Play Video
1
Events on Earth Presents 1904 Summer Olympics Remastered
Events on Earth Presents 1904 Summer Olympics Remastered
::2010/02/20::
Play Video
2
Events on Earth Presents: The 1904 Summer Olympics
Events on Earth Presents: The 1904 Summer Olympics
::2009/03/30::
Play Video
3
Events on Earth Presents: The 1904 Summer Olympic Games: Deleted Events
Events on Earth Presents: The 1904 Summer Olympic Games: Deleted Events
::2012/01/19::
Play Video
4
Nine Network - Living St. Louis - Glen Echo Country Club & 1904 Summer Olympics
Nine Network - Living St. Louis - Glen Echo Country Club & 1904 Summer Olympics
::2012/07/23::
Play Video
5
Quick Fact - 1904 Summer Olympic Games
Quick Fact - 1904 Summer Olympic Games
::2009/12/22::
Play Video
6
Heart Stopping Moments 1904 St Louis Summer Olympiad III Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
Heart Stopping Moments 1904 St Louis Summer Olympiad III Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
::2012/05/19::
Play Video
7
USC
USC's Olympic History
::2013/01/25::
Play Video
8
Plunge for distance.wmv
Plunge for distance.wmv
::2011/04/26::
Play Video
9
Plunge For Distance!!
Plunge For Distance!!
::2014/04/18::
Play Video
10
1904 Olympics History Day Project
1904 Olympics History Day Project
::2014/02/21::
Play Video
11
The FIFA World Cup Finals From 1930
The FIFA World Cup Finals From 1930
::2014/06/13::
Play Video
12
Underwater Hockey Unusual Sports
Underwater Hockey Unusual Sports
::2014/04/20::
Play Video
13
The 1904 Olympic Marathon
The 1904 Olympic Marathon
::2013/11/01::
Play Video
14
JTOG081 Driving into Glen Echo CC St. Louis, Host of 1904 Olympic Golf
JTOG081 Driving into Glen Echo CC St. Louis, Host of 1904 Olympic Golf
::2014/02/24::
Play Video
15
Airplane in the Air Fly Over Saint Louis - Missouri 2013 1080p [HD]
Airplane in the Air Fly Over Saint Louis - Missouri 2013 1080p [HD]
::2013/02/24::
Play Video
16
Olympics 1904 St.Louis Olympiade SelMcKenzie Selzer-McKenzie
Olympics 1904 St.Louis Olympiade SelMcKenzie Selzer-McKenzie
::2011/12/28::
Play Video
17
From Saint Robert To Saint Louis Road Trip 1080p [HD]
From Saint Robert To Saint Louis Road Trip 1080p [HD]
::2013/06/17::
Play Video
18
London 2012 Diving - Third Google Doodle for London 2012 Olympics
London 2012 Diving - Third Google Doodle for London 2012 Olympics
::2012/07/28::
Play Video
19
Washington Dulles International Airport 2014 [HD]
Washington Dulles International Airport 2014 [HD]
::2014/01/06::
Play Video
20
Airplane Landing in Saint Louis - Airport - Missouri [HD]
Airplane Landing in Saint Louis - Airport - Missouri [HD]
::2013/12/12::
Play Video
21
Trailer for the
Trailer for the 'Black Olympics: The History of Black Olympians from 1904' Presentation
::2012/06/18::
Play Video
22
Team USA: The Untold Story of Olympic Basketball... Invade London
Team USA: The Untold Story of Olympic Basketball... Invade London
::2012/07/27::
Play Video
23
gold refining equipments for sale in south africa
gold refining equipments for sale in south africa
::2014/01/16::
Play Video
24
JTOG009 Jack Fleck Presentation of 1904 Olympic Golf Gold  Medal
JTOG009 Jack Fleck Presentation of 1904 Olympic Golf Gold Medal
::2013/10/26::
Play Video
25
Helsinki summer games 1952 Olympics opening ceremony
Helsinki summer games 1952 Olympics opening ceremony
::2012/08/28::
Play Video
26
Tug-of-war was on the Olympic programme in 1900, 1904, 1906...
Tug-of-war was on the Olympic programme in 1900, 1904, 1906...
::2013/09/27::
Play Video
27
1904 Olympics project
1904 Olympics project
::2014/02/27::
Play Video
28
JTOG084 Rob Stewart GM Glen Echo CC St. Louis Host of 1904 Olympic Golf
JTOG084 Rob Stewart GM Glen Echo CC St. Louis Host of 1904 Olympic Golf
