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112th Congress- Debate of House Rules
112th Congress- Debate of House Rules
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: Congresswoman Louise Slaughter
112th Congress Begins with Republican Party Majority in House of Representatives
112th Congress Begins with Republican Party Majority in House of Representatives
Published: 2011/01/06
Channel: VOA News
112th Congress: The Worst In The History Of America
112th Congress: The Worst In The History Of America
Published: 2012/08/10
Channel: bigtexansfan
112th United States Congress News - Obama, White House, Washington Three, John Boehner
112th United States Congress News - Obama, White House, Washington Three, John Boehner
Published: 2013/02/28
Channel: Wochit News
The Chosen  members in the 112th U.S. Congress 2010
The Chosen members in the 112th U.S. Congress 2010
Published: 2010/11/13
Channel: Fleetwood1218
Welcoming the 112th Congress
Welcoming the 112th Congress
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: SenateDemocrats
Outgoing 112th Congress least productive in 65 years
Outgoing 112th Congress least productive in 65 years
Published: 2013/01/03
Channel: CBS News
112th Congress Now In Session; Speaker Boehner In House
112th Congress Now In Session; Speaker Boehner In House
Published: 2011/01/06
Channel: CBS
The Chosen: Jewish members in the 112th U.S. Congress
The Chosen: Jewish members in the 112th U.S. Congress
Published: 2010/11/03
Channel: JewsAreNumba1
Americans For Limited Government
Americans For Limited Government's Exclusive Interviews With Four Members Of The 112th US Congress
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: Americans for Limited Government
112th Congress looking to repeal nationalized Healthcare
112th Congress looking to repeal nationalized Healthcare
Published: 2011/02/06
Channel: PropagandaBuster2
112th Congress Now In Session; Speaker Boehner In House
112th Congress Now In Session; Speaker Boehner In House
Published: 2011/01/06
Channel: CBS News
112th House of Rep. - part 2
112th House of Rep. - part 2
Published: 2011/01/06
Channel: William WAGENER
Rep. McMorris Rodgers: Lack of Budget Biggest Disappointment of 112th Congress
Rep. McMorris Rodgers: Lack of Budget Biggest Disappointment of 112th Congress
Published: 2012/09/27
Channel: Newsmax TV
Risch Gives Outlook for 112th Congress
Risch Gives Outlook for 112th Congress
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: SenatorJamesRisch
Rep. Lee discusses the upcoming 112th Congress on MSNBC
Rep. Lee discusses the upcoming 112th Congress on MSNBC
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: Rep. Barbara Lee
Eric Cantor Remarks On The 112th Congress
Eric Cantor Remarks On The 112th Congress' New Republican Leadership Team
Published: 2010/11/18
Channel: Eric Cantor
Democratic Agenda Press Conference for 112th Congress
Democratic Agenda Press Conference for 112th Congress
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: RepWassermanSchultz
Senator Reid on the New Congress
Senator Reid on the New Congress
Published: 2010/11/19
Channel: SenateDemocrats
112th Congress Convenes; Boehner Elected Speaker
112th Congress Convenes; Boehner Elected Speaker
Published: 2011/01/06
Channel: Associated Press
Pelosi & Boehner Address the 112th Congress
Pelosi & Boehner Address the 112th Congress
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: C-SPAN
Mikulski Speaks on Senate Floor Honoring Senate Men Retiring After 112th Congress
Mikulski Speaks on Senate Floor Honoring Senate Men Retiring After 112th Congress
Published: 2012/12/13
Channel: SenatorMikulski
Raw Video: 112th Congress Convenes
Raw Video: 112th Congress Convenes
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: Associated Press
Poophead of the Week: The 112th U.S. Congress (4-8-2011)
Poophead of the Week: The 112th U.S. Congress (4-8-2011)
Published: 2011/04/09
Channel: SkeetersPage
112th Congress Begins...America and EL Are Getting Older
112th Congress Begins...America and EL Are Getting Older
Published: 2011/01/06
Channel: Alex St-Georges
John Boehner speech dedicates 112th Congress to the will of the people and US Constitution
John Boehner speech dedicates 112th Congress to the will of the people and US Constitution
Published: 2011/01/06
Channel: CitizenWells
