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The (Musical) Daily Pidgin - ʻOkina and Kahakō #6
The (Musical) Daily Pidgin - ʻOkina and Kahakō #6
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: Andy Bumatai
ʻokina and kahakō on iPhone
ʻokina and kahakō on iPhone
Published: 2012/05/13
Channel: H. Doug Matsuoka
Video#6 Learn Hawaiian ʻOkina & Kahakō Practice (Course 3 Lesson 2)
Video#6 Learn Hawaiian ʻOkina & Kahakō Practice (Course 3 Lesson 2)
Published: 2017/11/11
Channel: Tracie Keolalani
Kahakō and  ʻokina
Kahakō and ʻokina
Published: 2012/03/23
Channel: Brooke Hutchins
ʻOkina & kahakō on iPad (and iPhone) English keyboard
ʻOkina & kahakō on iPad (and iPhone) English keyboard
Published: 2012/05/13
Channel: H. Doug Matsuoka
第2のハワイ語のレッスン:ʻ (ʻokina/ッオキナ) に集中するビデオ
第2のハワイ語のレッスン:ʻ (ʻokina/ッオキナ) に集中するビデオ
Published: 2013/07/09
Channel: hawaiiankaaialii
ʻOkina (Hawaiian Alphabet)
ʻOkina (Hawaiian Alphabet)
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: Golden Kahumoku
How to type
How to type 'okina & kahakō in Hawaiian text on a Mac (OUTDATED!)
Published: 2010/07/20
Channel: NFLRChawaii
Video#5 Learn Hawaiian
Video#5 Learn Hawaiian 'Okina & Kahakō (Course 3 Lesson 1)
Published: 2017/11/11
Channel: Tracie Keolalani
Okina in her new home! (Cutest Puppy Ever)
Okina in her new home! (Cutest Puppy Ever)
Published: 2013/03/20
Channel: Okina Mimi
A bit more Okina playing...
A bit more Okina playing...
Published: 2013/03/20
Channel: Okina Mimi
Warframe - Quick Look At Okina
Warframe - Quick Look At Okina
Published: 2016/07/28
Channel: MCGamerCZ
Attempt at EX Mataara Okina
Attempt at EX Mataara Okina
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Mystical Lala
Okina getting familiar with the house!
Okina getting familiar with the house!
Published: 2013/03/20
Channel: Okina Mimi
Talking Tom
Talking Tom
Published: 2010/07/13
Channel: giantdavid
okina_kurino_kinoshitade.AVI
okina_kurino_kinoshitade.AVI
Published: 2010/03/19
Channel: hamada0302
Warframe - Okina
Warframe - Okina
Published: 2016/07/11
Channel: OriginalWickedfun
Okina Playing with Mamma!
Okina Playing with Mamma!
Published: 2013/03/20
Channel: Okina Mimi
Okina playing!
Okina playing!
Published: 2013/03/20
Channel: Okina Mimi
Zen zen zense short cover [Okina]
Zen zen zense short cover [Okina]
Published: 2017/10/08
Channel: Chichii // Okina Nanase
How do you say Hawai
How do you say Hawai'i? - Eavesdropping Traveler #1
Published: 2014/02/28
Channel: NativLang
Okina vs Okesan pt1
Okina vs Okesan pt1
Published: 2017/08/25
Channel: RoDo _
JAMES OKINA   MAKING AN IMPACT
JAMES OKINA MAKING AN IMPACT
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: James Okina
Awakened Okina intro IN
Awakened Okina intro IN
Published: 2017/10/01
Channel: Lucas9999
Hawaiian Keyboard For Google Docs
Hawaiian Keyboard For Google Docs
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: 'Enehana - IT Solutions For Business & Education
Okina Survival Spell Glitch
Okina Survival Spell Glitch
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: Pearl
okina oof
okina oof
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: Vendetta
