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Ka'u Desert Trail and Warrior Footprints, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park
Published: 2010/08/13
Channel: DrBlizzardo
"Footprints" -  Natalie Charlotin
"Footprints" - Natalie Charlotin
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Natalie Charlotin
Footprints of the Jesuits 24 Tom Friess
Footprints of the Jesuits 24 Tom Friess
Published: 2016/10/31
Channel: FirstAmendmentRadio.net
Looking for Footprints , Finding possible Structures
Looking for Footprints , Finding possible Structures
Published: 2011/08/03
Channel: timbergiantbigfoot
Future Footprints Conductive Education, the Beginnings
Future Footprints Conductive Education, the Beginnings
Published: 2011/10/22
Channel: FutureFootprintsCE
CuzOH "Footprints"(Produced By Cashmere)
CuzOH "Footprints"(Produced By Cashmere)
Published: 2015/05/12
Channel: IamCuzOH
Footprints - Guard The Dome (HD) | Official Video
Footprints - Guard The Dome (HD) | Official Video
Published: 2017/09/23
Channel: PsychoRealm9
The Find: Early Ceramics
The Find: Early Ceramics
Published: 2013/04/29
Channel: Explore
ΠΑΤΗΜΑΣΙΕΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΜΜΟ   "Footprints"   (greek sub)
ΠΑΤΗΜΑΣΙΕΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΜΜΟ "Footprints" (greek sub)
Published: 2010/02/12
Channel: KIRIAKID3
The Giant Footprints From the Zoo in Zompark.
The Giant Footprints From the Zoo in Zompark.
Published: 2016/05/03
Channel: Lightarrow
Footprints of the Jesuits 23 Tom Friess
Footprints of the Jesuits 23 Tom Friess
Published: 2016/10/28
Channel: FirstAmendmentRadio.net
Private Blog Network (PBN) Footprint Checklist
Private Blog Network (PBN) Footprint Checklist
Published: 2015/10/26
Channel: DigitalTriggers
How to Design a Custom Footprint
How to Design a Custom Footprint
Published: 2015/01/21
Channel: eMachineShop
Footprints
Footprints
Published: 2009/10/11
Channel: Earspasm Music
America’s War Against God, 1790-1860 - Generations Radio 20161027
America’s War Against God, 1790-1860 - Generations Radio 20161027
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: FirstAmendmentRadio.net
Footprints of the Jesuits 22 Tom Friess
Footprints of the Jesuits 22 Tom Friess
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: FirstAmendmentRadio.net
St Paul Lutheran Church, Wittenberg, WI
St Paul Lutheran Church, Wittenberg, WI
Published: 2015/10/04
Channel: Jim-Gail Beckwith
Operose - Moments (Footprints in the Hourglass)
Operose - Moments (Footprints in the Hourglass)
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: LionMusicFinland
Period 2.6 - 4 French Revolution 1789 to 1791
Period 2.6 - 4 French Revolution 1789 to 1791
Published: 2014/11/25
Channel: Roger Stip
Suns Of Thunder "Footprints On The Moon"
Suns Of Thunder "Footprints On The Moon"
Published: 2015/02/04
Channel: MrStonebeliever
Footprints (Underwood 10 mtr) Junk Rig
Footprints (Underwood 10 mtr) Junk Rig
Published: 2012/07/01
Channel: maratrekka
Malaria and Mosquitoes
Malaria and Mosquitoes
Published: 2014/10/13
Channel: friendwithoutborder
INQUBO ROCOCO
INQUBO ROCOCO
Published: 2009/10/26
Channel: Maso Zullo
Ίχνη αρκούδας στο χιόνι. Bear
Ίχνη αρκούδας στο χιόνι. Bear's footprints
Published: 2011/03/08
Channel: kozman68
MYSTERIOUS Things Found In The Mountains!
MYSTERIOUS Things Found In The Mountains!
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Origins Explained
Ry Cooder Footprints in the Snow.wmv
Ry Cooder Footprints in the Snow.wmv
Published: 2012/07/29
Channel: Jazz Lover
Metal Detecting At Dawn With My Favourite Detector (67)
Metal Detecting At Dawn With My Favourite Detector (67)
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: Deep Digger Dan
SEA OF TRANQUILITY HAS MOVED
SEA OF TRANQUILITY HAS MOVED
Published: 2015/04/01
Channel: john smith
Ayutthaya, Thailand 2010, Part 4
Ayutthaya, Thailand 2010, Part 4
Published: 2010/07/14
