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New United Arab Republic; US in Lebanon; News Review of 1958
New United Arab Republic; US in Lebanon; News Review of 1958
::2006/09/15::
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1958 Lebanon Crisis: Interview
1958 Lebanon Crisis: Interview
::2011/05/24::
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1958 Lebanon Crisis media project
1958 Lebanon Crisis media project
::2014/05/09::
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U.N. adopts Arab Peace Plan in Lebanon crisis 1958
U.N. adopts Arab Peace Plan in Lebanon crisis 1958
::2011/06/27::
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Lebanon Crisis 1958 - newsreel archival footage
Lebanon Crisis 1958 - newsreel archival footage
::2014/02/14::
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Middle East Crisis (1958)
Middle East Crisis (1958)
::2014/04/13::
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USS Muliphen (AKA-61) underway in Mediterranean Sea during Lebanon Crisis of 1958 HD Stock Footage
USS Muliphen (AKA-61) underway in Mediterranean Sea during Lebanon Crisis of 1958 HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/01::
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Mid East Crisis; Nasser; Iraq, Americans Evacuate; King Hussein 1958/7/24
Mid East Crisis; Nasser; Iraq, Americans Evacuate; King Hussein 1958/7/24
::2006/09/16::
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Marine Corps In Lebanon In 1958
Marine Corps In Lebanon In 1958
::2008/07/29::
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U.S. Marines Landing In Lebanon (1958)
U.S. Marines Landing In Lebanon (1958)
::2014/04/13::
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Radar and communications operations aboard USS Essex (CVA-9), during Lebanon cris...HD Stock Footage
Radar and communications operations aboard USS Essex (CVA-9), during Lebanon cris...HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/01::
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Lebanon Flares Up (1958)
Lebanon Flares Up (1958)
::2014/04/13::
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U.S. Marines Begin Lebanon Exodus AKA Marines Begin Lebanon Exodus (1958)
U.S. Marines Begin Lebanon Exodus AKA Marines Begin Lebanon Exodus (1958)
::2014/04/13::
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Eisenhower
Eisenhower's Statement On Landings In Lebanon (1958)
::2014/04/13::
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Landing operations on USS Forrestal (CV-59) - 1962
Landing operations on USS Forrestal (CV-59) - 1962
::2014/06/02::
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Flight operations on USS Forrestal (CV-59) - 1962
Flight operations on USS Forrestal (CV-59) - 1962
::2014/05/30::
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U.S. Marines preparing for amphibious landing at Beirut, Lebanon, in 1958 HD Stock Footage
U.S. Marines preparing for amphibious landing at Beirut, Lebanon, in 1958 HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/01::
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Middle East Crisis 1958 - Lull in the Storm Follows Troop Move - Soviet Union upset over U.S. move
Middle East Crisis 1958 - Lull in the Storm Follows Troop Move - Soviet Union upset over U.S. move
::2014/02/13::
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USS Forrestal (CV-59) leaves the shipyard after christening - 12 December 1954
USS Forrestal (CV-59) leaves the shipyard after christening - 12 December 1954
::2014/05/11::
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USS Forrestal (CV-59) - America
USS Forrestal (CV-59) - America's first Supercarrier
::2014/01/26::
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Fighters starting from USS Forrestal (CV-59) - 1962
Fighters starting from USS Forrestal (CV-59) - 1962
::2014/06/20::
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USS Forrestal (CV-59) underway during sea trials - 1955
USS Forrestal (CV-59) underway during sea trials - 1955
::2014/05/12::
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Us Army Trains Lebanese Troops In Use Of M-41 Tanks (1958)
Us Army Trains Lebanese Troops In Use Of M-41 Tanks (1958)
::2014/04/13::
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Middle East Crisis 1958 West moves Troops and Calls on United Nations to Act
Middle East Crisis 1958 West moves Troops and Calls on United Nations to Act
::2014/02/13::
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US Army soldiers stacking boxes outside a tent area in Beirut, Lebanon during the...HD Stock Footage
US Army soldiers stacking boxes outside a tent area in Beirut, Lebanon during the...HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/21::
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1958 Newsreel: U.S. at the United Nations on Lebanon and Jordan
1958 Newsreel: U.S. at the United Nations on Lebanon and Jordan
::2012/04/07::
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Middle East Crisis 1958 Propaganda War - newsreel and archival footage
Middle East Crisis 1958 Propaganda War - newsreel and archival footage
::2014/02/14::
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Catapult crew hooks bridle to aircraft aboard USS Essex (CVA-9) in Mediterranean ...HD Stock Footage
