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1
Czech-born residents in the US, 1870 2000
Czech-born residents in the US, 1870 2000
::2011/10/25::
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2
Canadian- and Mexican-born residents in the US, 1870-2000
Canadian- and Mexican-born residents in the US, 1870-2000
::2011/10/25::
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3
1870 Census for John Wesley Yost
1870 Census for John Wesley Yost
::2014/01/10::
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4
"Rose of Sharon": 1770-1870 - 100 Years Of American Music
"Rose of Sharon": 1770-1870 - 100 Years Of American Music
::2013/08/25::
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5
Child Molesters: "The Stranger" circa 1957 Sonoma County Sheriff
Child Molesters: "The Stranger" circa 1957 Sonoma County Sheriff's Department
::2013/07/17::
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6
WAS WILLIE DUBERRY THE OLDEST PERSON IN USA?
WAS WILLIE DUBERRY THE OLDEST PERSON IN USA?
::2013/12/25::
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7
SHOW LOW AZ
SHOW LOW AZ
::2014/07/02::
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8
Chinese Camp Ghost Town!!  Remnant Of Notable California Gold Rush Mining Town
Chinese Camp Ghost Town!! Remnant Of Notable California Gold Rush Mining Town
::2013/09/12::
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9
The Entertainer
The Entertainer
::2010/09/19::
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10
Canal Street: Chinatown in New York (for Chinese lovers)
Canal Street: Chinatown in New York (for Chinese lovers)
::2011/01/01::
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11
Rosewell Plantation, circa 1870-1880
Rosewell Plantation, circa 1870-1880
::2012/03/08::
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12
Did most African slaves come to the United States after 1790?
Did most African slaves come to the United States after 1790?
::2010/01/15::
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13
The Race Question on the 2010 Census Raises Serious Questions
The Race Question on the 2010 Census Raises Serious Questions
::2010/03/22::
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14
Historical Movement of U.S. Population
Historical Movement of U.S. Population
::2013/03/01::
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15
Electrical Measuring Instruments circa 1920 Weston - US Navy Principles of Electricity Section 6
Electrical Measuring Instruments circa 1920 Weston - US Navy Principles of Electricity Section 6
::2013/04/24::
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16
Story of US Census Pt2/2 221716-05
Story of US Census Pt2/2 221716-05
::2013/03/18::
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17
Capn Thunderbolt.wmv
Capn Thunderbolt.wmv
::2011/05/31::
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18
1870 1920
1870 1920
::2010/12/02::
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19
1940 Census Invitational Workshop
1940 Census Invitational Workshop
::2011/06/02::
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20
Farmington, Missouri 02/13
Farmington, Missouri 02/13
::2011/04/11::
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21
Pierced Tongue Prank!
Pierced Tongue Prank!
::2014/03/18::
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22
40 Raymond Street Everett, MA 02149 You
40 Raymond Street Everett, MA 02149 You're Going to LOVE it!!! Real Estate!!!
::2014/04/10::
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23
1940 Census Online Archive
1940 Census Online Archive
::2012/04/02::
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24
Pasadena, California
Pasadena, California
::2014/08/19::
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25
Farmington, Missouri 01/13
Farmington, Missouri 01/13
::2011/04/11::
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26
New York City (HD)
New York City (HD)
::2010/05/25::
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27
By the Sea: Seeing Atlantic City 1919 Ford Educational Weekly; JQ Music
By the Sea: Seeing Atlantic City 1919 Ford Educational Weekly; JQ Music
::2014/09/20::
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28
South Beach Miami in 90 Seconds
South Beach Miami in 90 Seconds
::2014/09/03::
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29
Farmington, Missouri 07/13
Farmington, Missouri 07/13
::2011/04/11::
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30
Farmington, Missouri 10/13
Farmington, Missouri 10/13
::2011/04/11::
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31
Farmington, Missouri 11/13
Farmington, Missouri 11/13
::2011/04/11::
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32
Farmington, Missouri 06/13
Farmington, Missouri 06/13
::2011/04/11::
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33
Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America
Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America
::2013/06/15::
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34
Farmington, Missouri 09/13
Farmington, Missouri 09/13
::2011/04/11::
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35
Orange County, California
Orange County, California
::2014/08/07::
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36
Spancil Hill -- KelticDead
Spancil Hill -- KelticDead
::2011/11/22::
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37
50 Years in the "Church" LIX Napoleon III Rescues Chiniquy
50 Years in the "Church" LIX Napoleon III Rescues Chiniquy
::2014/02/17::
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38
Farmington, Missouri 12/13
Farmington, Missouri 12/13
::2011/04/11::
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39
Farmington, Missouri 03/13
Farmington, Missouri 03/13
::2011/04/11::
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40
REDHEAD (WITH THE HORNS) - MISS TEACHER
REDHEAD (WITH THE HORNS) - MISS TEACHER
::2012/02/04::
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41
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN
::2010/07/25::
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42
What Census This?
What Census This?
::2010/03/15::
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43
Farmington, Missouri 04/13
Farmington, Missouri 04/13
::2011/04/11::
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44
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN   (or maybe Abilene)
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN (or maybe Abilene)
::2009/11/04::
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45
Martha
Martha's Vineyard in Kodachrome: "Hills and the Sea" circa 1950 Garner
::2013/07/03::
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46
HAPPY 4TH OF JULY 2014
HAPPY 4TH OF JULY 2014
::2014/07/03::
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47
Bessie Smith - A Good Manis Hard to Find
Bessie Smith - A Good Manis Hard to Find
::2014/02/02::
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48
Italian Week 2013 - Engage your Emotions
Italian Week 2013 - Engage your Emotions
::2013/03/22::
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49
Bigfoot Footage In Hallsville Texas
Bigfoot Footage In Hallsville Texas
::2014/01/11::
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50
Farmington, Missouri 08/13
Farmington, Missouri 08/13
::2011/04/11::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census. Conducted by the Census Bureau in June 1870, the 1870 Census was the first census to provide detailed information on the black population, only years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The population was said to be 38,555,983 individuals, a 22.62% increase since 1860. The 1870 Census’ population estimate is controversial, as many believed[who?] it underestimated the true population numbers, especially in New York and Pennsylvania.

