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Brussels Attack: A Timeline of What Happened, Reported Victims, Survivors
Brussels Attack: A Timeline of What Happened, Reported Victims, Survivors
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: ABC News
How Brussels bombing attacks happened
How Brussels bombing attacks happened
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: The Star Online
Raw: Video captures moments after Brussels bombing
Raw: Video captures moments after Brussels bombing
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: New York Daily News
Brussels attacks: Channel 4 News special - 22 March 2016
Brussels attacks: Channel 4 News special - 22 March 2016
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Channel 4 News
Brussels bombings suspect leaves airport: Breaking police footage traces escape route (Eng subs)
Brussels bombings suspect leaves airport: Breaking police footage traces escape route (Eng subs)
Published: 2016/04/07
Channel: RT
Documentary: Terror In Brussels
Documentary: Terror In Brussels
Published: 2016/03/29
Channel: Sky News
[DISTURBING FOOTAGE 18+] Dying Brussels Bombings victims
[DISTURBING FOOTAGE 18+] Dying Brussels Bombings victims
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Roger Fedora ™
Inside Brussels airport lounge immediately after the bombing
Inside Brussels airport lounge immediately after the bombing
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: ODN
Mayhem in Brussels airport: Immediate aftermath of Zaventem bombings
Mayhem in Brussels airport: Immediate aftermath of Zaventem bombings
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: RT
Brussels Bombing | Injured Basketball Player Speaks Out [EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW]
Brussels Bombing | Injured Basketball Player Speaks Out [EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW]
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: ABC News
Surveillance camera depicting the moment of the bombings of Brussels, Belgium Airport
Surveillance camera depicting the moment of the bombings of Brussels, Belgium Airport
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Clip Hot
London ‘terrorist incident’ comes on 1st anniversary of Brussels bombings
London ‘terrorist incident’ comes on 1st anniversary of Brussels bombings
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: RT America
Brussels bombings survivor reunites with daughters
Brussels bombings survivor reunites with daughters
Published: 2016/05/03
Channel: CBS This Morning
Brussels bombings suspect arrested
Brussels bombings suspect arrested
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: euronews (in English)
Man in the Hat arrested ISIS Terrorist bombings Brussels Belgium Airport Breaking News April 10 2016
Man in the Hat arrested ISIS Terrorist bombings Brussels Belgium Airport Breaking News April 10 2016
Published: 2016/04/10
Channel: U2GO2 Heaven
Brussels bombings: ISIS claims responsibility for attacks on airport and metro stations
Brussels bombings: ISIS claims responsibility for attacks on airport and metro stations
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: News Direct
Brussels bombings put
Brussels bombings put 'the whole of Europe' under attack
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: SABC Digital News
Brussels Bombings: Belgian Police Release Video of Suspects
Brussels Bombings: Belgian Police Release Video of Suspects
Published: 2016/03/29
Channel: Wall Street Journal
Are Brussels bombings connected to Paris attacks?
Are Brussels bombings connected to Paris attacks?
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: CBS Evening News
On The Scene: Brussels Bombings Aftermath
On The Scene: Brussels Bombings Aftermath
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: VOA News
More Terrorism in Belgium: Brussels Bombings
More Terrorism in Belgium: Brussels Bombings
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Styxhexenhammer666
Brussels bombings "attack on European values": European Commissioner
Brussels bombings "attack on European values": European Commissioner
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: New China TV
Russian TV - reaction to the 2016 Brussels bombings: “Terrorist attacks are advantageous for us!“
Russian TV - reaction to the 2016 Brussels bombings: “Terrorist attacks are advantageous for us!“
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: Roman Internati
Brussels Bombings - Khutbah by Nouman Ali Khan
Brussels Bombings - Khutbah by Nouman Ali Khan
Published: 2016/03/27
Channel: Bayyinah Institute
Terrorist attacks Brussels Belgium update ISIS claims bombing attacks Breaking News March 23 2016
Terrorist attacks Brussels Belgium update ISIS claims bombing attacks Breaking News March 23 2016
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: u2bheavenbound
Brussels metro blast immediate aftermath: Passengers flee tunnel following deadly Maalbeek bombing
Brussels metro blast immediate aftermath: Passengers flee tunnel following deadly Maalbeek bombing
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: RT
#Breaking ISLAMIC terrorism Deadly bombings Brussels airport & subway EU quarters March 22 2016 News
#Breaking ISLAMIC terrorism Deadly bombings Brussels airport & subway EU quarters March 22 2016 News
