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Lebanon
Lebanon's civil war - Part 1: 1958 crisis
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Samer Sahih
Lebanon Crisis 1958
Lebanon Crisis 1958
Published: 2014/09/12
Channel: Timeline
U.S. NAVY 6th FLEET IN LEBANON CRISIS 1958 27772
U.S. NAVY 6th FLEET IN LEBANON CRISIS 1958 27772
Published: 2015/05/22
Channel: PeriscopeFilm
1958 Lebanon Crisis: Interview
1958 Lebanon Crisis: Interview
Published: 2011/05/24
Channel: klt2393
Seouldrift7-1958 Lebanon crisis Tribute
Seouldrift7-1958 Lebanon crisis Tribute
Published: 2016/08/25
Channel: Right Wing Federation
Middle East Crisis (1958)
Middle East Crisis (1958)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
The 1958 Lebanon Crisis
The 1958 Lebanon Crisis
Published: 2017/03/15
Channel: Lyria Mapping
Eisenhower
Eisenhower's Statement On Landings In Lebanon (1958)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
Elections during Lebanon Crisis 1958 archival footage PublicDomainFootage.com
Elections during Lebanon Crisis 1958 archival footage PublicDomainFootage.com
Published: 2014/08/23
Channel: PublicDomainFootage
USS Muliphen (AKA-61) underway in Mediterranean Sea during Lebanon Crisis of 1958 HD Stock Footage
USS Muliphen (AKA-61) underway in Mediterranean Sea during Lebanon Crisis of 1958 HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/05/01
Channel: CriticalPast
U.S. Marines Landing In Lebanon (1958)
U.S. Marines Landing In Lebanon (1958)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
1958 middle east
1958 middle east
Published: 2006/12/08
Channel: kassaralzabadi
Lebanon Crisis
Lebanon Crisis
Published: 2006/11/08
Channel: CAIR LA
Crisis in Lebanon 1958
Crisis in Lebanon 1958
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: USA WAR
Middle East Crisis 1958 Lebanon -  West Moves Troops newsreel PublicDomainFootage.com
Middle East Crisis 1958 Lebanon - West Moves Troops newsreel PublicDomainFootage.com
Published: 2014/08/23
Channel: PublicDomainFootage
Revolution 1958-Tyr, Photographed by Mohamad Turjman
Revolution 1958-Tyr, Photographed by Mohamad Turjman
Published: 2012/04/12
Channel: Farhat Art Museum
U.N. adopts Arab Peace Plan in Lebanon crisis 1958
U.N. adopts Arab Peace Plan in Lebanon crisis 1958
Published: 2011/06/27
Channel: historycomestolife
The Trouble In Lebanon (1943)
The Trouble In Lebanon (1943)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
New United Arab Republic; US in Lebanon; News Review of 1958
New United Arab Republic; US in Lebanon; News Review of 1958
Published: 2006/09/15
Channel: UniversalNewsreels
Marine Corps In Lebanon In 1958
Marine Corps In Lebanon In 1958
Published: 2008/07/29
Channel: militaryvideocom
Lebanon Crisis
Lebanon Crisis
Published: 2006/08/06
Channel: minishakira4u
Birth of Lebanon 4/4
Birth of Lebanon 4/4
Published: 2006/12/11
Channel: kassaralzabadi
Action In Middle East (1958)
Action In Middle East (1958)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
LEBANON:  CRISIS SUMMIT REACTIONS
LEBANON: CRISIS SUMMIT REACTIONS
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Lebanon Crisis - Uproar In Beirut
Lebanon Crisis - Uproar In Beirut
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: British Movietone
DV Lebanon Crisis
DV Lebanon Crisis
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Middle East Crisis: Arab Nations, Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq, King Hussein of Jordan, Oil for Dollars 1958
Middle East Crisis: Arab Nations, Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq, King Hussein of Jordan, Oil for Dollars 1958
Published: 2014/02/11
Channel: Historia - Bel99TV
U S  President Eisenhower speak about U S  interven
U S President Eisenhower speak about U S interven
Published: 2015/09/11
Channel: Abdulwahab Qadri
Lebanon Flares Up (1958)
Lebanon Flares Up (1958)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