Census Act of 1850[edit]

Under the Census Act of 1850, two new structural changes during the 1870 Census occurred: marshals had to return the completed population questionnaire to the Census Office in September and penalties for refusing to reply to enumerator questions were extended to encompass every question on the questionnaires.

Enumeration[edit]

The commonly past-used slave questionnaires were redesigned to reflect the American society after the Civil War. The five schedules for the 1870 Census were the following: General Population, Mortality, Agriculture, Products of Industry, and Social Statistics.

The general population saw a 22.62% increase to 38,555,983 individuals in 1870. Charges of an undercount, however, have been brought against Francis Amasa Walker, the Superintendent of the Census.

Mortality rates in 1870, in general, decreased as a fraction of the total population by 0.03% from 1860 and by 0.11% from 1850. The lower death rates indicate that the standard of living increased, due to some exogenous factor, over the period of twenty years from 1850 to 1870.

In terms of products of industry, total U.S. wealth increases by 17.3% from 1860 to 1870, to reach an assessed wealth of $14,178,986,732. The four main state contributors to this wealth were New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, in that order. Most of the wealth was concentrated in the developed Northeast region, as newer states like Wyoming were beginning to develop their young economies.

The 1870 Census was the first of its kind to record the nativity of the American population. This social statistic indicates which areas were more highly composed of immigrants than native-born Americans. New York City had the most foreign-born individuals, with 419,094 foreigners, who comprised 44.5% of the city’s total population. Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco also had a great population of foreigners that made up a significant fraction of their total populations. Therefore, a great ethnic and cultural change was witnessed from 1860 to 1870, as part of the population growth was due to immigrants moving in and a shuffling of residents across state borders.

Census questions[edit]

The 1870 census collected the following information • name • • age • sex • color (including Chinese and Indian) • citizenship for males over 21 • profession, occupation or trade • value of real estate owned • value of personal estate • place of birth • whether father and mother were foreign born • born within the year • married within the year • attended school within the year • whether able to read and write (for persons 10 years old and over) • whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane or idiotic

Full documentation for the 1870 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

Population undercounting controversy[edit]

Although Francis Walker, the Superintendent of the 1870 Census, defended the quality of the census, arguing that standardized, clear, and statistical approaches and practices were carried out across all regions of America, the public at the time was disappointed in the national growth rate and suspected underenumeration. With especially bitter complaints coming from New York and Philadelphia claiming up to a third of the population was not counted, the President made the rare move to order a recount in those areas. While it was thought a large fraction of the population was not counted for being indoors in the wintry cold, newer estimates resulted in only a 2.5% increase in Philadelphia’s population and a 2% increase in New York’s.

This controversy of the 1870 undercount resurfaced in 1890, when the national growth rate between 1880 and 1890 was discovered to be much lower than it was between 1870 and 1880. Critics then asserted that the 1870 population must have been underenumerated by over 1.2 million people to account for the discrepancy between growth rates; it was presumed that the growth rate in 1880 had to be exaggerated because of the 1870 undercount. Despite the fact that modern investigations have yet to quantify the exact effect of the undercount, most modern social scientists do not believe the undercount was as severe as 1890 investigators assumed. Today most analyzers compare the 1870 undercount to the non-response rates seen in most modern census data.

References[edit]

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