Dr. Coburn being sworn into 112th Congress
Dr. Coburn being sworn into 112th Congress
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: Tom Coburn
112th Congress
112th Congress
Published: 2011/01/10
Channel: jwran
112th Congress
112th Congress
Published: 2011/01/10
Channel: jwran
112th Congress vs the world
112th Congress vs the world
Published: 2010/12/28
Channel: RT America
112th Congress H.R. 25 Fair Tax Act of 2011
112th Congress H.R. 25 Fair Tax Act of 2011
Published: 2011/01/13
Channel: jdouglasfisher
112th Congress H.R. 261 No New Drilling Act of 2011
112th Congress H.R. 261 No New Drilling Act of 2011
Published: 2011/01/15
Channel: jdouglasfisher
112th Congress H.R. 307 Seed Availability and Competition Act of 2011
112th Congress H.R. 307 Seed Availability and Competition Act of 2011
Published: 2011/01/19
Channel: jdouglasfisher
Aderholt Swear-In Picture for 112th Congress
Aderholt Swear-In Picture for 112th Congress
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: RobertAderholt
Message to 112th Congress
Message to 112th Congress
Published: 2011/01/23
Channel: thehomeforinnovation
112th Congress Oversight Committee Organizational Meeting
112th Congress Oversight Committee Organizational Meeting
Published: 2011/01/26
Channel: oversightandreform
112th Congress Update.m4v
112th Congress Update.m4v
Published: 2011/01/14
Channel: Congressman Doug Lamborn
112th Congress H.R. 221 Noose Hate Crime Act of 2011
112th Congress H.R. 221 Noose Hate Crime Act of 2011
Published: 2011/01/14
Channel: jdouglasfisher
Opening of the 112th Washminster.MOD
Opening of the 112th Washminster.MOD
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: David Morgan
112th Congress S.34 Denying Firearms and Explosives to Dangerous Terrorists Act of 2011
112th Congress S.34 Denying Firearms and Explosives to Dangerous Terrorists Act of 2011
Published: 2011/02/01
Channel: jdouglasfisher
Congresswoman Miller: 112th Congress is an important new chapter in the history of our nation
Congresswoman Miller: 112th Congress is an important new chapter in the history of our nation
Published: 2011/01/06
Channel: candicemi10
Swearing In 112th Congress From Dan Webster
Swearing In 112th Congress From Dan Webster's Office
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: Jason W Hoyt
What the GOP is really trying to accomplish in the 112th Congress
What the GOP is really trying to accomplish in the 112th Congress
Published: 2011/01/08
Channel: formula1matt
Speaker of house transition 112 Congress converted
Speaker of house transition 112 Congress converted
Published: 2014/03/06
Channel: Arnie Rosner
Weekly Update: Pressing Issues for 112th Congress
Weekly Update: Pressing Issues for 112th Congress
Published: 2012/09/13
Channel: SenJeffBingaman
112th Congress H.R. 196 STALKERS Act of 2011
112th Congress H.R. 196 STALKERS Act of 2011
Published: 2011/01/14
Channel: jdouglasfisher
Swearing in of the 112th Congress
Swearing in of the 112th Congress
Published: 2011/02/11
Channel: Rep. Dennis Ross
Download House Hearing 112th Congress Evaluating President Obamas Offshore Drilling Plan and Impacts
Download House Hearing 112th Congress Evaluating President Obamas Offshore Drilling Plan and Impacts
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: Antonia. M
Senator Menendez Discusses the Upcoming 112th Congress on MSNBC
Senator Menendez Discusses the Upcoming 112th Congress on MSNBC
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: SenatorMenendezNJ
House Hearing 112th Congress Evaluating President Obamas Offshore Drilling Plan and Impacts on Our F
House Hearing 112th Congress Evaluating President Obamas Offshore Drilling Plan and Impacts on Our F
Published: 2016/08/18
Channel: Deano. S
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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112th United States Congress
111th ←
→ 113th
United States Capitol west front edit2.jpg
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2013
Senate President Joe Biden (D)
Senate Pres. pro tem Daniel Inouye (D)
until December 17, 2012
Patrick Leahy (D)
from December 17, 2012
House Speaker John Boehner (R)
Members 100 Senators
435 Representatives
6 Non-voting members
Senate Majority Democratic
House Majority Republican
Sessions
1st: January 5, 2011[1] – January 3, 2012[2]
2nd: January 3, 2012[2] – January 3, 2013