Catapult crew hooks bridle to aircraft aboard USS Essex (CVA-9) in Mediterranean ...HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/01::
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Major David E. Sutherland USAF Retired talks about 1st CASF
Major David E. Sutherland USAF Retired talks about 1st CASF
::2012/01/03::
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Middle East Crisis 1958 - Pending United Nations Summit talks newsreel archival footage
Middle East Crisis 1958 - Pending United Nations Summit talks newsreel archival footage
::2014/02/14::
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A US Army ammunition dump with a camouflage netting in Beirut, Lebanon during the...HD Stock Footage
A US Army ammunition dump with a camouflage netting in Beirut, Lebanon during the...HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/21::
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World
World's Top 10 Military Power - Detailed Comparison 2015
::2014/06/28::
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Eisenhower Discusses Formosa Crisis 1958
Eisenhower Discusses Formosa Crisis 1958
::2011/02/09::
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Iran and the world: a truce or a new chapter?
Iran and the world: a truce or a new chapter?
::2014/02/06::
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A guard on duty at the Beirut International Airport in Lebanon. HD Stock Footage
A guard on duty at the Beirut International Airport in Lebanon. HD Stock Footage
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Marines disembark in full battle gear from LVPT-5 at beach in Beirut, Lebanon, du...HD Stock Footage
Marines disembark in full battle gear from LVPT-5 at beach in Beirut, Lebanon, du...HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/01::
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USMC LVTP-5 and Marines on guard at a dock in Beirut, Lebanon during the Lebanon ...HD Stock Footage
USMC LVTP-5 and Marines on guard at a dock in Beirut, Lebanon during the Lebanon ...HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/21::
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A US Army Cessna L-19 aircraft and a Sikorsky H-34 helicopter in Beirut, Lebanon ...HD Stock Footage
A US Army Cessna L-19 aircraft and a Sikorsky H-34 helicopter in Beirut, Lebanon ...HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/21::
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General Adams, Ambassadors McClintock and Robert Murphy and General Chehab meet i...HD Stock Footage
General Adams, Ambassadors McClintock and Robert Murphy and General Chehab meet i...HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/21::
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Syrian refugee women reflect greater crisis in Lebanon
Syrian refugee women reflect greater crisis in Lebanon
::2014/07/10::
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US Marines are briefed by an officer at a dock and US Navy ships at a pier in Bei...HD Stock Footage
US Marines are briefed by an officer at a dock and US Navy ships at a pier in Bei...HD Stock Footage
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US Army Chaplain Corps soldiers in a bivouac and soldiers relaxing in Beirut, Leb...HD Stock Footage
US Army Chaplain Corps soldiers in a bivouac and soldiers relaxing in Beirut, Leb...HD Stock Footage
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US Army Chaplain Corps soldiers beside a tent area in Beirut, Lebanon during the ...HD Stock Footage
US Army Chaplain Corps soldiers beside a tent area in Beirut, Lebanon during the ...HD Stock Footage
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A Water Reservoir in Lebanon - Syrian Refugee Crisis 2013 | World Vision
A Water Reservoir in Lebanon - Syrian Refugee Crisis 2013 | World Vision
::2013/08/30::
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Revolution 1958-Tyr, Photographed by Mohamad Turjman
Revolution 1958-Tyr, Photographed by Mohamad Turjman
::2012/04/12::
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1958 middle east
1958 middle east
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US troops disembark from USNS Upshur at a pier in Lebanon. HD Stock Footage
US troops disembark from USNS Upshur at a pier in Lebanon. HD Stock Footage
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Derek - Lebanon Crisis
Derek - Lebanon Crisis
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Action In Middle East (1958)
Action In Middle East (1958)
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General Paul Adams and US Ambassador Robert McClintock with Lebanese Chief of Sta...HD Stock Footage
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1958 Lebanon Crisis
Foxhole - Lebanon - Beirut - July 1958.jpg
U.S. Marine sits in a foxhole outside Beirut, 1958
Date 15 July–25 October 1958
Location Lebanon
Result
Belligerents
Lebanon Lebanese Government
 United States
Lebanon Lebanese Opposition:
Commanders and leaders
Lebanon Camille Chamoun
United States Dwight Eisenhower
United States Robert Murphy
Lebanon Rashid Karami
Ibrahim Kulaylat
Kamal Jumblatt
Casualties and losses
1,300–2,000 dead[1][2][3]