Channel: thanitha01
Strange Sea Creature
Strange Sea Creature
Published: 2014/05/21
Channel: CalmBiker
Innocent Eyes - Contemporary Duet Mother and Daughter
Innocent Eyes - Contemporary Duet Mother and Daughter
Published: 2011/05/24
Channel: lenamyxa
Dahlonega - Bear on the Square - 4/16/2016
Dahlonega - Bear on the Square - 4/16/2016
Published: 2016/04/16
Channel: stevethrasher
DIY St.Patricks Day Photo Ideas & Leprechaun footprints
DIY St.Patricks Day Photo Ideas & Leprechaun footprints
Published: 2014/03/17
Channel: La Couponista
USTC360 No14 DC Food Distribution
USTC360 No14 DC Food Distribution
Published: 2011/10/06
Channel: Tzu Chi USA 360
Social Distortion - Footprints on my ceiling
Social Distortion - Footprints on my ceiling
Published: 2011/04/01
Channel: Gabriel Macarenco
Sais, Egypt
Sais, Egypt
Published: 2015/12/30
Channel: WikiAudio
Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii County, Hawaii, United States, North America
Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii County, Hawaii, United States, North America
Published: 2013/09/04
Channel: Pietro Pecco
Paris, France : Passage des Panoramas, Glass panelled canopies, Secrets of France
Paris, France : Passage des Panoramas, Glass panelled canopies, Secrets of France
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: Theepan's Global Footprints
Anunnaki Pawns of the Gods with Gerald Clark
Anunnaki Pawns of the Gods with Gerald Clark
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: Matthew LaCroix
Hour of the Truth -
Hour of the Truth - ''The 'English' Common Law, Equity, Germany and 'Accidents' of History'' (2)
Published: 2016/11/15
Channel: joggler66
Comrade Malone & DJ Downlow - 09 - Footprints In The Sand
Comrade Malone & DJ Downlow - 09 - Footprints In The Sand
Published: 2011/04/24
Channel: dadahwsb
x-ta-c 4x4 vs ruff pack - welcome to soundclash 2006
x-ta-c 4x4 vs ruff pack - welcome to soundclash 2006
Published: 2008/08/04
Channel: zylo rankin
Game Plan 2017: Battle for numbers
Game Plan 2017: Battle for numbers
Published: 2017/05/07
Channel: Kenya CitizenTV
African Holocaust and Removal of Agency
African Holocaust and Removal of Agency
Published: 2009/02/14
Channel: markellion
Rayappa Kasi  Mother Goose & Goslings, DW Field Park, Brockton, USA
Rayappa Kasi Mother Goose & Goslings, DW Field Park, Brockton, USA
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: Rayappa Kasi
Champagne Shore
Champagne Shore
Published: 2015/02/18
Channel: Matt Parvin
Drive of the Sun (time-lapse drive in Maui)
Drive of the Sun (time-lapse drive in Maui)
Published: 2012/05/19
Channel: Vincent T Joachim
Doughbeezy "Living In The Moment"
Doughbeezy "Living In The Moment"
Published: 2012/02/25
Channel: doughbeezyent
DoughBeezy Speaks On Bayou City Reviews
DoughBeezy Speaks On Bayou City Reviews
Published: 2014/05/03
Channel: M'sUp Stevie Lee
I Can Only Imagine, New Groove at New Beginnings Church
I Can Only Imagine, New Groove at New Beginnings Church
Published: 2012/01/19
Channel: jnlmac3
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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East Hawaiʻi Battles of 1790
Part of Unification of Hawaii
Kau desert.jpg
Ash layer from 1790 eruption.
Date 1790
Location Eastern Hawaiʻi Island
Result inconclusive
Belligerents
Kamehameha I's army Keōua Kuahuʻula
Commanders and leaders
Kamehameha I
Keawemauhili
Keōua Kuahuʻula
1790 Footprints
1790 footprints Kau Desert.jpg
1790 Footprints is located in Hawaii
1790 Footprints
Location 9.1 mi. SW of park headquarters on Hwy. 11, then foot trail to SE for 1 mi., Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii
Coordinates 19°20′49″N 155°21′12″W / 19.34694°N 155.35333°W / 19.34694; -155.35333Coordinates: 19°20′49″N 155°21′12″W / 19.34694°N 155.35333°W / 19.34694; -155.35333
Area 4,284 acres (17.34 km2)
Built 1790 (1790)
NRHP reference # 74000351
Added to NRHP August 7, 1974[1]