The One Hundred Twelfth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2011, until January 3, 2013. It convened in Washington, D.C. on January 3, 2011, and ended on January 3, 2013, 17 days before the end of the presidential term to which Barack Obama was elected in 2008. Senators elected to regular terms in 2006 completed those terms in this Congress. This Congress included the last House of Representatives elected from congressional districts that were apportioned based on the 2000 census.

In the 2010 midterm elections, the Republican Party won the majority in the House of Representatives. While the Democrats kept their Senate majority, it was reduced from the previous Congress.[3] This was the first Congress in which the House and Senate were controlled by different parties since the 107th Congress (2001–2003), and the first Congress to begin that way since the 99th Congress (1985–1987). In this Congress, the House of Representatives had the largest number of Republican members, 242, since the 80th Congress (1947–1949).[4] It was also the first Congress since 1947 in which no member of the Kennedy family served, and it was viewed as one of the most politically polarized Congress since Reconstruction, and the least productive since the Second World War, with record low approval ratings.[5]

Contents

Major events[edit]

President Obama delivered the 2011 State of the Union Address on January 25, 2011
After delivering the 2012 State of the Union Address on January 24, 2012, President Obama embraces Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, who had been shot the previous year.

Potential government shutdown[edit]

A failure to pass a 2011 federal budget nearly led to a shutdown of non-essential government services on April 9, 2011, with the furlough of 800,000 government employees appearing imminent.[10] President Obama met Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and House Speaker John Boehner in the days preceding the deadline but was unable to come to an agreement to pass a budget.[citation needed] A one-week budget was proposed to avoid a government shutdown and allow more time for negotiations; however, proposals from both parties could not be accommodated.[citation needed] Obama said he would veto a proposed Republican budget over Republican social spending cuts.[citation needed] This was also backed by Senate Democrats who objected to such cuts as that of Planned Parenthood.[11][12][13] However, an agreement was reached between the two parties for a one-week budget to allow for more time to negotiate after Republicans dropped their stance on the Planned Parenthood issue.[12] The two parties ultimately agreed on a 2011 federal budget the following week.[citation needed]

There were many reactions to the possible shutdown with some saying the economy could be hurt during a fragile recovery[14] and others saying the lack of an unnecessary bureaucracy would not be noticed.[15] There was also criticism that while senators and representatives would continue to get paid others such as the police and military personnel would either not be paid for their work or have their payments deferred.[16]

Debt limit crisis[edit]

Speaker Boehner meeting with President Obama at the White House during the 2011 debt ceiling crisis

On August 2, 2011, the United States public debt was projected to reach its statutory maximum. Without an increase in that limit the U.S. Treasury would be unable to borrow money to pay its bills. Although previous statutory increases have been routine, conservative members of the House refused to allow an increase without drastically reducing government spending. Over several weeks and months, negotiators from both parties, both houses, and the White House worked to forge a compromise. The compromise bill, the Budget Control Act of 2011, was enacted on August 2.

Major legislation[edit]

Enacted[edit]

Proposed[edit]

See also: Active Legislation, 112th Congress, via senate.gov

Party summary[edit]

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.