The 1958 Lebanon crisis was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country that included a U.S. military intervention. The intervention lasted around three months until President Camille Chamoun, who had requested the assistance, completed his term as president of Lebanon. American and Lebanese government forces successfully occupied the port and international airport of Beirut. The crisis over, the United States withdrew shortly after.

Background[edit]

Universal Newsreel showing President Eisenhower speaking of the crisis and marines boarding a ship in Lebanon

In July 1958, Lebanon was threatened by a civil war between Maronite Christians and Muslims. Tensions with Egypt had escalated earlier in 1956 when pro-western President Camille Chamoun, a Christian, did not break diplomatic relations with the Western powers that attacked Egypt during the Suez Crisis, angering Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser. These tensions were further increased when Chamoun showed closeness to the Baghdad Pact. Nasser felt that the pro-western Baghdad Pact posed a threat to Arab nationalism. As a response, Egypt and Syria united into the United Arab Republic (UAR). Lebanese Sunni Prime Minister Rashid Karami supported Nasser in 1956 and 1958. Karami formed a national reconciliation government after the 1958 crisis ended.

Lebanese Muslims pushed the government to join the newly created United Arab Republic, while the Christians wanted to keep Lebanon aligned with Western powers. A Muslim rebellion that was allegedly supplied with arms by the UAR through Syria caused President Chamoun to complain to the United Nations Security Council. The United Nations sent a group of inspectors that reported that it didn't find any evidence of significant intervention from the UAR.

The Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev, threatened to use nuclear weapons in the event of an American intervention.[4]

The toppling of a pro-Western government in Iraq's 14 July Revolution, along with the internal instability, caused President Chamoun to call for American assistance.

Operation Blue Bat[edit]

US Marines on patrol in Beirut, summer of 1958

The President of the United States, Eisenhower responded by authorizing Operation Blue Bat on July 15, 1958. This was the first application of the Eisenhower Doctrine under which the U.S. announced that it would intervene to protect regimes it considered threatened by international communism. The goal of the operation was to bolster the pro-Western Lebanese government of President Camille Chamoun against internal opposition and threats from Syria and Egypt. The plan was to occupy and secure the Beirut International Airport, a few miles south of the city, then to secure the port of Beirut and approaches to the city.

The chain of command for Operation Blue Bat was as follows: the Eisenhower administration at the strategic level; Specified Command, Middle East (SPECCOMME, a 'double-hat' for Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean) at the operational level; the Sixth Fleet, with aircraft carriers Saratoga, Essex, and Wasp, cruisers Des Moines and USS Boston, and two squadrons of destroyers. At the end of June Essex and Boston were anchored at Piraeus, Greece, while Des Moines, from which Vice Admiral Charles R. Brown was flying his flag, was at Villefranche-sur-Mer.[5] Land forces included the 2nd Provisional Marine Force (Task Force 62) and the Army Task Force 201 at the tactical level.[6] Each of these three components influenced Operations Plan 215-58 and its execution.

