# 1,000,000,000

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### WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

1000000000
Cardinal One billion (short scale)
One thousand million, or one milliard (long scale)
Ordinal One billionth (short scale)
Factorization 29 · 59
Greek numeral ${\displaystyle {\stackrel {\iota }{\mathrm {M} }}}$
Roman numeral M
Binary 1110111001101011001010000000002
Ternary 21202002000210100013
Quaternary 3232122302200004
Quinary 40220000000005
Senary 2431212453446
Octal 73465450008
Duodecimal 23AA9385412
Vigesimal FCA000020
Base 36 GJDGXS36

1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard,[1] long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. One billion can also be written as b or bn.[2][3]

In scientific notation, it is written as 1 × 109. The metric prefix giga indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit. Its symbol is G.

One billion years may be called eon/aeon in astronomy or geology.

Previously in British English (but not in American English), the word "billion" referred exclusively to a million millions (1,000,000,000,000). However, this is no longer as common as earlier, and the word has been used to mean one thousand million (1,000,000,000) for some time.[4] The alternative term "one thousand million" is mainly used in the U.K., or countries such as Spain that uses "one thousand million" as one million million constitutes a billion. The worded figure, as opposed to the numerical figure (one thousand million/1,000,000,000) is used to differentiate between "one thousand million" or "one billion".

The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000; whereas "milliard" is seldom used in English,[5] variations on this name often appear in other languages.

In the South Asian numbering system, it is known as 100 crore or 1 arab.

Visualisation of powers of ten from one to 1 billion

## Sense of scale

The facts below give a sense of how large 1,000,000,000 (109) is in the context of time according to current scientific evidence:

• 109 seconds is 114 days short of 32 calendar years (≈ 31.7 years).
• More precisely, a billion seconds is exactly 31 years, 8 months, 2 weeks, 1 day, 17 hours, 46 minutes, and 40 seconds.
• About 109 minutes ago, the Roman Empire was flourishing and Christianity was emerging. (109 minutes is roughly 1,901 years.)
• About 109 hours ago, modern human beings and their ancestors were living in the Stone Age (more precisely, the Middle Paleolithic). (109 hours is roughly 114,080 years.)
• About 109 days ago, Australopithecus, an ape-like creature related to an ancestor of modern humans, roamed the African savannas. (109 days is roughly 2.738 million years.)
• About 109 months ago, dinosaurs walked the Earth during the late Cretaceous. (109 months is roughly 83.3 million years.)
• About 109 years—a gigaannus—ago, the first multicellular eukaryotes appeared on Earth.
• About 109 decades ago, galaxies began to appear in the early Universe which was then 3.799 billion years old. (109 decades is roughly 10 billion years.)
• It takes approximately 95 years to count from one to one billion in a single sitting.[6]
• The universe is thought to be about 13.8 × 109 years old.[7]

### Distance

• 109 inches is 15,783 miles (25,400 km), more than halfway around the world and thus sufficient to reach any point on the globe from any other point.
• 109 metres (called a gigametre) is almost three times the distance from the Earth to the Moon.
• 109 kilometres (called a terameter) is over six times the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

### Area

• A billion square inches would be a square about one half mile on a side.
• A piece of finely woven bed sheet cloth that contained a billion holes would measure about 500 square feet (46 m2), large enough to cover a moderate sized apartment.

### Volume

• There are a billion cubic millimetres in a cubic metre and there are a billion cubic metres in a cubic kilometre.
• A billion grains of table salt or granulated sugar would occupy a volume of about 2.5 cubic feet (0.071 m3).
• A billion cubic inches would be a volume comparable to a large commercial building slightly larger than a typical supermarket.

### Weight

• Any object that weighs one billion kilograms (2.2×109 lb) would weigh about as much as 5,525 empty Boeing 747-400s.
• A cube of iron that weighs one billion pounds (450,000,000 kg) would be 1,521 feet 4 inches (0.28813 mi; 463.70 m) on each side.