Senate[edit]

Senate Party standings (at the beginning of this Congress)
  51 Democrats
  2 Independents, both caucusing with Democrats
Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 56 2 42 100 0
Begin 51 2 47 100 0
May 3, 2011 46 99 1
May 9, 2011 47 100 0
December 17, 2012 50 99 1
December 26, 2012 51 100 0
January 1, 2013 46 99 1
January 2, 2013 47 100 0
Latest voting share 53% 47%
Beginning of the next Congress 53 2 45 100 0

House of Representatives[edit]

House Party standings (at the beginning of this Congress)
  193 Democrats
  242 Republicans
Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Republican
End of previous Congress 255 179 434 1
Begin 193 242 435 0
February 9, 2011 241 434 1
February 28, 2011 192 433 2
May 9, 2011 240 432 3
May 24, 2011 193 433 2
June 21, 2011 192 432 3
July 12, 2011 193 433 2
August 3, 2011 192 432 3
September 13, 2011 242 434 1
January 25, 2012 191 433 2
January 31, 2012 192 434 1
March 6, 2012 191 433 2
March 20, 2012 190 432 3
June 12, 2012 191 433 2
July 7, 2012 241 432 3
July 31, 2012 240 431 4
August 15, 2012 190 430 5
November 6, 2012 193 241 434 1
November 21, 2012 192 433 2
December 3, 2012 191 432 3
January 2, 2013 240 431 4
Latest voting share 44.3% 55.7%
Non-voting members 6 0 6 0
Beginning of next Congress 200 233 433 2

Leadership[edit]

[ Section contents: Senate: Majority (D), Minority (R)House: Majority (R), Minority (D) ]

Senate[edit]

Senate President
Joe Biden
Senate President pro Tempore
Daniel Inouye
Daniel Inouye (D)
(until December 17, 2012)
Daniel Inouye
Patrick Leahy (D)
(from December 17, 2012)

Majority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Minority (Republican) leadership[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Majority (Republican) leadership[edit]

Minority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Members[edit]

For the first time in congressional history, over half its members were millionaires as of 2012; Democrats had a median net worth of $1.04 million, while the Republicans median was "almost exactly" $1.00 million.[22][23] In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 2012; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 2014; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 2016.

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Changes in membership[edit]

Senate[edit]

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Nevada
(1)
John Ensign
(R)
Resigned May 3, 2011 due to an Ethics Committee investigation.[26]
A successor was appointed April 27, 2011 to serve the remainder of the term that ends with this Congress.
Dean Heller
(R)[27]
May 9, 2011[28]
Hawaii
(3)
Daniel Inouye
(D)
Died December 17, 2012 [29]
A successor was appointed December 26, 2012 to serve until a special election was held to finish the term ending January 3, 2017.
Brian Schatz
(D)
December 27, 2012
South Carolina
(3)
Jim DeMint
(R)
Resigned January 1, 2013 to run the Heritage Foundation[30]
A successor was appointed January 2, 2013 to serve until a special election was held to finish the term ending January 3, 2017.
Tim Scott
(R)
January 2, 2013[31]

House of Representatives[edit]

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
New York 26th Christopher Lee
(R)
Resigned February 9, 2011, due to a personal scandal.[32]
A special election was held May 24, 2011.[33]
Kathy Hochul
(D)
June 1, 2011
California 36th Jane Harman
(D)
Resigned February 28, 2011 to become the head of the Woodrow Wilson Center.[34]
A special election was held July 12, 2011.[35]
Janice Hahn
(D)
July 19, 2011
Nevada 2nd Dean Heller
(R)
Resigned May 9, 2011, when appointed to the Senate.[27]
A special election was held September 13, 2011.[36]
Mark Amodei
(R)
September 15, 2011
New York 9th Anthony Weiner
(D)
Resigned June 21, 2011, due to a personal scandal.[37]
A special election was held September 13, 2011.[38]
Bob Turner
(R)
September 15, 2011
Oregon 1st David Wu
(D)
Resigned August 3, 2011, due to a personal scandal.
A special election was held January 31, 2012.[39]
Suzanne Bonamici
(D)
February 7, 2012
Arizona 8th Gabrielle Giffords
(D)
Resigned January 25, 2012, to focus on recovery from 2011 Tucson Shooting.[40]
A special election was held June 12, 2012.[41]
Ron Barber
(D)
June 19, 2012
New Jersey 10th Donald M. Payne
(D)
Died March 6, 2012.[42]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[43]
Donald M. Payne, Jr.
(D)
November 15, 2012
Washington 1st Jay Inslee
(D)
Resigned March 20, 2012 to focus on gubernatorial campaign.[44]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[45]
Suzan DelBene
(D)
November 13, 2012
Michigan 11th Thaddeus McCotter
(R)
Resigned July 6, 2012 due to personal reasons.[46]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[47]
David Curson
(D)
November 13, 2012
Kentucky 4th Geoff Davis
(R)
Resigned July 31, 2012 due to personal reasons.[48]
A special election was held November 6, 2012[49]
Thomas Massie
(R)
November 13, 2012
California 18th Dennis Cardoza
(D)
Resigned August 15, 2012 due to personal reasons.[50] Vacant until the next Congress
Illinois 2nd Jesse Jackson, Jr.
(D)
Resigned November 21, 2012 due to personal scandal. Vacant until the next Congress
California 51st Bob Filner
(D)
Resigned December 3, 2012 to become Mayor of San Diego Vacant until the next Congress
South Carolina 1st Tim Scott
(R)
Resigned January 2, 2013 when appointed to the US Senate.[24] Vacant until the next Congress