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Utoo B Heavenbound
Brussels terror attacks: ISIS bomb maker key suspect in airport and metro explosions
Brussels terror attacks: ISIS bomb maker key suspect in airport and metro explosions
Published: 2016/07/25
Channel: News Direct
Brussels bombings: ISIS claims responsibility for attacks on airport and metro stations - TomoNews
Brussels bombings: ISIS claims responsibility for attacks on airport and metro stations - TomoNews
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: TomoNews US
Brother of Brussels bombing suspect speaks out
Brother of Brussels bombing suspect speaks out
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: TRT World
Islamic State claims responsibility for Brussels bombings - Dinamalar Mar 22nd 2016
Islamic State claims responsibility for Brussels bombings - Dinamalar Mar 22nd 2016
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Dinamalar
New Monument for the Victims of the 2016 Brussels Bombings
New Monument for the Victims of the 2016 Brussels Bombings
Published: 2017/04/30
Channel: wunderkammerchannel
Brussels Attacks  Airport and Metro Station Bombing in Belgium Shocking Video of Terrorist Attack
Brussels Attacks Airport and Metro Station Bombing in Belgium Shocking Video of Terrorist Attack
Published: 2016/03/27
Channel: Saaed Mahran
The 2016 Brussels Bombings | #PrayforBrussels |
The 2016 Brussels Bombings | #PrayforBrussels |
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: General Sunglass
Brussels attacks: Appeal launched to find ‘man in hat’ bombing suspect
Brussels attacks: Appeal launched to find ‘man in hat’ bombing suspect
Published: 2016/04/07
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
Brussels bombings: Belgian police question nine after raids
Brussels bombings: Belgian police question nine after raids
Published: 2016/03/28
Channel: euronews (in English)
Brussels Terror: How The Attacks Unfolded
Brussels Terror: How The Attacks Unfolded
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Sky News
Deadly Rush Hour Bombing At Brussels Metro Station
Deadly Rush Hour Bombing At Brussels Metro Station
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Sky News
President Rouhani strongly condemns Brussels bombings
President Rouhani strongly condemns Brussels bombings
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: PressTV News Videos
ISLAMIC terrorism Deadly bombings Brussels Belgium airport & subway Breaking News March 22 2016
ISLAMIC terrorism Deadly bombings Brussels Belgium airport & subway Breaking News March 22 2016
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: U2GO2 Heaven
Latest Brussels "TERROR" Bombing Attacks (EXPOSED & DECODED!) 322
Latest Brussels "TERROR" Bombing Attacks (EXPOSED & DECODED!) 322
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: scrawny2brawny
WATCH: Eyewitness account of Brussels airport bombing
WATCH: Eyewitness account of Brussels airport bombing
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: News24
Motive For Brussels Bombing Revealed? Belgium Called For Unified ‘European CIA’ Cites Terror Attacks
Motive For Brussels Bombing Revealed? Belgium Called For Unified ‘European CIA’ Cites Terror Attacks
Published: 2016/03/27
Channel: Spiro
Brussels bombings: City center on lockdown as deadly blasts rock airport, metro stations
Brussels bombings: City center on lockdown as deadly blasts rock airport, metro stations
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: RT
Mounting evidence that Brussels and Paris attacks could be connected
Mounting evidence that Brussels and Paris attacks could be connected
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: CBS This Morning
Belgium tightens security after Brussels attacks
Belgium tightens security after Brussels attacks
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: INQUIRER.net
American victim describes Brussels airport bombing
American victim describes Brussels airport bombing
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: CBS Evening News
New Suspect In Brussels Bombings
New Suspect In Brussels Bombings
Published: 2016/03/26
Channel: Wochit News
Brussels metro bombing witness: ‘Country is in shock’
Brussels metro bombing witness: ‘Country is in shock’
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: RT
'Brussels bombings were an attack on democracy': Ambassador of Belgium in Egypt
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: Daily News Egypt
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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2016 Brussels bombings
Part of Islamic terrorism in Europe (2014–present) (the spillover of the Syrian Civil War)
2016-Brussels-Bombings-OpenStreetMap.png
  • Map of the bombings in relation to each other
  • (1) 07:58 : Departure hall of Brussels Airport
  • (2) 09:11 : Maalbeek metro station
Location Brussels Airport in Zaventem and Maalbeek metro station in Brussels, Belgium
Coordinates
Date 22 March 2016
07:58 – 09:11 (UTC+1)
Target Civilians (possibly Americans and Jews),[1] transport hubs
Attack type
Suicide bombings, nail bombing, mass murder
Weapons TATP explosives
Deaths 35 (32 victims, 3 perpetrators)[2][3]
Non-fatal injuries
340[4] (62 critical)[5][6]
Perpetrator Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant(claimed)[7]
Assailants

