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Video#6 Learn Hawaiian ʻOkina & Kahakō Practice (Course 3 Lesson 2)
Video#6 Learn Hawaiian ʻOkina & Kahakō Practice (Course 3 Lesson 2)
Published: 2017/11/11
Channel: Tracie Keolalani
The (Musical) Daily Pidgin - ʻOkina and Kahakō #6
The (Musical) Daily Pidgin - ʻOkina and Kahakō #6
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: Andy Bumatai
ʻokina and kahakō on iPhone
ʻokina and kahakō on iPhone
Published: 2012/05/13
Channel: H. Doug Matsuoka
Kahakō and  ʻokina
Kahakō and ʻokina
Published: 2012/03/23
Channel: Brooke Hutchins
第2のハワイ語のレッスン:ʻ (ʻokina/ッオキナ) に集中するビデオ
第2のハワイ語のレッスン:ʻ (ʻokina/ッオキナ) に集中するビデオ
Published: 2013/07/09
Channel: Maka'ika'i
ʻOkina & kahakō on iPad (and iPhone) English keyboard
ʻOkina & kahakō on iPad (and iPhone) English keyboard
Published: 2012/05/13
Channel: H. Doug Matsuoka
ʻOkina (Hawaiian Alphabet)
ʻOkina (Hawaiian Alphabet)
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: Golden Kahumoku
How to type
How to type 'okina & kahakō in Hawaiian text on a Mac (OUTDATED!)
Published: 2010/07/20
Channel: NFLRChawaii
Cartier offers you a revelation every 10 seconds at the SIHH 2018.
Cartier offers you a revelation every 10 seconds at the SIHH 2018.
Published: 2018/02/06
Channel: Xavier Dietlin
Touhou 16 HSiFS - ULTRA Stage 6 [2,165,257,510]
Touhou 16 HSiFS - ULTRA Stage 6 [2,165,257,510]
Published: 2018/01/04
Channel: Plus
Okina
Okina's 2nd spell timeout (Lunatic, no release)
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: Moriya Sukowa
B i S N o M i B o R
B i S N o M i B o R
Published: 2018/01/10
Channel: Lackswick
Okina searches Doors Part1
Okina searches Doors Part1
Published: 2018/02/08
Channel: Der Alufe
hidden star in all seasons.
hidden star in all seasons.
Published: 2018/01/25
Channel: MasterGameFTW3561
Okina vs Okesan pt1
Okina vs Okesan pt1
Published: 2017/08/25
Channel: RoDoKen _
You never know what
You never know what's gonna come through that door
Published: 2018/01/28
Channel: Vampirepineapple
Video#5 Learn Hawaiian
Video#5 Learn Hawaiian 'Okina & Kahakō (Course 3 Lesson 1)
Published: 2017/11/11
Channel: Tracie Keolalani
please don
please don't ask...
Published: 2018/02/18
Channel: FRA MAN DUDE
Rurouni kenshin (Samurai x) - Kaiten Kenbu Rokuren
Rurouni kenshin (Samurai x) - Kaiten Kenbu Rokuren
Published: 2008/09/07
Channel: BaronvonRichthofen
Shinkō no jundo, kuruān no ōkina kiseki no yomikata dai 112-shō
Shinkō no jundo, kuruān no ōkina kiseki no yomikata dai 112-shō
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: james david
Extra Stage was a Mistake.
Extra Stage was a Mistake.
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: Don't watch muh videos and don't scrubskribe
Touhou 16 - How to NOT beat Okina gone wrong
Touhou 16 - How to NOT beat Okina gone wrong
Published: 2018/01/21
Channel: HK Seija
Sulley did not check for Okinas
Sulley did not check for Okinas
Published: 2018/01/28
Channel: MEME-AH
Let
Let's Play Touhou Fangames: Spell Card Collection - Part 4
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: Minogame1
The Last Blade (Arcade/Neo Geo MVS) Playthrough as Okina
The Last Blade (Arcade/Neo Geo MVS) Playthrough as Okina
Published: 2016/04/28
Channel: TheInnocentSinful
Te Tau Otea - Leolani Gallardo
Te Tau Otea - Leolani Gallardo
Published: 2017/05/08
Channel: Kasie Gillette
The true plot behind Touhou16 is....