::2014/02/25::
Play Video
29
Summer Olympics London 2012 ~ Best of British to all our Sports Men and Women
Summer Olympics London 2012 ~ Best of British to all our Sports Men and Women
::2011/12/14::
Play Video
30
Heart Stopping Moments 1940 Tokyo Summer Olympiad XII Olympic Cauldron Lighting OpeningCeremony
Heart Stopping Moments 1940 Tokyo Summer Olympiad XII Olympic Cauldron Lighting OpeningCeremony
::2012/05/19::
Play Video
31
Heart Stopping Moments 1924 Paris Summer Olympiad VIII Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
Heart Stopping Moments 1924 Paris Summer Olympiad VIII Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
::2012/05/19::
Play Video
32
Great American Olympic Moments
Great American Olympic Moments
::2013/07/19::
Play Video
33
St Louis 2024 summer Olympics!
St Louis 2024 summer Olympics!
::2011/11/12::
Play Video
34
The 1908 London Olympics
The 1908 London Olympics
::2012/07/13::
Play Video
35
1904 Opening Ceremonies, St Louis Exposition
1904 Opening Ceremonies, St Louis Exposition
::2009/06/26::
Play Video
36
St. Louis 1904: The Games of the III Olympiad
St. Louis 1904: The Games of the III Olympiad
::2008/07/23::
Play Video
37
The Olympic Logo History
The Olympic Logo History
::2008/07/31::
Play Video
38
London 2012 Summer Olympic Games - Team Jamaica, Day 2
London 2012 Summer Olympic Games - Team Jamaica, Day 2
::2012/08/02::
Play Video
39
Heart Stopping Moments 1900 Paris Summer Olympiad II Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
Heart Stopping Moments 1900 Paris Summer Olympiad II Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
::2012/05/19::
Play Video
40
Heart Stopping Moments 1908 London Summer Olympiad IV Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
Heart Stopping Moments 1908 London Summer Olympiad IV Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
::2012/05/19::
Play Video
41
25 Things You Didn
25 Things You Didn't Know About The Olympics
::2012/07/30::
Play Video
42
OT
OT
::2013/10/29::
Play Video
43
Heart Stopping Moments 1896 Athens Summer Olympiad I Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
Heart Stopping Moments 1896 Athens Summer Olympiad I Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
::2012/05/19::
Play Video
44
Heart Stopping Moments 1912 Stockholm Summer Olympiad V Olympic Cauldron LightingOpening Ceremony
Heart Stopping Moments 1912 Stockholm Summer Olympiad V Olympic Cauldron LightingOpening Ceremony
::2012/05/19::
Play Video
45
And I Will Kiss - Underworld featuring Dame Evelyn Glennie - 2012 London Olympic Games
And I Will Kiss - Underworld featuring Dame Evelyn Glennie - 2012 London Olympic Games
::2012/07/28::
Play Video
46
Olympic Games 1896-1948
Olympic Games 1896-1948
::2011/04/28::
Play Video
47
1920 Teresa Weld Blanchard (Summer Olympics)
1920 Teresa Weld Blanchard (Summer Olympics)
::2009/05/15::
Play Video
48
Heart Stopping Moments 1916 Berlin Summer Olympiad VI Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
Heart Stopping Moments 1916 Berlin Summer Olympiad VI Olympic Cauldron Lighting Opening Ceremony
::2012/07/31::
Play Video
49
Logistics for a 2024 Olympics in Boston to be studied
Logistics for a 2024 Olympics in Boston to be studied
::2013/11/01::
Play Video
50
Olympic Facts
Olympic Facts
::2012/06/28::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Games of the III Olympiad
1904summerolympicsposter.jpg
Host city St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Nations participating 12
Athletes participating 651 (645 men, 6 women)[1]
Events 94 in 16 sports
Opening ceremony July 1
Closing ceremony November 23
Officially opened by David Francis
Stadium Francis Field