Bear caught on security camers
Bear caught on security camers
Published: 2012/10/29
Channel: markmco1
okina.wmv
okina.wmv
Published: 2017/08/13
Channel: Suikacide
Sans vs okina
Sans vs okina
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: Scarlet Red
Ōkina higeki Prologue
Ōkina higeki Prologue
Published: 2013/09/14
Channel: Knortable
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE 2 | TENDER BEEF CHEEKS
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE 2 | TENDER BEEF CHEEKS
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Peridoot
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE ONE | PILOT
OKINA DIKKUIESU EPISODE ONE | PILOT
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: Peridoot
oki na
oki na
Published: 2015/10/17
Channel: Lyn An Yndig
Speedpaint: Okina Nanase - Hair Tie
Speedpaint: Okina Nanase - Hair Tie
Published: 2017/10/28
Channel: Chichii // Okina Nanase
OKINA DIKKUIESU S3 | EPISODE 4: TO CATCH A PREDATOR
OKINA DIKKUIESU S3 | EPISODE 4: TO CATCH A PREDATOR
Published: 2017/07/12
Channel: Peridoot
oki na kuri
oki na kuri
Published: 2012/05/12
Channel: megumichan0802
Yuki520 okina kori no ki no shita de
Yuki520 okina kori no ki no shita de
Published: 2016/04/24
Channel: remedios soriano
couver okina
couver okina
Published: 2010/09/05
Channel: romario alves
Okina
Okina's Train Ride Home
Published: 2013/03/20
Channel: Okina Mimi
OKINA USA HD License Plate Camera - Front License Plate Capture
OKINA USA HD License Plate Camera - Front License Plate Capture
Published: 2016/01/06
Channel: okinausa
oki na
oki na
Published: 2015/04/18
Channel: Laurence Goyal
Me, Okina & Lulu
Me, Okina & Lulu
Published: 2011/10/25
Channel: ronandali
When u desperate af to upload something
When u desperate af to upload something
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: Chichii // Okina Nanase
Okina Aniko
Okina Aniko
Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: Ch1nzo&Urnaa
Okina Aniko
Okina Aniko
Published: 2015/04/15
Channel: Ch1nzo&Urnaa
Okina vs level 120 Corrupted Bombard + Build
Okina vs level 120 Corrupted Bombard + Build
Published: 2017/08/24
Channel: The Crimson Fucker
A Different Kind of Extra Stage
A Different Kind of Extra Stage
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Lunatic
WTM eComMatrix Okina Fito (PERAK)
WTM eComMatrix Okina Fito (PERAK)
Published: 2016/05/29
Channel: Mael Coddy
Mes Duel contre Okina
Mes Duel contre Okina
Published: 2013/05/09
Channel: Ishizu Ishtar
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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ʻOkina letter forms
Hawaiian ʻokina The Hawaiian ʻokina or Tongan fakauʻa (Unicode U+02BB[1]), as it appears in the Lucida Sans font.
Tahitian ʻeta The Tahitian ʻeta or Wallisian fakamoga (currently not encoded separately), as it appears in the Lucida Sans font.
Okina-using-Linux-Libertine.svg
 »ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi« (Hawaiian: Hawaiian language) within single quotes, font: Linux Libertine. The glyph of the two ʻokinas is clearly different from the one of the opening quote.