The 1790 Footprints refer to a set of footprints found near the Kīlauea volcano in present-day Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawaiʻi. Resulting from an unusually explosive eruption, they are associated with a series of battles in the area in 1790.

The time of unification[edit]

The 1782 Battle of Mokuʻōhai gave Kamehameha I control of the west and north sides of the island of Hawaiʻi, but Keōua Kuahuʻula and his uncle Keawemauhili were able to escape.

For a few years, Kamehameha was occupied with Maui and the arrival of Europeans to Kona, Keōua ruled Kaʻū and Keawemauhili ruled Hilo.

Keawemauhili finally recognized Kamehameha as his help. This angered Keōua who raided some of the lands of Kamehameha while he was in Maui at the Battle of Kepaniwai.

Keōua then attacked and killed his uncle at Hilo. Kamehameha returned from Maui to the Big Island, and Keōua ambushed them in a thick forest of Paʻauhau, but the battle was inconclusive (near coordinates 20°3′45″N 155°26′59″W / 20.06250°N 155.44972°W / 20.06250; -155.44972 (Paauhau)). Kamehameha counterattacked and drove Keōua back, in what is known as the Battle of Koapapaʻa. Kamehameha had brought a cannon salvaged from the ship Fair American captured at Kaʻūpūlehu. Keōua captured the piece, but did not have gunpowder nor expertise to use it effectively. After heavy losses on both sides, the commanders each decided to retreat to their secure territory.[2]:323

The footprints were thought to have been left by Keōua's forces in their retreat. While passing Kīlauea, they made offerings to the goddess Pele and made camp. As the volcano started to erupt, they thought they might have made some offense, so he split his group into three and stayed to make more offerings.

Two parties of warriors were overwhelmed by a pyroclastic eruption while crossing the desert. Only one party of three survived the eruption. The footprints were attributed by early geologist Thomas Jaggar to those warriors who were killed in this event.[3] Keōua would be killed later in 1791 at Kawaihae.

The Ancient Hawaiians kept elaborate oral histories, but did not accurately count years from the Christian era. One important event in the oral history was Ke one helelei which means "the falling sand" in the Hawaiian Language.[4][5] This corresponded to an eruption witnessed in 1790 by British sailor John Young.[6] It probably was given the specific name because it was an unusual kind of eruption for Hawaiian volcanoes. Surveyor Frederick S. Lyman used the 1790 date to estimate people's birthdates during his 1857 tax assessment.[6]

New research[edit]

More recent research indicates that some or all of the footprints may in fact be attributable to everyday activities, and not to the war parties.[3] Extensive surveys were done in 1998 and 2000 including radiocarbon dating the few samples of charcoal that could be found. A large number of habitation sites and trails were counted, indicating the area was in use for hundreds of years during the eruption cycle of 1500 to 1790.[6]

Modern forensic techniques applied in 2008 determined that many of the footprints were made by women and children, not warriors. They were probably already in the area chipping off sharp chunks of glass to use as tools, and left the footprints while escaping during a lull in the eruption. Keōua's groups, however, were at the summit, and some were killed instantly by the following blast of poison gas, not by the actual falling of the ash.[7] Although sometimes called "fossilized", the imprints are not old enough to be true fossils. The fine ash was probably made into thick mud by a rain triggered in the eruption, which then quickly solidified in the tropical sun and was preserved in the arid desert.

Recognition[edit]

The footprints were found accidentally by geologist Ruy H. Finch in the hardened ash of the Kaʻū Desert while he was trying to investigate a 1919 eruption that produced Mauna Iki (small mountain).[3] Although the National Park had been formed by then, these lands were owned by the Territory of Hawaii. In 1938 the area was proposed as a bombing practice range, resulting in protest from conservation groups.[6] On June 20, 1938, the Federal Government bought the land to add to the park, with the bombing range limited to four and a half square miles. The Army never used the land, but the Navy caused some injuries to fishermen in 1945. In June 1950 the bombing range was returned to the park after being cleared of unexploded ordnance.

In 1941 the Civilian Conservation Corps built a trail and shelter. It is Hawaiʻi state archaeological site number 10-61-5505,[8] and was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on August 7, 1974, as site number 74000351.[1]

To access the area, park 9.1 miles (14.6 km) southwest of the park headquarters on the Hawaii Belt Road, State Highway 11. From this trailhead (coordinates 19°22′5″N 155°22′1″W / 19.36806°N 155.36694°W / 19.36806; -155.36694) the Footprints Trail leads about a mile southeast to the area. For a longer hike, start at the Kaʻū Desert trailhead on Crater Rim Drive at coordinates 19°24′31″N 155°17′48″W / 19.40861°N 155.29667°W / 19.40861; -155.29667. and hike for about five miles (8 km) through the area.[9] These trails or roads might be closed during high levels of volcanic activity; check conditions in advance.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b National Park Service (2008-04-15). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  2. ^ Abraham Fornander (1880). John F. G. Stokes, ed. An Account of the Polynesian Race: Its Origins and Migrations, and the Ancient History of the Hawaiian People to the Times of Kamehameha I. Volume 2. Trübner & Co. 
  3. ^ a b c "Keonehelelei - The Story of the Footprints Area". Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. National Park Service. 2008-11-01. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2008. 
  4. ^ Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003). "lookup of one ". in Hawaiian Dictionary. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  5. ^ Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003). "lookup of helelei ". in Hawaiian Dictionary. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d Jadelyn J. Moniz Nakamura (2003). "Keonehelelei – the falling sands: Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Archaeological Inventory of the Footprints National Register" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Footprints in Kaʻū were probably made in 1790—but not by Keoua's party" on USGS web site, August 28, 2008, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
  8. ^ Hawaii County Historic Sites on official State web site. Accessed 2009-05-22. Archived 2009-05-27.
  9. ^ Map of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on National Park Service web site
  10. ^ Closed Areas and Advisories on Hawaii Volcanoes National Park web site

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