The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in St. Louis, Missouri, in the United States from August 29 until September 3, 1904, as part of an extended sports program lasting from July 1 to November 23, 1904, at what is now known as Francis Field on the campus of Washington University in St. Louis. It was the first time that the Olympic Games were held in a majority English language nation, and the first time that they were held outside of Europe.[2]

Background[edit]

The city of Chicago, Illinois originally won the bid to host the 1904 Summer Olympics,[3] but the organizers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis would not accept another international event in the same time frame. The exposition organization began to plan for its own sports activities, informing the Chicago OCOG that its own international sports events intended to eclipse the Olympic Games unless they were moved to St. Louis. Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic movement, gave in and awarded the games to St. Louis.

The Games[edit]

St. Louis organizers repeated the mistakes made at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris. Competitions were reduced to a side-show of the World's Fair and were lost in the chaos of other, more popular cultural exhibits. David R. Francis, the President of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, declined to invite anybody else to open the Games and, on July 1 did so himself in a scaled-down short and humdrum "ceremony".

Officially, the games lasted for four and a half months; in fact, James Edward Sullivan tried to hold an event every day for the duration of the fair. The Olympic calibre events were again mixed with other sporting events, but whereas Paris hardly ever mentioned them, Sullivan called all his sports events "Olympic." The IOC later declared that 94 of these events were Olympic.

The participants totalled 651 athletes – 645 men and 6 women representing 12 countries. However, only 42 events (less than half) actually included athletes who were not from the United States. The actual athletics events that formed the bulk of the recognised Olympic sports were held from Monday, August 29 to Saturday, September 3.

Highlights[edit]

An Ainu man competing in an archery contest during "Anthropology Days".

European tension caused by the Russo-Japanese War and the difficulty of getting to St. Louis kept many of the world's top athletes away. In a number of sports, because there were no competitors from other nations, the U.S. national championship was combined with the Olympic championship (and other events such as a local YMCA swim competition). Boxing, dumbbells, freestyle wrestling and the decathlon made their debuts. The swimming events were held in a temporary pond near Skinker and Wydown Boulevards, where "lifesaving demonstrations" took place of unsinkable lifeboats for ocean liners. The organizers of the World's Fair held "Anthropology Days" on August 12 and 13. Various indigenous men from around the world, who were at the World's Fair as part of the Department of Ethnology exhibits, competed in various events for anthropologists to see how they compared to the white man.

Felix Carvajal on his way / St. Louis Olympic's Marathon

One of the most remarkable athletes was the American gymnast George Eyser, who won six medals even though his left leg was made of wood. Frank Kugler won four medals in freestyle wrestling, weightlifting and tug of war, making him the only competitor to win a medal in three different sports at the same Olympic Games. Chicago runner James Lightbody won the steeplechase and the 800 m and then set a world record in the 1500 m. Harry Hillman won both the 200 m and 400 m hurdles and also the flat 400 m. Sprinter Archie Hahn was champion in the 60 m, 100 m and 200 m. In this last race, he set an Olympic record in 21.6, a record that stood for 28 years. In the discus, after American Martin Sheridan had thrown exactly the same distance as his compatriot, Ralph Rose (39.28 m), the judges gave them both an extra throw to decide the winner. Sheridan won the decider and claimed the gold medal. Ray Ewry again won all three standing jumps.

The team representing Great Britain was awarded a total of two medals, both won by Irish athletes. The top non-USA athlete was Emil Rausch of Germany, who won three swimming events. Zoltan Halmay of Hungary and Charles Daniels of the United States each won two swimming gold medals. Galt Football Club from Canada won the gold medal in football.

Marathon[edit]

The marathon was the most bizarre event of the Games. It was run in brutally hot weather, over dusty roads, with horses and automobiles clearing the way and creating dust clouds. The first to arrive at the finish line was Frederick Lorz, who actually rode the rest of the way in a car to retrieve his clothes, after dropping out after nine miles. The car broke down at the 19th mile, so he re-entered the race and jogged back to the finish line. When the officials thought he had won the race, Lorz played along with his practical joke until he was found out shortly after the medal ceremony and was banned for a year by the AAU for this stunt, later winning the 1905 Boston Marathon.[4]

Hicks and his supporters at the marathon

Thomas Hicks (a Briton running for the United States) was the first to cross the finish-line legally, after having received several doses of strychnine sulfate (a common rat poison, which stimulates the nervous system in small doses) mixed with brandy from his trainers. He was supported by his trainers when he crossed the finish, but is still considered the winner. Hicks had to be carried off the track, and possibly would have died in the stadium, had he not been treated by several doctors. A Cuban postman named Felix Carbajal joined the marathon, arriving at the last minute. He had to run in street clothes that he cut around the legs to make them look like shorts. He stopped off in an orchard en route to have a snack on some apples, which turned out to be rotten. The rotten apples caused him to have to lie down and take a nap. Despite falling ill from the apples he finished in fourth place.[citation needed]

The marathon included the first two black Africans to compete in the Olympics: two Tswana tribesmen named Len Tau (real name: Len Taunyane) and Yamasani (real name: Jan Mashiani). They were not in St. Louis to compete in the Olympics, however; they were actually part of the sideshow. They had been brought over by the exposition as part of the Boer War exhibit (both were really students from Orange Free State in South Africa, but this fact was not made known to the public). Len Tau finished ninth and Yamasani came in twelfth. This was a disappointment, as many observers were sure Len Tau could have done better if he had not been chased nearly a mile off course by aggressive dogs.[4]

Arriving without correct documents, Frenchman Arthur Coray was not included as part of the French team.[4] He is inconsistently listed as performing in a mixed team in the four mile team race and performing for the US in the marathon.[4]

Sports[edit]

A tug-of-war competition at the 1904 Summer Olympics.