The true plot behind Touhou16 is....
Published: 2018/02/03
Channel: Der Alufe
HSiFS Hell - Day 3
HSiFS Hell - Day 3
Published: 2017/09/16
Channel: Minogame1
Holly dog and okina boy
Holly dog and okina boy
Published: 2017/08/27
Channel: Doug Thatcher
J. Feth - Tokyo ft. Money Mitch & Joey Bars (prod. by Justin Kase)
J. Feth - Tokyo ft. Money Mitch & Joey Bars (prod. by Justin Kase)
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: J. Fẹth
Touhou 16 Extra Stage - Reverse Invoker
Touhou 16 Extra Stage - Reverse Invoker
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: TaiwaneseNinja
【東方 Piano/Midi】Okina Matara
【東方 Piano/Midi】Okina Matara's Theme: The Concealed Four Seasons
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: Miki Hiroyuki
Will she be OK?
Will she be OK?
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: I'm just Kari
Chiptune - Secret God Matara ~ Hidden Star in All Seasons.
Chiptune - Secret God Matara ~ Hidden Star in All Seasons.
Published: 2018/01/30
Channel: Hazama Yuutou
#idkwtftinamethisvideo
#idkwtftinamethisvideo
Published: 2017/10/07
Channel: ライ 小さな妖怪
Hawaiian Keyboard For Google Docs
Hawaiian Keyboard For Google Docs
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: 'Enehana - IT Solutions For Business & Education
okina oof
okina oof
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: Vendetta
Okina
Okina
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: Rony Fu
MUSHA KATANA CUTTING TEST.
MUSHA KATANA CUTTING TEST.
Published: 2013/08/25
Channel: mike lesa
A Different Kind of Extra Stage
A Different Kind of Extra Stage
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Lunatic
315 Final Project
315 Final Project
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: Jonathan Campion
Okina, does it suck?(no forma)
Okina, does it suck?(no forma)
Published: 2018/01/16
Channel: One Cpt Obvious
Misao And Aoshi Tribute
Misao And Aoshi Tribute
Published: 2011/08/10
Channel: aninhadeeply
Let
Let's Play The Last Blade - Genbu no Okina & Lee Rekka
Published: 2017/07/08
Channel: Searching4Rinoa
[LB2] Last blade 2 CMV InFerNo
[LB2] Last blade 2 CMV InFerNo
Published: 2014/06/21
Channel: Beto Bmx
Persona 4 - Boss #22 - Lost Okina
Persona 4 - Boss #22 - Lost Okina
Published: 2009/03/05
Channel: Blaise Huskins
Sia  singing Okina kurino □□ the trouble makers
Sia singing Okina kurino □□ the trouble makers
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: The trouble makers
Persona 4: Lost Okina (Expert)
Persona 4: Lost Okina (Expert)
Published: 2009/05/18
Channel: Ayaluki
Lukas Sings Okina Kurino Kinoshita De.wmv
Lukas Sings Okina Kurino Kinoshita De.wmv
Published: 2011/04/15
Channel: Lainempath
SaltyBet: Shizuru Vs. Farah Oersted
SaltyBet: Shizuru Vs. Farah Oersted
Published: 2016/08/05
Channel: IWatchAnime92
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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ʻOkina letter forms
Hawaiian ʻokina The Hawaiian ʻokina or Tongan fakauʻa (Unicode U+02BB[1]), as it appears in the Lucida Sans font.
Tahitian ʻeta The Tahitian ʻeta or Wallisian fakamoga (currently not encoded separately), as it appears in the Lucida Sans font.
Okina-using-Linux-Libertine.svg
 »ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi« (Hawaiian: Hawaiian language) within single quotes, font: Linux Libertine. The glyph of the two ʻokinas is clearly different from the one of the opening quote.