Committees[edit]

[ Section contents: Senate, House, Joint ]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Joint appointments[edit]

Caucuses[edit]

Employees and legislative agency directors[edit]

Legislative branch agency directors[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

See also[edit]

Elections[edit]

Membership lists[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pub.L. 111–289
  2. ^ a b Senate Calendar for January 20, 2012.
  3. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (November 2, 2010). "G.O.P. Captures House, but Not Senate". New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2010. 
  4. ^ Abramowitz, Alan (December 12, 2010). "Get ready for the most conservative Congress ever". Salon.com. Retrieved July 13, 2012. 
  5. ^ "The Polarization of the Congressional Parties". January 30, 2016. 
  6. ^ Yadron, Danny (January 6, 2011). "House Reads Constitution, Gets Civics Lesson". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Odyssey Dawn: Phase One Of Libya Military Intervention". The Epoch Times. 19 March 2011. Archived from the original on February 1, 2016. 
  8. ^ "US troops complete their withdrawal from Iraq". Herald Sun. Australia. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  9. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (January 24, 2013). "Senator Unveils Bill to Limit Semiautomatic Arms". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2013. 
  10. ^ Rowley, James (April 7, 2011). "U.S. Government Shutdown Threatens 800,000 People As Obama Seeks Solution". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  11. ^ "US budget talks remain deadlocked". Al Jazeera. April 8, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Faler, Brian (April 9, 2011). "Wrangle Over U.S. Budget Compromise Defines Next Two Years' Fiscal Debate". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Pres. Obama and Congressional Leaders Reach Budget Deal". CSPAN. April 8, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  14. ^ Dodge, Catherine; Goldman, Julianna (April 8, 2011). "Long Government Shutdown Would Harm U.S. Economy, Hit Washington Hardest". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Editorial: Government shutdown survival guide". The Washington Times. April 7, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  16. ^ Goldman, Julianna (April 7, 2011). "Boehner Gets Paid While Soldiers Wait When Congress Shuts Down Government". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Members of Congress 'shouldn’t be getting paid, just like federal employees shouldn't be getting paid' during a shutdown, Boehner said today on ABC’s 'Good Morning America' 
  17. ^ "U.S. Senate, Democratic Committees". Retrieved May 5, 2011. 
  18. ^ "U.S. Senate Conference Secretaries". Retrieved May 5, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c "U.S. Senate, Democratic Steering and Outreach Committee". Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  20. ^ Office of the Speaker of the House (December 2, 2010). "Pelosi Announces Steering and Policy Committee Members". PR Newswire. Retrieved February 17, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Congressman Capuano's Update". FN Online. February 3, 2011. Retrieved February 16, 2011. 
  22. ^ "Millionaires' Club: For First Time, Most Lawmakers are Worth $1 Million-Plus". OpenSecrets Blog. The Center for Responsive Politics. January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Half of US Congressional politicians are millionaires". BBC News. January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2014. 
  24. ^ a b 2012 Congressional Record, Vol. 158, Page H7467 (December 30, 2012)
  25. ^ Access Denied. NationalJournal.com. Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  26. ^ "Nevada Sen. John Ensign announces resignation". Politico. April 21, 2011. 