On the morning of 22 March 2016, three coordinated suicide bombings occurred in Belgium: two at Brussels Airport in Zaventem, and one at Maalbeek metro station in central Brussels.[11] Thirty-two civilians and three perpetrators were killed, and more than 300 people were injured. Another bomb was found during a search of the airport. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) claimed responsibility for the attacks.[12]

The perpetrators belonged to a terrorist cell which had been involved in the November 2015 Paris attacks. The Brussels bombings happened shortly after a series of police raids targeting the group. The bombings were the deadliest act of terrorism in Belgium's history. The Belgian government declared three days of national mourning.

Background[edit]

Belgium is a participant in the ongoing military intervention against ISIL, during the Iraqi Civil War.[13] On 5 October 2014, a Belgian F-16 dropped its first bomb on an ISIL target, east of Baghdad.[14] On 12 November 2015, Iraq warned members of the coalition that Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of ISIL, had ordered retaliatory attacks on countries involved in the coalition against ISIL.[15]

Belgium has more nationals fighting for jihadist forces as a proportion of its population than any other Western European country, with an estimated 440 Belgians having left for Syria and Iraq as of January 2015.[16][17] The Guardian cited estimates suggesting that Belgium has supplied the highest per capita number of fighters to Syria of any European nation, with 350 to 550 fighters, out of a total population of 11 million that includes fewer than 500,000 Muslims.[18] Exaggerated reporting claimed Belgium's weak security apparatus and competing intelligence agencies made it a hub of jihadist-recruiting and terrorist activity.[19] In fact, Belgium faces the same problems as other European countries with regards to jihadist terrorism and the attacks happened more as a result of policy failure rather than intelligence failure.[11]

Terrorist cells in Brussels[edit]

Before the bombings, several Islamist terrorist attacks had originated from Belgium, and a number of counter-terrorist operations had been carried out there. In May 2014, a gunman with ties to the Syrian Civil War attacked the Jewish Museum of Belgium in Brussels, killing four people.[20][21] In January 2015, anti-terrorist operations against a group thought to be planning a second Charlie Hebdo shooting had included raids in Brussels and Zaventem. The operation resulted in the deaths of two suspects.[22][23] In August 2015, a suspected terrorist shot and stabbed passengers aboard a high-speed train on its way from Amsterdam to Paris via Brussels, before he was subdued by passengers.[24]

The perpetrators involved in the November 2015 attacks in Paris were based in Molenbeek, and Brussels was locked down for five days to allow the police to search for suspects. On 18 March 2016, 4 days before the bombings, Salah Abdeslam, a suspected accomplice in those attacks, was captured after two anti-terrorist raids in Molenbeek that killed another suspect and injured two others. At least one other suspect remains at large.[25][26][27] During interrogation, Abdeslam was presented with photographs of the Bakraoui siblings, who would later be suspected of committing the attacks in Brussels three days later.[28] Belgian investigators believe that Abdeslam's arrest may have hastened the Brussels bombings.[29] According to the Belgian Interior Minister, Jan Jambon, who spoke after the bombings, authorities knew of preparations for an extremist act in Europe, but they underestimated the scale of the attack.[30]

Attacks[edit]

Timeline of attacks
* 7:55 – The three suspected attackers arrived at the airport in a taxi.[31]
  • 7:58 – Two explosions occurred in the airport's check-in area, 9 seconds apart.[32][33]
  • 8:20 – Rail transport to the airport is halted; road closures begin.[34]
  • 9:04 – Belgium raises the terror threat level to its highest level.[35]
  • 9:11 – Explosion in Brussels Maalbeek metro station kills at least 20 people.[36]
  • 9:27 – All public transport is suspended in the city.[34]
  • 11:15 – Eurostar rail journeys between London and Brussels are cancelled until further notice.[37]
  • 17:14 – Belgian police detonate a suspicious package at Brussels Airport.[38]
  • 19:30 – A police raid in Schaerbeek finds a nail bomb and an ISIL flag.[39]
All times are CET (UTC+1).