### Nature

• A small mountain, slightly larger than Stone Mountain in Georgia, United States, would weigh (have a mass of) a billion tons.
• There are billions of worker ants in the largest ant colony in the world,[10] which covers almost 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of the Mediterranean coast.
• In 1804, the world population was one billion.

### Count

A is a cube; B consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube A, C consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube B; and D consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube C. Thus there are 1 million A-sized cubes in C; and 1,000,000,000 A-sized cubes in D.

## Selected 10-digit numbers (1,000,000,001–9,999,999,999)

### 2,000,000,000 to 2,999,999,999

• 2,038,074,743 – 100,000,000th prime number
• 2,147,483,647 – 8th Mersenne prime and the largest signed 32-bit integer.
• 2,147,483,648 – 231
• 2,176,782,336 – 612
• 2,214,502,422 – 6th primary pseudoperfect number.[18]
• 2,357,947,691 – 119
• 2,562,890,625 – 158
• 2,971,215,073 – 11th Fibonacci prime (47th Fibonacci number).

### 3,000,000,000 to 3,999,999,999

• 3,166,815,962 – 26th Pell number.[15]
• 3,192,727,797 – 24th Motzkin number.[14]
• 3,323,236,238 – 31st Wedderburn–Etherington number.[17]
• 3,405,691,582 – hexadecimal CAFEBABE; used as a placeholder in programming.
• 3,405,697,037 – hexadecimal CAFED00D; used as a placeholder in programming.
• 3,486,784,401 – 320

### 4,000,000,000 to 4,999,999,999

• 4,294,836,223 – 16th Carol number.[12]
• 4,294,967,291 – Largest prime 32-bit unsigned integer.
• 4,294,967,295 – Maximum 32-bit unsigned integer (FFFFFFFF16), perfect totient number, product of the five prime Fermat numbers ${\displaystyle F_{0}}$ through ${\displaystyle F_{4}}$.
• 4,294,967,296 – 232
• 4,294,967,297${\displaystyle F_{5}}$, the first composite Fermat number.
• 4,295,098,367 – 15th Kynea number.[13]
• 4,807,526,976 – 48th Fibonacci number.

### 7,000,000,000 to 7,999,999,999

• 7,645,370,045 – 27th Pell number.[15]
• 7,778,742,049 – 49th Fibonacci number.
• 7,862,958,391 – 32nd Wedderburn–Etherington number.[17]

## References

1. ^ "Yard". Investopedia. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
2. ^ "figures". The Economist Style Guide (11th ed.). The Economist. 2015.
3. ^ "6.5 Abbreviating 'million' and 'billion'". English Style Guide: A handbook for authors and translators in the European Commission (PDF) (8th ed.). European Commission. 3 November 2017. p. 32.
4. ^ "How many is a billion?". OxfordDictionaries.com. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
5. ^ "billion,thousand million,milliard". Google Ngram Viewer. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
6. ^ "How Much is a Billion?". Math Forum. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
7. ^ "Cosmic Detectives". European Space Agency. 2 April 2013.
8. ^ Panken, Eli (27 July 2016). "Apple Announces It Has Sold One Billion iPhones". NBCNews.com. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
9. ^ Seethamaram, Deep (27 July 2016). "Facebook Posts Strong Profit and Revenue Growth". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
10. ^ Burke, Jeremy (16 June 2015). "How the World Became A Giant Ant Colony". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
11. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A003617 (Smallest n-digit prime)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
12. ^ a b Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A093112 (a(n) = (2^n-1)^2 - 2)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
13. ^ a b Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A093069 (a(n) = (2^n + 1)^2 -)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
14. ^ a b c Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A001006 (Motzkin numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
15. ^ a b c Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A000129 (Pell numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
16. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A000110 (Bell or exponential numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
17. ^ a b c Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A001190 (Wedderburn-Etherington numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
18. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A054377 (Primary pseudoperfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
19. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A005165 (Alternating factorials)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
20. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A004490 (Colossally abundant numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
21. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A002201 (Superior highly composite numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
22. ^ Sloane, N.J.A. (ed.). "Sequence A000396 (Perfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
23. ^ "Greatest prime number with 10 digits". Wolfram Alpha. Retrieved 13 November 2017.

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