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1
Canadian- and Mexican-born residents in the US, 1870-2000
Canadian- and Mexican-born residents in the US, 1870-2000
::2011/10/25::
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2
Census takers harassing us for weeks now part 2 of 2
Census takers harassing us for weeks now part 2 of 2
::2010/06/07::
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3
White House taking control of US Census; Aides will oversee Census Director
White House taking control of US Census; Aides will oversee Census Director
::2013/11/21::
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4
1870 Census for John Wesley Yost
1870 Census for John Wesley Yost
::2014/01/10::
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5
Child Molesters: "The Stranger" circa 1957 Sonoma County Sheriff
Child Molesters: "The Stranger" circa 1957 Sonoma County Sheriff's Department
::2013/07/17::
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6
COPAO
COPAO's Merly Ferrer Discusses Redistricting, Census and Other Community Issues
::2011/06/17::
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7
Texas - Gun Rights - Lone Star State - Death Penalty - Oil Boom - Dallas-Fort Worth - Houston - NASA
Texas - Gun Rights - Lone Star State - Death Penalty - Oil Boom - Dallas-Fort Worth - Houston - NASA
::2012/11/11::
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8
A Refutation of the Charges Made against the Confederate States of America ...
A Refutation of the Charges Made against the Confederate States of America ...
::2012/11/03::
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9
A brief meeting with Chief Langley discussing genealogy and race 2/22/14.
A brief meeting with Chief Langley discussing genealogy and race 2/22/14.
::2014/03/01::
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10
"Rose of Sharon": 1770-1870 - 100 Years Of American Music
"Rose of Sharon": 1770-1870 - 100 Years Of American Music
::2013/08/25::
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11
Canal Street: Chinatown in New York (for Chinese lovers)
Canal Street: Chinatown in New York (for Chinese lovers)
::2011/01/02::
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12
National Anthem Of The Confederate States Of America (Dixie land)
National Anthem Of The Confederate States Of America (Dixie land)
::2014/01/08::
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13
40 Raymond Street Everett, MA 02149 You
40 Raymond Street Everett, MA 02149 You're Going to LOVE it!!! Real Estate!!!
::2014/04/10::
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14
The Entertainer
The Entertainer
::2010/09/19::
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15
Secession of the Confederate States of America
Secession of the Confederate States of America
::2014/01/10::
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16
Capn Thunderbolt.wmv
Capn Thunderbolt.wmv
::2011/05/31::
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17
Transportation in America 1815-1860
Transportation in America 1815-1860
::2012/02/15::
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18
Story of US Census Pt2/2 221716-05
Story of US Census Pt2/2 221716-05
::2013/03/18::
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19
1870 - 1900ish (Gapminder)
1870 - 1900ish (Gapminder)
::2012/11/26::
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20
1870 1920
1870 1920
::2010/12/03::
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21
Farmington, Missouri 05/13
Farmington, Missouri 05/13
::2011/04/11::
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22
Multicultural advertising agency GlobalHue: Hispanic US Census spot "Community"
Multicultural advertising agency GlobalHue: Hispanic US Census spot "Community"
::2010/06/17::
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23
Chinese Camp Ghost Town!!  Remnant Of Notable California Gold Rush Mining Town
Chinese Camp Ghost Town!! Remnant Of Notable California Gold Rush Mining Town
::2013/09/12::
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24
Miami Beach - Ocean Drive Walking Tour
Miami Beach - Ocean Drive Walking Tour
::2013/12/14::
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25
Washington Township Burlington County New Jersey Video
Washington Township Burlington County New Jersey Video
::2014/01/11::
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26
Miami Beach - Sightseeing: Beach Loop
Miami Beach - Sightseeing: Beach Loop
::2013/12/14::
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27
US poverty level reaches record high
US poverty level reaches record high
::2011/09/14::
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28
Electrical Measuring Instruments circa 1920 Weston - US Navy Principles of Electricity Section 6
Electrical Measuring Instruments circa 1920 Weston - US Navy Principles of Electricity Section 6
::2013/04/24::
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29
Bessie Smith - A Good Manis Hard to Find
Bessie Smith - A Good Manis Hard to Find
::2014/02/02::
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30
Farmington, Missouri 01/13
Farmington, Missouri 01/13
::2011/04/11::
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31
Confederate Currency
Confederate Currency
::2013/09/19::
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32
Farmington, Missouri 02/13
Farmington, Missouri 02/13
::2011/04/11::
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33
Black Slaves & Red Masters - EVERY Ethnic Group Owned SLAVES
Black Slaves & Red Masters - EVERY Ethnic Group Owned SLAVES
::2013/02/21::
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34
REDHEAD (WITH THE HORNS) - MISS TEACHER
REDHEAD (WITH THE HORNS) - MISS TEACHER
::2012/02/04::
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35
Farmington, Missouri 03/13
Farmington, Missouri 03/13
::2011/04/11::
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36
Criken Streams: Surviving XCOM - Part 1
Criken Streams: Surviving XCOM - Part 1
::2013/07/27::
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37
Farmington, Missouri 07/13
Farmington, Missouri 07/13
::2011/04/11::
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38
JUSTINE SACCO AND DEBUNKING RACIST STATISTICS
JUSTINE SACCO AND DEBUNKING RACIST STATISTICS
::2013/12/22::
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39
Farmington, Missouri 08/13
Farmington, Missouri 08/13
::2011/04/11::
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40
Farmington, Missouri 09/13
Farmington, Missouri 09/13
::2011/04/11::
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41
Farmington, Missouri 06/13
Farmington, Missouri 06/13
::2011/04/11::
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42
American Indian Fairy Tales - Part 9 of 9 - FULL Audio Book - The Fairy Bride
American Indian Fairy Tales - Part 9 of 9 - FULL Audio Book - The Fairy Bride
::2013/01/09::
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43
Farmington, Missouri 12/13
Farmington, Missouri 12/13
::2011/04/11::
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44
Farmington, Missouri 11/13
Farmington, Missouri 11/13
::2011/04/11::
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45
Arizona: From Confederate territory to anti-Mexican state today
Arizona: From Confederate territory to anti-Mexican state today
::2012/08/15::
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46
Did most African slaves come to the United States after 1790?
Did most African slaves come to the United States after 1790?
::2010/01/15::
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47
Farmington, Missouri 04/13
Farmington, Missouri 04/13
::2011/04/11::
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48
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN
::2010/07/25::
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49
Spancil Hill -- KelticDead
Spancil Hill -- KelticDead
::2011/11/22::
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50
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN   (or maybe Abilene)
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN (or maybe Abilene)
::2009/11/04::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census. Conducted by the Census Bureau in June 1870, the 1870 Census was the first census to provide detailed information on the black population, only years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The population was said to be 38,555,983 individuals, a 22.62% increase since 1860. The 1870 Census’ population estimate is controversial, as many believed[who?] it underestimated the true population numbers, especially in New York and Pennsylvania.