94 events[5] in 17 disciplines, comprising 16 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1904. Swimming and diving are considered two disciplines of the same sport, aquatics. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

Venues[edit]

Participating nations[edit]

Participants.
Blue = Participating for the first time
Green = Have previously participated.
Yellow square is host city (St Louis)
Number of athletes from each country

Athletes from twelve nations competed in St. Louis. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of known competitors for each nation.[6] Due to the difficulty of getting to St. Louis, and since the Russo-Japanese War caused European tensions, only 52 athletes from outside of North America came to the Olympics.

Disputed[edit]

Some sources also list athletes from the following nations as having competed at these Games.

Medal count[edit]

These are the top ten nations to win medals at the 1904 Games.

The Silver Medal of the games for the 800m run.
 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 United States (host nation) 78 82 79 239
2 Germany 4 4 5 13
3 Cuba 4 2 3 9
4 Canada 4 1 1 6
5 Hungary 2 1 1 4
6 Great Britain 1 1 0 2
Mixed team 1 1 0 2
8 Greece 1 0 1 2
Switzerland 1 0 1 2
10 Austria 0 0 1 1

The nationalities of many medalists are disputed as many competitors were recent immigrants to the United States who had not yet been granted US citizenship.

The International Olympic Committee considers Norwegian-American wrestlers Charles Ericksen and Bernhoff Hansen to have competed for the United States; each won a gold medal. In 2012, Norwegian historians however found documentation showing that Ericksen did not receive American citizenship until March 22, 1905, and that Hansen, who was registered as an "alien" as late as 1925, probably never received American citizenship. The historians have therefore petitioned to have the athletes registered as Norwegians.[10][11] In May 2013 it was reported that the Norwegian Olympic Committee had filed a formal application for changing the nationality of the wrestlers in IOC's medal database.[12]

The Australian Olympic Committee claims Francis Gailey as an Australian rather than an American as per the IOC records. He won three silver medals and a bronze in swimming.[1]

Multi-medalist Frank Kugler is recognised as an American by the IOC although he was a German national at the time of the Games. [2]. The same applies to Swiss national Gustav Thiefenthaler. [3]

The IOC also lists French-American Albert Corey as a United States competitor for his marathon silver medal, but (together with four undisputed Americans) as part of a mixed team for the team race silver medal. Other sources list these athletes as competitors for their country of birth rather than the United States.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The Olympic Summer Games Factsheet". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved August 5, 2012. 
  2. ^ Christen, Barbara S.; Steven Flanders (November 2001). Cass Gilbert, Life and Work: Architect of the Public Domain. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-393-73065-4. Retrieved June 8, 2008. 
  3. ^ Stead, W. T. (1901). The Americanization of the World. Horace Markley. p. 341. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Cronin, Brian (August 10, 2010). "Sports Legend Revealed: A marathon runner nearly died". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles). Retrieved August 31, 2010. 
  5. ^ The IOC site for the 1904 Olympic Games gives erroneous figure of 91 events, while the IOC database lists 94 ones. Probably this discrepancy in IOC data is consequence that the figure 91 just derived from the "1904 Olympic Games — Analysis and Summaries" publication of Bill Mallon, who used his own determination of which sports and events should be considered as Olympic.
  6. ^ Mallon, Bill (1998). "1904 Olympic Games — Analysis and Summaries". LA84 Foundation. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Italy at the 1904 St. Louis Summer Games". Sports Reference. 
  8. ^ "Norway at the 1904 St. Louis Summer Games". Sports Reference. 
  9. ^ "Newfoundland at the 1904 St. Louis Summer Games". Sports Reference. 
  10. ^ "Her er beviset som endrer norsk idrettshistorie". NRK. August 14, 2012. 
  11. ^ "USA-guld 1904 var Norges". Svenska Dagbladet. August 14, 2012. 
  12. ^ "Norges OL-historie skrives på nytt". Nettavisen. May 3, 2013. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Paris
Summer Olympic Games
St. Louis

III Olympiad (1904)
Succeeded by
London

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014