Middle East Crisis Lull in storm - Follow Troops Move 1958 Newsreel PublicDomainFootage.com
Middle East Crisis Lull in storm - Follow Troops Move 1958 Newsreel PublicDomainFootage.com
Published: 2014/08/23
Channel: PublicDomainFootage
Derek - Lebanon Crisis
Derek - Lebanon Crisis
Published: 2007/02/18
Channel: Alistair Mitchell
Eisenhower Discusses Formosa Crisis 1958
Eisenhower Discusses Formosa Crisis 1958
Published: 2011/02/09
Channel: historycomestolife
Tripoli-1958.mp4
Tripoli-1958.mp4
Published: 2012/05/22
Channel: rabih hafez
Eisenhower Orders US Troops To Lebanon, Marines Leave Lebanon, Israeli Troops Move into Lebanon, Isr
Eisenhower Orders US Troops To Lebanon, Marines Leave Lebanon, Israeli Troops Move into Lebanon, Isr
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: AP Archive
Inside Story - Lebanon crisis talks - 18 May 08 - Part 2
Inside Story - Lebanon crisis talks - 18 May 08 - Part 2
Published: 2008/05/19
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Western support of King Hussein of Jordan 1958 Crisis
Western support of King Hussein of Jordan 1958 Crisis
Published: 2014/08/24
Channel: PublicDomainFootage
Birth of Lebanon 2/4
Birth of Lebanon 2/4
Published: 2006/12/11
Channel: kassaralzabadi
1958 Middle East Crisis Propaganda War archival footage PublicDomainFootage.com
1958 Middle East Crisis Propaganda War archival footage PublicDomainFootage.com
Published: 2014/08/23
Channel: PublicDomainFootage
Lebanon
Lebanon's civil war - Part 3: April 13th 1975, start of the war
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Samer Sahih
U.S. Marines preparing for amphibious landing at Beirut, Lebanon, in 1958 HD Stock Footage
U.S. Marines preparing for amphibious landing at Beirut, Lebanon, in 1958 HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/05/01
Channel: CriticalPast
Syrian Crisis in Lebanon
Syrian Crisis in Lebanon
Published: 2014/03/11
Channel: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
US sailors and a US Navy ship on a dock in Beirut, Lebanon during the Lebanon Cri...HD Stock Footage
US sailors and a US Navy ship on a dock in Beirut, Lebanon during the Lebanon Cri...HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/05/21
Channel: CriticalPast
U.S. Marines Begin Lebanon Exodus AKA Marines Begin Lebanon Exodus (1958)
U.S. Marines Begin Lebanon Exodus AKA Marines Begin Lebanon Exodus (1958)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
Lebanon Garbage Crisis: Protesters to be tried in military court
Lebanon Garbage Crisis: Protesters to be tried in military court
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: TRT World
Review Of 1958 (1958)
Review Of 1958 (1958)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
Hindiyya, Mystic and Criminal, 17201798: A Political and Religious Crisis in Lebanon
Hindiyya, Mystic and Criminal, 17201798: A Political and Religious Crisis in Lebanon
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: Nathanial Betancourt
Major David E. Sutherland USAF Retired talks about 1st CASF
Major David E. Sutherland USAF Retired talks about 1st CASF
Published: 2012/01/03
Channel: jimsutherlandmedia
U.S. NAVY 6th FLEET IN LEBANON CRISIS 1958 27772 (360p-)
U.S. NAVY 6th FLEET IN LEBANON CRISIS 1958 27772 (360p-)
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: Keith Davis
Syrian Children in Crisis: Dispatch from Lebanon
Syrian Children in Crisis: Dispatch from Lebanon
Published: 2012/03/15
Channel: Save the Children USA
Us Army Trains Lebanese Troops In Use Of M-41 Tanks (1958)
Us Army Trains Lebanese Troops In Use Of M-41 Tanks (1958)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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1958 Lebanon crisis
Part of the Arab Cold War
Foxhole - Lebanon - Beirut - July 1958.jpg
U.S. Marine sits in a foxhole outside Beirut,
Date 15 July – 25 October
Location Lebanon
Result

