: Peridoot
Talking Tom
Talking Tom
Published: 2010/07/13
Channel: giantdavid
Whee Ha Swing by Ledward Kaapana (432 Hz)
Whee Ha Swing by Ledward Kaapana (432 Hz)
Published: 2017/03/25
Channel: Sugar Cane Culture Club
Yuki520 okina kori no ki no shita de
Yuki520 okina kori no ki no shita de
Published: 2016/04/24
Channel: remedios soriano
Hawaiian Keyboard For Google Docs
Hawaiian Keyboard For Google Docs
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: 'Enehana - IT Solutions For Business & Education
SWAEROES | Enjoying OKINA TAIKO at Isnapur | By Komuwo Sebastian
SWAEROES | Enjoying OKINA TAIKO at Isnapur | By Komuwo Sebastian
Published: 2017/05/31
Channel: Komuwo Sebastian
WTM eComMatrix Okina Fito PERAK
WTM eComMatrix Okina Fito PERAK
Published: 2016/06/30
Channel: Okina Fitto
Okina playing!
Okina playing!
Published: 2013/03/20
Channel: Okina Mimi
Mount Waialeale | Kauai | Hawaii | USA ,  shield volcano  with  substantial rainfall and waterfalls
Mount Waialeale | Kauai | Hawaii | USA , shield volcano with substantial rainfall and waterfalls
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: Cities of the World
A bit more Okina playing...
A bit more Okina playing...
Published: 2013/03/20
Channel: Okina Mimi
Mes Duel contre Okina
Mes Duel contre Okina
Published: 2013/05/09
Channel: Ishizu Ishtar
JAMES OKINA   MAKING AN IMPACT
JAMES OKINA MAKING AN IMPACT
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: James Okina
couver okina
couver okina
Published: 2010/09/05
Channel: romario alves
Will she be OK?
Will she be OK?
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: Kitty does random things channel
OKINA DIKKUIESU S2 | EPISODE 2: GRAND THEFT BABY
OKINA DIKKUIESU S2 | EPISODE 2: GRAND THEFT BABY
Published: 2017/05/07
Channel: Peridoot
OKINA USA HD License Plate Camera - Rear License Plate Capture
OKINA USA HD License Plate Camera - Rear License Plate Capture
Published: 2016/01/06
Channel: okinausa
Okina Build #28 | B.O.T.W
Okina Build #28 | B.O.T.W
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: M.C. I.K
How to pronounce Manti Te
How to pronounce Manti Te'o
Published: 2014/12/08
Channel: billynair
OKINA DIKKUIESU S2 | EPISODE 1: NUT BUTTER
OKINA DIKKUIESU S2 | EPISODE 1: NUT BUTTER
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: Peridoot
Okina
Okina
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: Rony Fu
OKINA USA HD License Plate Camera - Front License Plate Capture
OKINA USA HD License Plate Camera - Front License Plate Capture
Published: 2016/01/06
Channel: okinausa
OKINA DIKKUIESU S3 | EPISODE 2: BLUE FOOTED BOOBY
OKINA DIKKUIESU S3 | EPISODE 2: BLUE FOOTED BOOBY
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: Peridoot
Okina | Breezy[meh] | Jillian | Ramona | Ajanae | Analis
Okina | Breezy[meh] | Jillian | Ramona | Ajanae | Analis
Published: 2008/10/16
Channel: krystalchms
Okina Kabu 2 of 2
Okina Kabu 2 of 2
Published: 2010/03/21
Channel: yukihladky
OKINA DIKKUIESU S3 | EPISODE 1: MY STRANGE ADDITION
OKINA DIKKUIESU S3 | EPISODE 1: MY STRANGE ADDITION
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Peridoot
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE 4 | PART 2: DADDY DRAMA
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE 4 | PART 2: DADDY DRAMA
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: Peridoot
Okina Aniko
Okina Aniko
Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: Ch1nzo&Urnaa
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE 5 | FINALE: THE FINAL COUNTDOWN
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE 5 | FINALE: THE FINAL COUNTDOWN
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: Peridoot
Yakiniku party dorufu okina 2
Yakiniku party dorufu okina 2
Published: 2015/02/23
Channel: daviand corleone
DSCF1277 okina kuri
DSCF1277 okina kuri
Published: 2009/10/04
Channel: yellowmomopon
OKINA USA 36x License Plate 3.4~122.4mm lens - SIRZ36-754LP Noon Time Front License Plate Capture
OKINA USA 36x License Plate 3.4~122.4mm lens - SIRZ36-754LP Noon Time Front License Plate Capture
Published: 2011/06/20
Channel: okinausa
Okina
Okina
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: OKINA VAN PUTTEN
RSM Fitri (Okina Fito) Sharing 70BA dipentas iElken
RSM Fitri (Okina Fito) Sharing 70BA dipentas iElken
Published: 2016/05/29
Channel: Mael Coddy
Okina Aniko
Okina Aniko
Published: 2015/04/15
Channel: Ch1nzo&Urnaa
First Look: Okina
First Look: Okina
Published: 2016/08/20
Channel: Warframe Madness
OKINA USA HD License Plate Camera - Rear License Plate Capture
OKINA USA HD License Plate Camera - Rear License Plate Capture
Published: 2016/01/06
Channel: okinausa
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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ʻOkina letter forms
Hawaiian ʻokina The Hawaiian ʻokina or Tongan fakauʻa (Unicode U+02BB[1]), as it appears in the Lucida Sans font.
Tahitian ʻeta The Tahitian ʻeta or Wallisian fakamoga (currently not encoded separately), as it appears in the Lucida Sans font.
Okina-using-Linux-Libertine.svg
 »ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi« (Hawaiian: Hawaiian Language) within single quotes, font: Linux Libertine. The glyph of the two ʻokinas is clearly different from the one of the opening quote.