The operation involved approximately 14,000 men, including 8,509 United States Army personnel, a contingent from the 1st Airborne Battle Group, 187th Infantry from the 24th Infantry Division (based in West Germany) and 5,670 officers and men of the United States Marine Corps (the 2nd Provisional Marine Force, of Battalion Landing Teams 1/8 and 2/2).[7] They were supported by a fleet of 70 ships and 40,000 sailors.[8] On July 16, 1958, Admiral James L. Holloway, Jr., CINCNELM and CINCSPECCOMME, flew in from London to Beirut airport and boarded USS Taconic (AGC-17), from which he commanded the remainder of the operation.[9] The U.S. withdrew its forces on October 25, 1958.

President Eisenhower sent diplomat Robert D. Murphy to Lebanon as his personal representative. Murphy played a significant role in convincing both sides of the conflict to reach a compromise by electing moderate Christian general Fuad Chehab as incoming President, while allowing Chamoun to continue in power until the end of his term on September 22.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "B&J": Jacob Bercovitch and Richard Jackson, International Conflict : A Chronological Encyclopedia of Conflicts and Their Management 1945-1995 (1997)
  2. ^ Eckhardt, William, in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987-88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard.
  3. ^ Singer, Joel David, The Wages of War. 1816-1965 (1972)
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Bryden, 1980, 128
  6. ^ Scott Jackman, Political Success in War: A Criterion for Success, DTIC
  7. ^ For more on the naval and Marine Corps forces involved, see Thomas A. Bryson, 'Tars, Turks, and Tankers: The Role of the United States Navy in the Middle East,' Scarecrow Press, Inc., Metuchen, NJ, and London, 1980, 126-140.
  8. ^ "Amphibious Warfare History". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-03-22. 
  9. ^ Bryson, 1980, 131.

Further reading[edit]

Books and studies[edit]

  • Mohammed Shafi Agwani, The Lebanese Crisis, 1958: A Documentary Study, 1965.
  • Erika G. Alin, The United States and the 1958 Lebanon Crisis, American Intervention in the Middle East, 1994.
  • Pierrick el Gammal, Politique intérieure et politique extérieure au Liban de 1958 à 1961 de Camille Chamoun à Fouad Chehab, Sorbonne University (Paris), 1991. (French)
  • Irene L. Gendzier, Notes from the Minefield: United States Intervention in Lebanon and the Middle East 1945–1958, 1997
  • Agnes G. Korbani, U.S. Intervention in Lebanon, 1958–1982 : presidential decisionmaking, 1991.
  • Nawaf Salam, L’insurrection de 1958 au Liban, Sorbonne University (Paris), 1979. (French)
  • Jack Schulimson, Marines in Lebanon 1958, Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, Department of the Navy, United States Marine Corps, 1966, 60 p.
  • Salim Yaqub, Containing Arab Nationalism, The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East, 2003.
  • The Lebanon Operation. Contingency Operations. United States Army Center of Military History. Historical Manuscript Collection 2-3.7 AC.F Tab D. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010. 

Articles[edit]

  • Gerges, Fawaz A. (1993), "The Lebanese Crisis of 1958: The Risks of Inflated Self-Importance", Beirut Review: 83–113 .
  • Lesch, David W. (1996), "Prelude to the 1958 American Intervention in Lebanon", Mediterranean Quarterly 7 (3): 87–108 .
  • Little, Douglas (1996), "His Finest Hour? Eisenhower, Lebanon, and the 1958 Middle East Crisis", Diplomatic History 20 (1): 27–54, doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1996.tb00251.x .
  • Ovendale, Ritchie (1994), "Great Britain and the Anglo-American Invasion of Jordan and Lebanon in 1958", The International History Review 16 (2): 284–304 .
  • Tinguy, Edouard de (2007), "The Lebanese crisis of 1958 and the U.S military intervention", Revue d'Histoire Diplomatique (Paris: A. Pédone) 4  (French).

External links[edit]

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