Lebanese Government military victory

Lebanese Opposition political victory

Belligerents
Lebanon Lebanese Government
 United States

Lebanon Lebanese National Movement

Supported by:
 United Arab Republic
 Soviet Union
 PLO

 China
Commanders and leaders
Lebanon Camille Chamoun
Lebanon Naim Moghabghab
United States Dwight Eisenhower
United States Robert Murphy

Lebanon Rashid Karami
Ibrahim Kulaylat
Kamal Jumblatt

Supported by:
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Casualties and losses
about 1,000 allied casulties (mostly government forces) 5,000 or more opposition casulties

The 1958 Lebanon crisis was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country that included a U.S. military intervention. The intervention lasted around three months until President Camille Chamoun, who had requested the assistance, completed his term as president of Lebanon. American and Lebanese government forces successfully occupied the port and international airport of Beirut. With the crisis over, the United States withdrew.

Background[edit]

Universal Newsreel showing President Eisenhower speaking of the crisis and marines boarding a ship in Lebanon

In July 1958, Lebanon was threatened by a civil war between Maronite Christians and Muslims. Tensions with Egypt had escalated earlier in 1956 when pro-western Christian President Camille Chamoun did not break diplomatic relations with the Western powers that attacked Egypt during the Suez Crisis, angering Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser. These tensions were further increased when Chamoun showed closeness to the Baghdad Pact. Nasser felt that the pro-western Baghdad Pact posed a threat to Arab nationalism. As a response, Egypt and Syria united into the United Arab Republic (UAR). Lebanese Sunni Prime Minister Rashid Karami supported Nasser in 1956 and 1958.

Lebanese Muslims pushed the government to join the newly created United Arab Republic, while the Christians wanted to keep Lebanon aligned with Western powers. A Muslim rebellion that was allegedly supplied with arms by the UAR through Syria caused President Chamoun to complain to the United Nations Security Council. The United Nations sent a group of inspectors that reported that it didn't find any evidence of significant intervention from the UAR.

The toppling of a pro-Western government in Iraq's 14 July Revolution, along with the internal instability, caused President Chamoun to call for American assistance.

Operation Blue Bat[edit]

US Marines on patrol in Beirut, summer of 1958

U.S. President Eisenhower responded by authorizing Operation Blue Bat on July 15, 1958. This was the first application of the Eisenhower Doctrine under which the U.S. announced that it would intervene to protect regimes it considered threatened by international communism. The goal of the operation was to bolster the pro-Western Lebanese government of President Camille Chamoun against internal opposition and threats from Syria and Egypt. The plan was to occupy and secure the Beirut International Airport, a few miles south of the city, then to secure the port of Beirut and approaches to the city.

The chain of command for Operation Blue Bat was as follows: the Eisenhower administration at the strategic level; Specified Command, Middle East (SPECCOMME, a 'double-hat' for Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean) at the operational level; the Sixth Fleet, with aircraft carriers USS Saratoga, USS Essex, and USS Wasp, cruisers USS Des Moines and USS Boston, and two squadrons of destroyers. At the end of June Essex and Boston were anchored at Piraeus, Greece, while Des Moines, from which Vice Admiral Charles R. Brown was flying his flag, was at Villefranche-sur-Mer.[1] Land forces included the 2nd Provisional Marine Force (Task Force 62) and the Army Task Force 201 at the tactical level.[2] Each of these three components influenced Operations Plan 215-58 and its execution.