There were three coordinated attacks: two nail bombings at Brussels Airport, and one bombing at Maalbeek metro station.[34]

Brussels Airport[edit]

Two suicide bombers, carrying explosives in large suitcases, attacked a departure hall at Brussels Airport in Zaventem. The first explosion occurred at 07:58 in check-in row 11; the second explosion occurred about nine seconds later in check-in row 2. The suicide bombers were visible in CCTV footage.[40] Some witnesses said that before the first explosion occurred, shots were fired and there were yells in Arabic. However, authorities have stated afterwards that no shots were fired.[41][42][43][citation needed]

A third suicide bomber was prevented from detonating his own bomb by the force of a previous explosion.[44] The third bomb was found in a search of the airport and was later destroyed by a controlled explosion.[38] Belgium's federal prosecutor confirmed that the suicide bombers had detonated nail bombs.[45]

Maalbeek metro station[edit]

Another explosion took place just over an hour later in the middle carriage of a three-carriage train at Maalbeek metro station, located near the European Commission headquarters in the centre of Brussels, 10 kilometres (6 mi) from Brussels Airport. The explosion occurred at 09:11 CET.[34][46][47]

The train was travelling on line 5 towards the city centre, and was pulling out of Maalbeek station when the bomb exploded.[48][49][50] The driver immediately stopped the train and helped to evacuate the passengers.[51][52] The Brussels Metro was subsequently shut down at 09:27.[34]

Victims[edit]

Deaths by citizenship[53]
Citizenship Deaths
 Belgium 13
 United States 4
 Netherlands 2
 Sweden 2
 Belgium/Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo 1
 China 1
 France 1
 India 1
 Italy 1
 Liberia 1
 Morocco 1
 Germany/ Spain 1
 Peru 1
 Poland 1
 United Kingdom 1
Total* 32

2 Injured people from  Colombia, 1 from  Brazil Ecuador Panama Portugal and  Venezuela

In the bombings, 35 people, including three suicide bombers, were killed and over 300 others were injured, 62 critically. Including the attackers, seventeen bodies were recovered at Brussels Airport and fourteen at the metro station.[54] Four people later died of their wounds in hospital.[55] Eighty-one others were injured at the airport, while the rest were injured at the metro station.[56] The bombings were the deadliest act of terrorism in Belgium's history.[57]

14 of the deceased were Belgian nationals; four were Americans; two each were from the Netherlands and Sweden; and the remaining ten each hailed from a different nation.[54] Among the fatalities at Zaventem was André Adam, former Belgian Permanent Representative to the United Nations who later served as Ambassador to the United States.[58][59]

Suspects[edit]

Still from CCTV footage showing Najim Laachraoui (left), Ibrahim El Bakraoui (centre), and Mohamed Abrini (right).[9][60][61][62]

Profiles[edit]

A total of five attackers were involved, with three of them dying in suicide bombings and the remaining two arrested in the weeks after. All had involvement in the planning and organization of the November 2015 Paris attacks. They were identified and named as:

  • Ibrahim El Bakraoui: aged 29. Committed a suicide bombing at Brussels Airport. In 2010, he had been involved in an attempted robbery at a currency exchange office and a subsequent shootout with police that left one officer injured. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison but was paroled in 2014 under the condition that he did not leave the country; he was sought by authorities when he violated those conditions.
  • Najim Laachraoui: aged 24. Committed a suicide bombing at Brussels Airport alongside Ibrahim El Bakraoui. He reportedly travelled to Syria in 2013, under a false ID.
  • Mohamed Abrini: born 27 December 1984. Abrini assisted Ibrahim El Bakraoui and Najim Laachraoui in the airport bombings but failed to detonate his bomb. Arrested on 8 April 2016. He was a childhood friend of brothers Salah Abdeslam and Brahim Adbeslam, who were both involved in the November 2015 attacks in Paris, and is suspected of assisting Salah Abdeslam in his escape following the attacks. He is also suspected of having fought for the Islamic State in Syria.
  • Khalid El Bakraoui: aged 27, the younger brother of Ibrahim El Bakraoui. Committed the suicide bombing at the Maalbeek metro station. In 2011, he was convicted of several carjackings, the possession of a number of Kalashnikov rifles, and a 2009 bank robbery and kidnapping. After being released in 2015, El Bakraoui failed his parole appointments and abandoned his address. He was later served with three arrest warrants, one from Interpol, one international, and one European.
  • Osama Krayem: born 1992. Krayem assisted Khalid El Bakraoui in the suicide bombing at the metro station. When he was eleven, he participated in a Swedish documentary film about the integration of migrants into Swedish society. Krayem is believed to have been radicalized by videos of Anwar al-Awlaki, and to have been fighting for ISIL since 2014. Before the bombings, he was one of Europe's most wanted fugitives.

