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Cardinal One billion (short scale)
One thousand million, or one milliard (long scale)
Ordinal One billionth (short scale)
Factorization 29 · 59
Greek numeral
Roman numeral M
Binary 1110111001101011001010000000002
Ternary 21202002000210100013
Quaternary 3232122302200004
Quinary 40220000000005
Senary 2431212453446
Octal 73465450008
Duodecimal 23AA9385412
Hexadecimal 3B9ACA0016
Vigesimal FCA000020
Base 36 GJDGXS36

1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard,[1] long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. One billion can also be written as b or bn.[2][3]

In scientific notation, it is written as 1 × 109. The metric prefix giga indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit. Its symbol is G.

One billion years may be called eon/aeon in astronomy or geology.

Previously in British English (but not in American English), the word "billion" referred exclusively to a million millions (1,000,000,000,000). However, this is no longer as common as earlier, and the word has been used to mean one thousand million (1,000,000,000) for some time.[4] The alternative term "one thousand million" is mainly used in the U.K., or countries such as Spain that uses "one thousand million" as one million million constitutes a billion. The worded figure, as opposed to the numerical figure (one thousand million/1,000,000,000) is used to differentiate between "one thousand million" or "one billion".

The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000; whereas "milliard" is seldom used in English,[5] variations on this name often appear in other languages.

In the South Asian numbering system, it is known as 100 crore or 1 arab.

Visualisation of powers of ten from one to 1 billion

Sense of scale[edit]

The facts below give a sense of how large 1,000,000,000 (109) is in the context of time according to current scientific evidence:

  • 109 seconds is 114 days short of 32 calendar years (≈ 31.7 years).
  • More precisely, a billion seconds is exactly 31 years, 8 months, 2 weeks, 1 day, 17 hours, 46 minutes, and 40 seconds.
  • About 109 minutes ago, the Roman Empire was flourishing and Christianity was emerging. (109 minutes is roughly 1,901 years.)
  • About 109 hours ago, modern human beings and their ancestors were living in the Stone Age (more precisely, the Middle Paleolithic). (109 hours is roughly 114,080 years.)
  • About 109 days ago, Australopithecus, an ape-like creature related to an ancestor of modern humans, roamed the African savannas. (109 days is roughly 2.738 million years.)
  • About 109 months ago, dinosaurs walked the Earth during the late Cretaceous. (109 months is roughly 83.3 million years.)
  • About 109 years—a gigaannus—ago, the first multicellular eukaryotes appeared on Earth.
  • About 109 decades ago, galaxies began to appear in the early Universe which was then 3.799 billion years old. (109 decades is roughly 10 billion years.)
  • It takes approximately 95 years to count from one to one billion in a single sitting.[6]
  • The universe is thought to be about 13.8 × 109 years old.[7]


  • 109 inches is 15,783 miles (25,400 km), more than halfway around the world and thus sufficient to reach any point on the globe from any other point.
  • 109 metres (called a gigametre) is almost three times the distance from the Earth to the Moon.
  • 109 kilometres (called a terameter) is over six times the distance from the Earth to the Sun.


  • A billion square inches would be a square about one half mile on a side.
  • A piece of finely woven bed sheet cloth that contained a billion holes would measure about 500 square feet (46 m2), large enough to cover a moderate sized apartment.


  • There are a billion cubic millimetres in a cubic metre and there are a billion cubic metres in a cubic kilometre.
  • A billion grains of table salt or granulated sugar would occupy a volume of about 2.5 cubic feet (0.071 m3).
  • A billion cubic inches would be a volume comparable to a large commercial building slightly larger than a typical supermarket.


  • Any object that weighs one billion kilograms (2.2×109 lb) would weigh about as much as 5,525 empty Boeing 747-400s.
  • A cube of iron that weighs one billion pounds (450,000,000 kg) would be 1,521 feet 4 inches (0.28813 mi; 463.70 m) on each side.



  • A small mountain, slightly larger than Stone Mountain in Georgia, United States, would weigh (have a mass of) a billion tons.
  • There are billions of worker ants in the largest ant colony in the world,[10] which covers almost 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of the Mediterranean coast.
  • In 1804, the world population was one billion.


