The 1924 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France. It was the second time Paris hosted the games, after 1900. The selection process for the 1924 Summer Olympics consisted of six bids, and saw Paris be selected ahead of Amsterdam, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Prague and Rome. The selection was made at the 29th IOC Session in Lausanne in 1921.
The cost of the Games of the VIII Olympiad was estimated to be 10,000,000₣. With total receipts at 5,496,610₣, the Olympics resulted in a hefty loss despite crowds that reached 60,000 people at a time.
Paris is expected to bid to host the 2024 Summer Olympics, on the 100th anniversary of the 1924 Summer Olympics.
- The opening ceremony and several sporting events took place in the Olympic Stadium of Colombes which had a capacity of 45,000 in 1924.
- This VIII Olympiad was the last one organised under the presidency of Pierre de Coubertin.
- The "Flying Finns" dominated the long distance running, whilst the British and Americans dominated the shorter events. Paavo Nurmi won the 1500 m and 5,000 m (which were held with only an hour between them) and the cross country run. Ville Ritola won the 10,000 m and the 3,000 m steeplechase, while finishing second to Nurmi on the 5,000 m and cross country. Albin Stenroos won the marathon, while the Finnish team (with Nurmi and Ritola) was victorious in the 3,000 m and cross country team events.
- British runners Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell won the 100 m and 400 m events, respectively. Their stories are depicted in the 1981 movie Chariots of Fire. In addition Douglas Lowe won the 800 m competition.
- The marathon distance was fixed at 42.195 km (26.219 mi), from the distance run at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London.
- The 1924 Olympics were the first to use the standard 50 m pool with marked lanes.
- Swimmer Johnny Weissmuller won three gold medals in swimming and one bronze in water polo.
- Harold Osborn won gold medals and set Olympic records in both the high jump and the decathlon at the 1924 Olympics. His 6' 6" high jump remained the Olympic record for 12 years, while his decathlon score of 7,710.775 points also set a new world record, and resulted in worldwide press coverage calling him the "world’s greatest athlete".
- Fencer Roger Ducret of France won five medals, of which three were gold.
- In gymnastics, 24 men scored a perfect 10. Twenty-three of them scored it in the now discontinued event of rope climbing. Albert Seguin scored a 10 here and also a perfect 10 on side vault.
- The Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius (Faster, Higher, Stronger) was used for the first time at the Olympics. It had been used before by the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques, a French sporting federation whose founding members included Pierre de Coubertin. De Coubertin took the motto from his friend Henri Didon, a Dominican priest who had coined during a speech before a Paris youth gathering of 1891.
- Ireland was given formal recognition as an independent nation in the Olympic Movement in Paris in 1924 and it was at these games that Ireland made its first appearance in an Olympic Games as an independent nation.
- Originally called Semaine des Sports d'Hiver ("Week of Winter Sports") and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, the sports competitions held in Chamonix between 25 January and 5 February 1924 were later designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the I Olympic Winter Games. (1924 Winter Olympics).
- These were the first Games to feature an Olympic Village.
- The Art competitions at the 1924 Summer Olympics were the first time that the Olympic Art competitions were contested seriously with 193 entries in five categories. A total of 14 medals were awarded, though none were given in the music category.
Overall map of the Olympic venues
See the medal winners, ordered by sport:
- Bagatelle – Polo
- Bassin d'Argentuil – Rowing
- Camp de Châlons – Shooting (600 m free rifle, including team)
- Fontainebleau – Modern pentathlon (riding)
- Hippodrome d'Auteuil – Equestrian
- Issy-les-Moulineaux – Shooting (trap)
- Le Havre – Sailing
- Le Stade Olympique Reims – Shooting (50 m rifle prone)
- Le Stand de Tir de Versailles – Modern pentathlon (shooting), Shooting (25 m rapid fire pistol, running deer)
- Meulan-en-Yvelines – Sailing
- Piscine des Tourelles – Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo
- Saint-Cloud – Polo
- Stade Bergeyre – Football
- Stade de Colombes – Athletics, Cycling (road), Equestrian, Football, Gymnastics, Modern pentathlon (fencing, running), Rugby union, Tennis
- Stade de Paris – Football
- Stade Pershing – Football
- Vélodrome d'hiver – Boxing, Fencing, Weightlifting, Wrestling
- Vélodrome de Vincennes – Cycling (track)
Participating Countries of the 1924 Olympiad
A total of 44 nations were represented at the 1924 Games. Germany was still absent, having not been invited by the Organizing Committee. China (although did not compete), Ecuador, Haiti, Ireland, Lithuania, the Philippines, and Uruguay attended the Olympic Games for the first time. Latvia and Poland attended the Summer Olympic Games for the first time (having both appeared earlier at the 1924 Winter Olympics in Chamonix).
- China, also took part in the Opening Ceremony, but its four athletes (all tennis players) withdrew from competition.
These are the top ten nations that won medals the 1924 Games.
Last surviving competitor
The last surviving competitor of the 1924 Summer Olympics was Croatian swimmer Ivo Pavelic, who died on 22 February 2011 at the age of 103.
- ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
- ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs". Citius, Altius, Fortius 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
- ^ France rules out 2020 Olympic Games bid, USA Today, 07/12/11
- ^ The Official History of the Olympic Games and the IOC- Athens to Beijing, 1894–2008: David Miller (2008)
- ^ "Opening Ceremony" (pdf). International Olympics Committee. 2002. p. 3. Retrieved 23 August 2012.; "Sport athlétique", 14 mars 1891: "[...] dans une éloquente allocution il a souhaité que ce drapeau les conduise ‘souvent à la victoire, à la lutte toujours’. Il a dit qu’il leur donnait pour devise ces trois mots qui sont le fondement et la raison d’être des sports athlétiques: citius, altius, fortius, ‘plus vite, plus haut, plus fort’.", cited in Hoffmane, Simone La carrière du père Didon, Dominicain. 1840 - 1900, Doctoral thesis, Université de Paris IV - Sorbonne, 1985, p. 926; cf. Michaela Lochmann, Les fondements pédagogiques de la devise olympique „citius, altius, fortius"
- ^ M. Avé, Comité Olympique Français, pp. 601–612
- ^ Guttmann, Allen (1992). The Olympics: A History of the Modern Games. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-252-01701-3.
- ^ (ed.) M. Avé, Comité Olympique Français. Les Jeux de la VIIIe Olympiade Paris 1924 – Rapport Officiel (PDF) (in French). Paris: Librairie de France. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2012. "39 seulement s’alignérent, ne représentant plus que 24 nations, la Chine, le Portugal et la Yougoslavie ayant déclaré forfait."
- ^ Georgiou, Mark (26 March 2012). "Everest Olympic medal pledge set to be honoured". Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- ^ Douglas, Ed (19 May 2012). "'My modest father never mentioned his Everest expedition Olympic gold'". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2012.