In security camera video of Brussels Airport, Ibrahim El Bakraoui, Laachraoui, and Abrini[47] were seen pushing suitcases believed to have contained the bombs that exploded in the departure hall. A taxi driver who drove them to the airport said he tried to help the men with their luggage but they ordered him away.[30] Initial reports elaborated El Bakraoui and Laachraoui each apparently wearing a glove which may have concealed detonators to the explosives.[63] This was later proven to be untrue, with both being barehanded.[64]

Investigation[edit]

Within 90 minutes of the airport attack, the area around an apartment in Schaerbeek, a northern district of Brussels, was cordoned off by police. The authorities received a tip-off from a taxi driver once they released photos of the suspects several hours after the attacks.[65] Inside the home, they discovered a nail bomb, 15 kilograms (33 lb) of acetone peroxide, 151 litres (33 imp gal; 40 US gal) of acetone, nearly 30 litres (7 imp gal; 8 US gal) of hydrogen peroxide, other ingredients for explosives, and an ISIL flag.[39][66] At least one resident reported unusual smells to the police, resulting in Agent de Quartier policeman Philippe Swinnen visiting the building twice in three months, but not entering.[67]

Authorities also found a laptop belonging to Ibrahim El Bakraoui, inside a waste container near the house.[68] The laptop had a suicide note stored on it, in which Ibrahim stated that he was "stressed out", felt unsafe, and was "afraid of ever-lasting eternity".[69] It also contained images of the home and the office of the Belgian Prime Minister, Charles Michel, among information on multiple other locations in Brussels.[70]

Numerous related arrests followed after the bombings. As of 26 March, twelve men had been arrested in connection with the bombings.[71]

Aftermath[edit]

Raids and searches were made across Belgium, while security was heightened in a number of countries as a result of the attacks.[72][73]

Belgium[edit]

Digital billboard in Brussels. It reads, in French, "Stay where you are, avoid all movement, prioritise communications by SMS or social networks."
People gathering, chalk drawings and flowers for the victims. The largest message says (translated from French), Brussels is beautiful, with further inscriptions of Stop violence, Stop war, Unity, and Humanity.

Authorities temporarily halted air traffic to the airport and evacuated the terminal buildings.[41] The airport was to be closed to passenger traffic and reopening date postponed several times with a projected reopening date of 29 March.[74] The Berlaymont building, which is near Maalbeek station and is the headquarters of the European Commission, was placed in lockdown. Controlled explosions were carried out on suspicious objects around Maalbeek station.[75]

All public transport in the capital was shut down as a result of the attacks.[76] Brussels-North, Brussels-Central, and Brussels-South stations were evacuated and closed, and Eurostar journeys to Brussels Midi station were cancelled. All trains from Paris to Brussels were also cancelled. Taxis in Brussels transported passengers free-of-charge for the duration of the lockdown.[77] Paris Nord railway station, with services to Brussels, was also temporarily closed.[78]

The Belgian Interior Ministry raised the terror alert level in the country to the highest level following the attacks.[79] The government warned that some perpetrators might still be at large and urged citizens to reach friends and family using social media to avoid congesting the telephone networks.[80]

The country's two nuclear power plants – Tihange and Doel – were partially evacuated as a precaution.[81]

Temporary border checks were implemented by Belgian and French authorities at some major crossings on the France-Belgium border.[82]

The federal government announced three days of national mourning,[83] lasting from Tuesday until Thursday, and flags were flown at half-mast on public buildings.[84] They also held a one-minute silence at noon local time on 23 March.[83]