Census Act of 1850[edit]

Under the Census Act of 1850, two new structural changes during the 1870 Census occurred: marshals had to return the completed population questionnaire to the Census Office in September and penalties for refusing to reply to enumerator questions were extended to encompass every question on the questionnaires.

Enumeration[edit]

The commonly past-used slave questionnaires were redesigned to reflect the American society after the Civil War. The five schedules for the 1870 Census were the following: General Population, Mortality, Agriculture, Products of Industry, and Social Statistics.

The general population saw a 22.62% increase to 38,555,983 individuals in 1870. Charges of an undercount, however, have been brought against Francis Amasa Walker, the Superintendent of the Census.

Mortality rates in 1870, in general, decreased as a fraction of the total population by 0.03% from 1860 and by 0.11% from 1850. The lower death rates indicate that the standard of living increased, due to some exogenous factor, over the period of twenty years from 1850 to 1870.

In terms of products of industry, total U.S. wealth increases by 17.3% from 1860 to 1870, to reach an assessed wealth of $14,178,986,732. The four main state contributors to this wealth were New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, in that order. Most of the wealth was concentrated in the developed Northeast region, as newer states like Wyoming were beginning to develop their young economies.

The 1870 Census was the first of its kind to record the nativity of the American population. This social statistic indicates which areas were more highly composed of immigrants than native-born Americans. New York City had the most foreign-born individuals, with 419,094 foreigners, who comprised 44.5% of the city’s total population. Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco also had a great population of foreigners that made up a significant fraction of their total populations. Therefore, a great ethnic and cultural change was witnessed from 1860 to 1870, as part of the population growth was due to immigrants moving in and a shuffling of residents across state borders.

Census questions[edit]

The 1870 census collected the following information • name • • age • sex • color (including Chinese and Indian) • citizenship for males over 21 • profession, occupation or trade • value of real estate owned • value of personal estate • place of birth • whether father and mother were foreign born • born within the year • married within the year • attended school within the year • whether able to read and write (for persons 10 years old and over) • whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane or idiotic

Full documentation for the 1870 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

Population undercounting controversy[edit]

Although Francis Walker, the Superintendent of the 1870 Census, defended the quality of the census, arguing that standardized, clear, and statistical approaches and practices were carried out across all regions of America, the public at the time was disappointed in the national growth rate and suspected underenumeration. With especially bitter complaints coming from New York and Philadelphia claiming up to a third of the population was not counted, the President made the rare move to order a recount in those areas. While it was thought a large fraction of the population was not counted for being indoors in the wintry cold, newer estimates resulted in only a 2.5% increase in Philadelphia’s population and a 2% increase in New York’s.

This controversy of the 1870 undercount resurfaced in 1890, when the national growth rate between 1880 and 1890 was discovered to be much lower than it was between 1870 and 1880. Critics then asserted that the 1870 population must have been underenumerated by over 1.2 million people to account for the discrepancy between growth rates; it was presumed that the growth rate in 1880 had to be exaggerated because of the 1870 undercount. Despite the fact that modern investigations have yet to quantify the exact effect of the undercount, most modern social scientists do not believe the undercount was as severe as 1890 investigators assumed. Today most analyzers compare the 1870 undercount to the non-response rates seen in most modern census data.

References[edit]

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