A is a cube; B consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube A, C consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube B; and D consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube C. Thus there are 1 million A-sized cubes in C; and 1,000,000,000 A-sized cubes in D.


Selected 10-digit numbers (1,000,000,001–9,999,999,999)[edit]

1,000,000,001 to 1,999,999,999[edit]

2,000,000,000 to 2,999,999,999[edit]

  • 2,038,074,743 – 100,000,000th prime number
  • 2,147,483,647 – 8th Mersenne prime and the largest signed 32-bit integer.
  • 2,147,483,648 – 231
  • 2,176,782,336 – 612
  • 2,214,502,422 – 6th primary pseudoperfect number.[18]
  • 2,357,947,691 – 119
  • 2,562,890,625 – 158
  • 2,971,215,073 – 11th Fibonacci prime (47th Fibonacci number).

3,000,000,000 to 3,999,999,999[edit]

  • 3,166,815,962 – 26th Pell number.[15]
  • 3,192,727,797 – 24th Motzkin number.[14]
  • 3,323,236,238 – 31st Wedderburn–Etherington number.[17]
  • 3,405,691,582 – hexadecimal CAFEBABE; used as a placeholder in programming.
  • 3,405,697,037 – hexadecimal CAFED00D; used as a placeholder in programming.
  • 3,735,928,559 – hexadecimal DEADBEEF; used as a placeholder in programming.
  • 3,486,784,401 – 320

4,000,000,000 to 4,999,999,999[edit]

  • 4,294,836,223 – 16th Carol number.[12]
  • 4,294,967,291 – Largest prime 32-bit unsigned integer.
  • 4,294,967,295 – Maximum 32-bit unsigned integer (FFFFFFFF16), perfect totient number, product of the five prime Fermat numbers through .
  • 4,294,967,296 – 232
  • 4,294,967,297, the first composite Fermat number.
  • 4,295,098,367 – 15th Kynea number.[13]
  • 4,807,526,976 – 48th Fibonacci number.

5,000,000,000 to 5,999,999,999[edit]

6,000,000,000 to 6,999,999,999[edit]

7,000,000,000 to 7,999,999,999[edit]

  • 7,645,370,045 – 27th Pell number.[15]
  • 7,778,742,049 – 49th Fibonacci number.
  • 7,862,958,391 – 32nd Wedderburn–Etherington number.[17]

8,000,000,000 to 8,999,999,999[edit]

9,000,000,000 to 9,999,999,999[edit]


  1. ^ "Yard". Investopedia. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  2. ^ "figures". The Economist Style Guide (11th ed.). The Economist. 2015. 
  3. ^ "6.5 Abbreviating 'million' and 'billion'". English Style Guide: A handbook for authors and translators in the European Commission (PDF) (8th ed.). European Commission. 3 November 2017. p. 32. 
  4. ^ "How many is a billion?". Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  5. ^ "billion,thousand million,milliard". Google Ngram Viewer. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  6. ^ "How Much is a Billion?". Math Forum. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  7. ^ "Cosmic Detectives". European Space Agency. 2 April 2013. 
  8. ^ Panken, Eli (27 July 2016). "Apple Announces It Has Sold One Billion iPhones". Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  9. ^ Seethamaram, Deep (27 July 2016). "Facebook Posts Strong Profit and Revenue Growth". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  10. ^ Burke, Jeremy (16 June 2015). "How the World Became A Giant Ant Colony". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  11. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A003617 (Smallest n-digit prime)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  12. ^ a b Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A093112 (a(n) = (2^n-1)^2 - 2)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  13. ^ a b Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A093069 (a(n) = (2^n + 1)^2 -)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  14. ^ a b c Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A001006 (Motzkin numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  15. ^ a b c Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A000129 (Pell numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  16. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A000110 (Bell or exponential numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  17. ^ a b c Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A001190 (Wedderburn-Etherington numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  18. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A054377 (Primary pseudoperfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  19. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A005165 (Alternating factorials)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  20. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A004490 (Colossally abundant numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  21. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A002201 (Superior highly composite numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  22. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A000396 (Perfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. 
  23. ^ "Greatest prime number with 10 digits". Wolfram Alpha. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 


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