The ʻokina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.

Names[edit]

Area Vernacular name Literal meaning Notes
Hawaiian ʻokina separator; cutting; breaking transitionally formalized.
Historically, the ʻokina was commonly represented by the grave accent (`) on computer publications. More recently, the ʻokina has been represented incorrectly by the apostrophe ('). However, Word and Apple programs offer the correct typographical mark (ʻ).
Samoan koma liliu "inverted comma"—inverted (liliu) comma (koma) often replaced by an apostrophe in modern publications, recognized by Samoan scholars and community.[2]

Use of the apostrophe and macron symbols in Samoan words was restored by the Ministry of Education in 2012 after being removed in the 1960s.[3]

Tahitian ʻeta ʻetaʻeta = to harden no official or traditional status, may use ' or ‘ or ’
Tongan fakauʻa
(honorific for fakamonga)
throat maker officially formalized
Cook Islands Māori ʻamata or ʻakairo ʻamata "hamza" or "hamza mark" no official or traditional status, may use ' or ‘ or ’ or nothing
Wallisian fakamoga by throat no official or traditional status, may use ' or ‘ or ’

Appearance[edit]

The ʻokina visually resembles a left single quotation mark—a small "6"-shaped mark above the baseline.

The Tahitian ʻeta has a distinct shape, like an ʻokina turned 90° or more clockwise.[citation needed]

Orthography and official status[edit]

The ʻokina is a letter in the Hawaiian alphabet. It is unicameral— that is, it does not have separate uppercase (capital) and lowercase ("small") forms— unlike the other letters, all of which are basic Latin letters. For words that begin with an ʻokina, capitalization rules affect the next letter instead: for instance, at the beginning of a sentence, the name of the letter is written "ʻOkina", with a capital O.[citation needed]

Geographic names in the United States[edit]

The United States Board on Geographic Names lists relevant place names both with and without the ʻokina and kahakō in the Geographic Names Information System. Colloquially and formally, the forms have long been used interchangeably.[4]

Computer encoding[edit]

Apostrophes and quotation marks[edit]

In the ASCII character set, the ʻokina is typically represented by the apostrophe character ('), ASCII value 39 in decimal and 27 in hexadecimal. This character is typically rendered as a straight typewriter apostrophe, lacking the curve of the ʻokina proper. In some fonts, the ASCII apostrophe is rendered as a right single quotation mark, which is an even less satisfactory glyph for the ʻokina—essentially a 180° rotation of the correct shape.

Many other character sets expanded on the overloaded ASCII apostrophe, providing distinct characters for the left and right single quotation marks. The left single quotation mark has been used as an acceptable approximation to the ʻokina, though it still has problems: the ʻokina is a letter, not a punctuation mark, which may cause incorrect behaviour in automated text processing. Additionally, the left single quotation mark is represented in some typefaces by a mirrored "9" glyph, rather than a "6", which is unsuitable for the ʻokina.

Unicode[edit]

In the Unicode standard, the ʻokina is encoded as U+02BB ʻ Modifier letter turned comma, which can be rendered in HTML by the entity ʻ (or in hexadecimal form ʻ).[1]

Although this letter was introduced in Unicode 1.1 (1993), lack of support for this character prevented easy and universal use for many years. As of 2008, OS X, Microsoft Windows and Linux-based computers and all new major smartphones have no problem with the glyph, and it is no longer a problem in Internet Explorer 7 as it was in previous versions. U+02BB should be the value used in encoding new data when the expected use of the data permits.

The same character is used in Latin transliterations of the Hebrew letter ʻáyin and the Arabic letter ʻayn as well as in the Uzbek alphabet to write the letters (Cyrillic Ў) and (Cyrillic Ғ). However, "ʻokina" and other Polynesian names are properly reserved for the glottal stop in Polynesian language orthographies. Other glottal stop characters, such as U+02C0 ˀ Modifier letter glottal stop, are inappropriate for the ʻokina.

The distinct form of the Tahitian and Wallisian[verification needed] glottal stop is not currently assigned a separate character in Unicode.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Unicode Standard 5.1 Archived December 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Hunkin, Galumalemana Afeleti (2009). Gagana Samoa: A Samoan Language Coursebook. University of Hawaii Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-8248-3131-8. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  3. ^ "Samoa to restore use of apostrophes and macrons". samoanews.com. 25 November 2012. 
  4. ^ U.S. Board on Geographic Names: Collection and Dissemination of Indigenous Names (United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Twenty-third Session Vienna, 28 March – 4 April 2006, Working Paper No. 82), S. 3: "An example of this has been the addition of the glottal stop (okina) and macron (kahako) to placenames of Hawaiian origin, which prior to 1995 had always been omitted. The BGN staff, under the direction and guidance of the Hawaii State Geographic Names Authority, has been restoring systemically these marks to each Hawaiian name listed in GNIS."

External links[edit]

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