The ʻokina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.

Names[edit]

Area Vernacular name Literal meaning Notes
Hawaiian ʻokina separator; cutting; breaking transitionally formalized.
The ʻokina has historically been represented in computer publications by the grave accent (`) and the apostrophe ('), especially when the correct typographical mark (ʻ) is not available.
Samoan koma liliu "inverted comma"—inverted (liliu) comma (koma) often replaced by an apostrophe in modern publications, recognized by Samoan scholars and community.[2]

Use of the apostrophe and macron symbols in Samoan words was restored by the Ministry of Education in 2012 after being removed in the 1960s.[3]

Tahitian ʻeta ʻetaʻeta = to harden no official or traditional status, may use ' or ‘ or ’
Tongan fakauʻa
(honorific for fakamonga)
throat maker officially formalized
Cook Islands Māori ʻamata or ʻakairo ʻamata "hamza" or "hamza mark" no official or traditional status, may use ' or ‘ or ’ or nothing
Wallisian fakamoga by throat no official or traditional status, may use ' or ‘ or ’

Appearance[edit]

The ʻokina visually resembles a left single quotation mark—a small "6"-shaped mark above the baseline.

The Tahitian ʻeta has a distinct shape, like an ʻokina turned 90° or more clockwise.[citation needed]

Orthography and official status[edit]

The ʻokina is a letter in the Hawaiian alphabet. It is unicameral— that is, it does not have separate uppercase (capital) and lowercase ("small") forms— unlike the other letters, all of which are basic Latin letters. For words that begin with an ʻokina, capitalization rules affect the next letter instead: for instance, at the beginning of a sentence, the name of the letter is written "ʻOkina", with a capital O.[citation needed]

Geographic names in the United States[edit]

The United States Board on Geographic Names lists relevant place names both with and without the ʻokina and kahakō (macron) in the Geographic Names Information System. Colloquially and formally, the forms have long been used interchangeably.[4]

Computer encoding[edit]

Apostrophes and quotation marks[edit]

In the ASCII character set, the ʻokina is typically represented by the apostrophe character ('), ASCII value 39 in decimal and 27 in hexadecimal. This character is typically rendered as a straight typewriter apostrophe, lacking the curve of the ʻokina proper. In some fonts, the ASCII apostrophe is rendered as a right single quotation mark, which is an even less satisfactory glyph for the ʻokina—essentially a 180° rotation of the correct shape.

Many other character sets expanded on the overloaded ASCII apostrophe, providing distinct characters for the left and right single quotation marks. The left single quotation mark has been used as an acceptable approximation to the ʻokina, though it still has problems: the ʻokina is a letter, not a punctuation mark, which may cause incorrect behaviour in automated text processing. Additionally, the left single quotation mark is represented in some typefaces by a mirrored "9" glyph, rather than a "6", which is unsuitable for the ʻokina.

Unicode[edit]

In the Unicode standard, the ʻokina is encoded as U+02BB ʻ Modifier letter turned comma, which can be rendered in HTML by the entity ʻ (or in hexadecimal form ʻ).[1]

Although this letter was introduced in Unicode 1.1 (1993), lack of support for this character prevented easy and universal use for many years. As of 2008, OS X, Microsoft Windows and Linux-based computers and all new major smartphones have no problem with the glyph, and it is no longer a problem in Internet Explorer 7 as it was in previous versions. U+02BB should be the value used in encoding new data when the expected use of the data permits.

The same character is sometimes used in Latin transliterations of the Hebrew letter ʻáyin and the Arabic letter ʻayn (which is not a glottal stop) as well as in the Uzbek alphabet to write the letters (Cyrillic Ў) and (Cyrillic Ғ). However, "ʻokina" and other Polynesian names are properly reserved for the glottal stop in Polynesian language orthographies. Other glottal stop characters, such as U+02C0 ˀ Modifier letter glottal stop, are inappropriate for the ʻokina.

The distinct form of the Tahitian and Wallisian[verification needed] glottal stop is not currently assigned a separate character in Unicode.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Unicode Standard 5.1 Archived December 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Hunkin, Galumalemana Afeleti (2009). Gagana Samoa: A Samoan Language Coursebook. University of Hawaii Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-8248-3131-8. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  3. ^ "Samoa to restore use of apostrophes and macrons". samoanews.com. 25 November 2012. 
  4. ^ U.S. Board on Geographic Names: Collection and Dissemination of Indigenous Names (United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Twenty-third Session Vienna, 28 March – 4 April 2006, Working Paper No. 82), S. 3: "An example of this has been the addition of the glottal stop (okina) and macron (kahako) to placenames of Hawaiian origin, which prior to 1995 had always been omitted. The BGN staff, under the direction and guidance of the Hawaii State Geographic Names Authority, has been restoring systemically these marks to each Hawaiian name listed in GNIS."

External links[edit]

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