The 1955–56 Rugby Football League season was the sixty first season of rugby league football.
Belle Vue Rangers dropped out of the competition shortly before the start of the season. There was no time to reschedule and so percentages were used.
In 1955-56 Wigan took part in the Independent Television Association Trophy. This was a series of televised floodlit matches played in London and shown on the newly-launched ITV. It only lasted one year but the idea would be picked up again by the BBC in 1965.
ITV Floodlit Competition winners were Warrington who beat Leigh 43-18 in the final.
Hull won their fourth Rugby Football League Championship when they beat Halifax 10-9 in the play-off final. Warrington had finished the regular season as league leaders.
The Challenge Cup winners were St. Helens who beat Halifax 13-2 in the final.
Warrington won the Lancashire League, and Halifax won the Yorkshire League. Leigh beat Widnes 26–9 to win the Lancashire Cup, and Halifax beat Hull 10–10 (replay 7–0) to win the Yorkshire Cup.
St Helens beat Halifax 13-2 in the Challenge Cup Final played at Wembley Stadium in front of a crowd of 79,341.
This was St Helens' first Challenge Cup final win in five final appearances. Alan Prescott, their prop forward was awarded the Lance Todd Trophy for man-of-the-match.
This was the fifteenth European Championship and was won for the second time by the Other Nationalities.