The ʻokina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.

Names[edit]

Area Vernacular name Literal meaning Notes
Hawaiian ʻokina separator; cutting; breaking transitionally formalized.
The ʻokina has historically been represented in computer publications by the grave accent (`) and the apostrophe ('), especially when the correct typographical mark (ʻ) is not available.
Samoan koma liliu "inverted comma"—inverted (liliu) comma (koma) often replaced by an apostrophe in modern publications, recognized by Samoan scholars and community.[2]

Use of the apostrophe and macron symbols in Samoan words was restored by the Ministry of Education in 2012 after being removed in the 1960s.[3]

Tahitian ʻeta ʻetaʻeta = to harden no official or traditional status, may use ' or ‘ or ’
Tongan fakauʻa
(honorific for fakamonga)
throat maker officially formalized
Cook Islands Māori ʻamata or ʻakairo ʻamata "hamza" or "hamza mark" no official or traditional status, may use ' or ‘ or ’ or nothing
Wallisian fakamoga by throat no official or traditional status, may use ' or ‘ or ’

Appearance[edit]

The ʻokina visually resembles a left single quotation mark—a small "6"-shaped mark above the baseline.

The Tahitian ʻeta has a distinct shape, like an ʻokina turned 90° or more clockwise.[citation needed]

Orthography and official status[edit]

The ʻokina is a letter in the Hawaiian alphabet. It is unicameral— that is, it does not have separate uppercase (capital) and lowercase ("small") forms— unlike the other letters, all of which are basic Latin letters. For words that begin with an ʻokina, capitalization rules affect the next letter instead: for instance, at the beginning of a sentence, the name of the letter is written "ʻOkina", with a capital O.[citation needed]

Geographic names in the United States[edit]

The United States Board on Geographic Names lists relevant place names both with and without the ʻokina and kahakō (macron) in the Geographic Names Information System. Colloquially and formally, the forms have long been used interchangeably.[4]

Computer encoding[edit]

Apostrophes and quotation marks[edit]

In the ASCII character set, the ʻokina is typically represented by the apostrophe character ('), ASCII value 39 in decimal and 27 in hexadecimal. This character is typically rendered as a straight typewriter apostrophe, lacking the curve of the ʻokina proper. In some fonts, the ASCII apostrophe is rendered as a right single quotation mark, which is an even less satisfactory glyph for the ʻokina—essentially a 180° rotation of the correct shape.

Many other character sets expanded on the overloaded ASCII apostrophe, providing distinct characters for the left and right single quotation marks. The left single quotation mark has been used as an acceptable approximation to the ʻokina, though it still has problems: the ʻokina is a letter, not a punctuation mark, which may cause incorrect behaviour in automated text processing. Additionally, the left single quotation mark is represented in some typefaces by a mirrored "9" glyph, rather than a "6", which is unsuitable for the ʻokina.

Unicode[edit]

In the Unicode standard, the ʻokina is encoded as U+02BB ʻ Modifier letter turned comma, which can be rendered in HTML by the entity ʻ (or in hexadecimal form ʻ).[1]

Although this letter was introduced in Unicode 1.1 (1993), lack of support for this character prevented easy and universal use for many years. As of 2008, OS X, Microsoft Windows and Linux-based computers and all new major smartphones have no problem with the glyph, and it is no longer a problem in Internet Explorer 7 as it was in previous versions. U+02BB should be the value used in encoding new data when the expected use of the data permits.

The same character is sometimes used in Latin transliterations of the Hebrew letter ʻáyin and the Arabic letter ʻayn (which is not a glottal stop) as well as in the Uzbek alphabet to write the letters (Cyrillic Ў) and (Cyrillic Ғ). However, "ʻokina" and other Polynesian names are properly reserved for the glottal stop in Polynesian language orthographies. Other glottal stop characters, such as U+02C0 ˀ Modifier letter glottal stop, are inappropriate for the ʻokina.

The distinct form of the Tahitian and Wallisian[verification needed] glottal stop is not currently assigned a separate character in Unicode.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Unicode Standard 5.1 Archived December 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Hunkin, Galumalemana Afeleti (2009). Gagana Samoa: A Samoan Language Coursebook. University of Hawaii Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-8248-3131-8. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  3. ^ "Samoa to restore use of apostrophes and macrons". samoanews.com. 25 November 2012. 
  4. ^ U.S. Board on Geographic Names: Collection and Dissemination of Indigenous Names (United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Twenty-third Session Vienna, 28 March – 4 April 2006, Working Paper No. 82), S. 3: "An example of this has been the addition of the glottal stop (okina) and macron (kahako) to placenames of Hawaiian origin, which prior to 1995 had always been omitted. The BGN staff, under the direction and guidance of the Hawaii State Geographic Names Authority, has been restoring systemically these marks to each Hawaiian name listed in GNIS."

External links[edit]

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