Also on 23 March, Belgian Muslim groups, such as the League of Imams in Belgium and Executive of the Muslims in Belgium, publicly condemned the bombings and expressed their condolences to the victims and their families.[85]

The airport was closed on 22 March, with reopening postponed several times. On 29 March, an operational test was performed. The official reopening date was scheduled to be announced on 30 March.[86] A post-reopening target of 800–1,000 passengers per hour was projected, compared to pre-bombing traffic of 5,000 passengers per hour. The delay in the reopening was attributed to extensive damage to the building's infrastructure. A temporary terminal was planned for use after the reopening.[87] When the airport reopened, only Brussels Airlines would serve the airport, but other airlines would be allowed to return later.[88]

On 29 March, it was revealed that Ibrahim and Khalid El Bakraoui were released from prison due to a law introduced in 1888 known as Lejeune, which allows inmates to be released after serving a third of their sentence. Belgian Interior Minister Jan Jambon stated that the governing parties had agreed to update the law in 2014. The Lejeune law first came under scrutiny after serial killer and child molester Marc Dutroux was released from prison in 1992.[89]

Airport businesses were affected. Hotel closures included the Sheraton Brussels Airport Hotel[90] and Four Points by Sheraton Brussels.[91] Cargo flights resumed on 23 March.[92] Car rental offices were also closed.[93]

Following memorials to the victims, disturbances broke out, resulting in riot police using water cannons to disperse violent right-wing protesters against ISIL.[94][95][96]

On 30 March, plans to reopen the airport were cancelled again due to a strike by airport police over a dispute over inadequate security.[97] The dispute was resolved, and the airport was later scheduled to be reopened on 3 April. On that day, a Brussels Airlines flight left for Faro and a flight to Athens and Turin was scheduled for the same day. Upon reopening, only passengers were allowed to enter a temporary departure hall and security checkpoints were implemented at the roadway to the airport. Only car and taxi traffic were allowed to enter but public transit remains suspended.[98] Hotel business revenue in Brussels had been cut in half since the airport closure.[99]

On 1 April, religious leaders in Brussels gathered together for a memorial to the victims of the bombings. They expressed their desire to spread a religious message of unity throughout Belgium, and to combat extremism.[100]

On 25 April, the Maalbeek metro station reopened with heightened security.[101] On 1 May, the departure hall of Brussels Airport, which had sustained the most damage during the bombings, partially reopened with the airport on high alert.[102]

The mayor of Molenbeek district, Francoise Schepmans, responded by closing some mosques for "incendiary language"[103] It was also determined that of 1,600 nonprofit organisations registered in the district, 102 had links to criminial activities, 52 of which to religious radicalism or terrorism.[104]

Other countries[edit]

Soon after news of the attacks broke, security was increased, particularly at airports, railway stations and other transport hubs, in China,[105] Denmark,[106][107] France,[108] Germany,[77] Greece,[109] Indonesia,[110] Ireland,[111] Italy,[112] Japan,[113] Malaysia,[114] Malta,[115] the Netherlands,[116][117][118] the Philippines,[119] Thailand,[120] the United Kingdom,[72][121] and the United States.[122] Also, Portugal evacuated the check-in section for 20 minutes due to a suspicious abandoned bag.[123] In addition, Israel stopped flights from Europe for the rest of the day;[124] additional police were deployed to the Belgian border with the Netherlands;[125] the United Kingdom's Foreign and Commonwealth Office said the Belgian authorities were advising against non-essential travel to Brussels;[126][127] and officials at the U.S. Embassy in Brussels warned of the possibility of more attacks, recommending "sheltering in place and avoiding all public transportation".[128]

Exactly a year after these terrorist attacks, the 2017 Westminster attack occurred. It was a terror incident in London where five people were killed, including a police officer and the attacker, and dozens were injured.

Reactions[edit]

The Mexican Senate building illuminated with the colours of the flag of Belgium.
The sculpture Flight in Mind by Belgian artist Olivier Strebelle was damaged in the attacks. After some months of restoration the sculpture was relocated to an outdoor area of the airport. It is seen here on the 1st anniversary of the attacks.