  27. ^ a b Murray, Mark (April 27, 2011). "Sandoval appoints Heller to fill Ensign seat". NBC News. 
  28. ^ Heller in transition: One foot in House, one foot in Senate | Las Vegas Review-Journal. Lvrj.com (May 3, 2011). Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  29. ^ "Sen. Daniel Inouye dies of respiratory complications". MSN News. Associated Press. December 17, 2012. 
  30. ^ "South Carolina Republican US Sen. Jim DeMint resigning to take over at Heritage Foundation". The Washington Post. December 6, 2012. Retrieved December 6, 2012. 
  31. ^ Scott's appointment took effect January 2, 2013 upon his resignation from the House of Representatives; he took the oath of office on January 3, 2013.[1]
  32. ^ "Lee Resigns After Photos Surface". Political Wire. February 9, 2011. 
  33. ^ "Governor Cuomo Signs Bill to Ensure Military Voters are Treated Fairly in Special Elections, Calls Special Election in 26th Congressional District". Governor of New York's Press Office. March 9, 2011. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  34. ^ Allen, Mike; Cohen, Richard E. (February 7, 2011). "Rep. Jane Harman to resign from House". Politico.com. Retrieved February 17, 2011. 
  35. ^ "Governor Brown Issues Proclamation Declaring Special Election for 36th Congressional District". Governor of California Press Release. March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Sandoval Sets Fall Special to Fill Heller’s Seat". Roll Call. April 29, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011. 
  37. ^ Camia, Catalina (June 20, 2011). "Anthony Weiner Officially Steps Down Tuesday". USA Today. Retrieved June 21, 2011. 
  38. ^ "Governor Cuomo Sets Special Elections for September 13 to Coincide with Statewide Primary Day". Governor of New York's Press Office. July 1, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  39. ^ Freking, Kevin (August 4, 2011). "Wu notifies governor, speaker of resignation". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved August 4, 2011. 
  40. ^ "Giffords resigns House seat to focus on recovery". Associated Press. January 25, 2012. 
  41. ^ Nowicki, Dan (January 27, 2012). "Brewer sets Giffords seat election dates". AZCentral.com. The Arizona Republic. Retrieved January 27, 2012. 
  42. ^ "U.S. Representative Donald Payne dead at 77". New Jersey Real. March 6, 2012. 
  43. ^ Livingston, Abby (March 30, 2012). "New Jersey: Special Election Dates For Payne Seat Set". Roll Call. Retrieved March 31, 2012. 
  44. ^ "Inslee resigning House seat for governor's race". Politico.com. March 10, 2012. 
  45. ^ Cornfield, Jerry (March 29, 2012). "Gregoire: Election in works to replace Inslee". HeraldNet. The Daily Herald. Retrieved March 31, 2012. 
  46. ^ "Rep. Thaddeus McCotter resigns from Congress". Abcnews.com. July 6, 2012. 
  47. ^ Toeplitz, Shira (July 10, 2012). "Michigan: Governor Calls Special Election for Thaddeus McCotter Seat". Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  48. ^ "Statement from congressman geoff davis". July 31, 2012. 
  49. ^ Associated Press (August 17, 2012). "Beshear calls special election to replace Davis". 
  50. ^ Doyle, Michael (August 14, 2012). "Capitol Alert: Rep. Dennis Cardoza announces resignation". Retrieved August 14, 2012. 
  51. ^ S.Res. 5, 112th Congress
  52. ^ a b c d H.Res. 1, Electing officers of the House of Representatives, 112th Congress
  53. ^ "VIDEO: Speaker Boehner Swears In Father Patrick J. Conroy as House Chaplain". May 25, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  54. ^ Matthew A. Wasniewski (Matt) - Congressional Staffer Salary Data. Legistorm.com. Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  55. ^ Sergeant at Arms-United States House of Representatives
  56. ^ See: Rules of the House: "Other officers and officials"

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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