The operation involved approximately 14,000 men, including 8,509 United States Army personnel, a contingent from the 1st Airborne Battle Group, 187th Infantry from the 24th Infantry Division (based in West Germany) and 5,670 officers and men of the United States Marine Corps (the 2nd Provisional Marine Force, of Battalion Landing Teams 1/8 and 2/2 under Brigadier general Sidney S. Wade).The 2nd Battalion 8th Marines arrived on July 16 after a 54-hour airlift from Cherry Point, North Carolina [3] They were supported by a fleet of 70 ships and 40,000 sailors.[4] On July 16, 1958, Admiral James L. Holloway, Jr., CINCNELM and CINCSPECCOMME, flew in from London to Beirut airport and boarded USS Taconic, from which he commanded the remainder of the operation.[5] The U.S. withdrew its forces on October 25, 1958.

President Eisenhower sent diplomat Robert D. Murphy to Lebanon as his personal representative. Murphy played a significant role in convincing both sides of the conflict to reach a compromise by electing moderate Christian general Fuad Chehab as incoming President, while allowing Chamoun to continue in power until the end of his term on September 22.

Prime Minister Rashid Karami formed a national reconciliation government after the 1958 crisis ended.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bryden, 1980, 128
  2. ^ Scott Jackman, Political Success in War: A Criterion for Success, DTIC
  3. ^ For more on the naval and Marine Corps forces involved, see Thomas A. Bryson, Tars, Turks, and Tankers: The Role of the United States Navy in the Middle East, Scarecrow Press, Inc., Metuchen, NJ, and London, 1980, 126–140.
  4. ^ "Amphibious Warfare History". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-03-22. 
  5. ^ Bryson, 1980, 131.

Further reading[edit]

Books and studies[edit]

  • Mohammed Shafi Agwani, The Lebanese Crisis, 1958: A Documentary Study, 1965.
  • Erika G. Alin, The United States and the 1958 Lebanon Crisis, American Intervention in the Middle East, 1994.
  • Pierrick el Gammal, Politique intérieure et politique extérieure au Liban de 1958 à 1961 de Camille Chamoun à Fouad Chehab, Sorbonne University (Paris), 1991. (French)
  • Irene L. Gendzier, Notes from the Minefield: United States Intervention in Lebanon and the Middle East 1945–1958, 1997
  • Agnes G. Korbani, U.S. Intervention in Lebanon, 1958–1982 : presidential decisionmaking, 1991.
  • Nawaf Salam, L’insurrection de 1958 au Liban, Sorbonne University (Paris), 1979. (French)
  • Jack Schulimson, Marines in Lebanon 1958, Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, Department of the Navy, United States Marine Corps, 1966, 60 p.
  • Salim Yaqub, Containing Arab Nationalism, The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East, 2003.
  • The Lebanon Operation. Contingency Operations. United States Army Center of Military History. Historical Manuscript Collection 2–3.7 AC.F Tab D. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010. 

Articles[edit]

  • Gerges, Fawaz A. (1993). "The Lebanese Crisis of 1958: The Risks of Inflated Self-Importance". Beirut Review: 83–113. 
  • Lesch, David W. (1996). "Prelude to the 1958 American Intervention in Lebanon". Mediterranean Quarterly. 7 (3): 87–108. 
  • Little, Douglas (1996). "His Finest Hour? Eisenhower, Lebanon, and the 1958 Middle East Crisis". Diplomatic History. 20 (1): 27–54. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1996.tb00251.x. 
  • Ovendale, Ritchie (1994). "Great Britain and the Anglo-American Invasion of Jordan and Lebanon in 1958". The International History Review. 16 (2): 284–304. doi:10.1080/07075332.1994.9640677. 
  • Tinguy, Edouard de (2007). "The Lebanese crisis of 1958 and the U.S military intervention". Revue d'Histoire Diplomatique (in French). Paris: A. Pédone. 4. 

External links[edit]

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