In a televised address to the nation on 22 March, King Philippe expressed his and Queen Mathilde's sorrow at the events. He offered their full support to members of the emergency and security services.[129]

Hours after the attack the French-language hashtag #JeSuisBruxelles (#IamBrussels) and images of the Belgian comic character Tintin crying trended on social media sites. Also, hashtags such as #ikwilhelpen (#Iwanttohelp) and #PorteOuverte (#Opendoor) were used by Brussels residents who wanted to offer shelter and assistance for people who might need help.[130][131][132] Facebook activated its Safety Check feature following the attacks.[133]

Following the bombings, several structures around the world were illuminated in the colours of the Belgian flag, including the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Trevi Fountain in Rome, the National Gallery in London's Trafalgar Square, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai[134] and One World Trade Center in New York City,[135] while the spire of the Empire State Building went dark.[135] The Toronto Sign was lit up in the colours of the Belgian flag on the night of the attacks.[136]

Governments, media outlets, and social media users received criticism in some media and academic analysis for their disproportionate emphasis placed on the attacks in Brussels over similar attacks in other countries, particularly in Turkey, which occurred days before. Similarly, reactions to the November 2015 Paris attacks were viewed as disproportionate in comparison to those of earlier bombings in Beirut.[137][138][139][140] According to Akin Unver, a professor of international affairs at Istanbul’s Kadir Has University, being "selective" about terrorism is counterproductive to the global counterterrorism efforts.[141]

Memorialisation[edit]

The impromptu memorial at Bourse
Wall of messages at Maelbeek metro

In the aftermath of the attacks, the population of Brussels reacted by creating spontaneous memorials as a societal reaction to what was perceived as a collective tragedy .In the hours following the attack, people started gathering at the city center near the former stock exhchange (Place de la Bourse). Mourners wrote chalk messages on the pavement and buildings surrounding the square. Numerous messages and mementos, usually every-day objects such as mugs or hats, were left at the Bourse memorial. According to Ana Milosevic, a researcher at KU Leuven, societal tensions and the pressure for the answers about the causes and consequences of the attacks, were salient in the first days and weeks after the event. During the two months of the existence, the Bourse memorial was used as a site of contestation and negotiation of the meanings associated with the terrorist attacks.[142]

The Archives of City of Brussels were tasked by the mayor Yvan Mayeur and the city council to collect and document the societal reactions to the attacks. Over two months, the team of the archives documented the process of memorialization, also collecting some of the memorabilia left by the mourners.[143]

The first memorialization initiative included the creation of a semi-permanent (temporary) monument by the Moroccan community of Molenbeek – the part of the city from which several perpetrators of the Paris and Brussels attacks originated. Called “The Flame of Hope”, the monument was placed at the main square of the municipality, however it did not attract significant societal or media attention.

Following a public competition,[144] a monument to the victims was unveiled on the first anniversary of the attacks on the pedestrianised section of rue de la Loi, between Schuman and the parc du Cinquantenaire. The monument, by Jean-Henri Compere, is called “Wounded But Still Standing in Front of the Inconceivable” and is constructed from two 20-metre (66 feet) long horizontal surfaces rising skywards.[145]

The Brussels-Capital Region also memorialised the attacks with a land-art work by Bas Smets, who planted 32 birches (one for each victim) in the Sonien forest (drève du Comte) as “a place of silence and meditation.” The birches are connected by a circle structure and separated from the rest of the forest by a small round canal.[146][147][148]

A smaller memorial (a black plaque and a tree) was also raised by the municipality of Etterbeek in the Jardin Felix Hap.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ISIS suicide bombers at Brussels Airport 'targeted U.S. airline and Jews'". 
  2. ^ "Brussels Attacks Death Toll Lowered To 32". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 29 March 2016. 
  3. ^ "Brussels airport delays reopening, Belgium lowers attacks toll to 32". AFP. Retrieved 29 March 2016. 
  4. ^ "British victim of Brussels attacks confirmed dead as slow identification of bodies continues". Telegraph.co.uk. 25 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  5. ^ Angelique Chrisafis; Emma Graham-Harrison; James Tapper (26 March 2016). "Fayçal Cheffou charged over 'core role' in Brussels bomb attacks". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
  6. ^ "16h30 - Bilan provisoire des victimes des attentats". Centredecrise.be. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  7. ^ Dearden, Lizzie (22 March 2016). "Isis supporters claim group responsible for Brussels attacks: 'We have come to you with slaughter'". The Independent. Retrieved 22 March 2016. 
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