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2G BOY$ - โบ้ง Feat. BONGPTON, LIL ICE (Official Music Video)
2G BOY$ - โบ้ง Feat. BONGPTON, LIL ICE (Official Music Video)
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: 2G BOYS
2G ent . "I Bet" Smurff x  TJ
2G ent . "I Bet" Smurff x TJ
Published: 2014/05/22
Channel: 2G TV
My Ear Stretching Journey: 14g to 2g!
My Ear Stretching Journey: 14g to 2g!
Published: 2014/08/20
Channel: Ericka Talks
Living with the iPhone 2G for a week.  Is it Obsolete?
Living with the iPhone 2G for a week. Is it Obsolete?
Published: 2014/04/15
Channel: The 8-Bit Guy
iPhone 7 vs Original iPhone 2G! 9 Year Comparison
iPhone 7 vs Original iPhone 2G! 9 Year Comparison
Published: 2016/10/09
Channel: EverythingApplePro
2G BOY$ - My Gang (Official Music Video)
2G BOY$ - My Gang (Official Music Video)
Published: 2017/07/09
Channel: 2G BOYS
Stick Welding Tips- 7018 2g Plate Test
Stick Welding Tips- 7018 2g Plate Test
Published: 2015/02/17
Channel: weldingtipsandtricks
Stretching from a 4g to 2g! | Alyssa Nicole
Stretching from a 4g to 2g! | Alyssa Nicole
Published: 2015/08/13
Channel: Alyssa Nicole
What is 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G of Cellular Mobile Communications - Wireless Telecommunications
What is 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G of Cellular Mobile Communications - Wireless Telecommunications
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: TELCOMA Training
Распаковка iPhone 2G за 500.000р.
Распаковка iPhone 2G за 500.000р.
Published: 2016/12/29
Channel: Wylsacom
2G MUSIC GROUP | MIXTAPE RELEASE PARTY | SHOT BY @3LEGENDARY
2G MUSIC GROUP | MIXTAPE RELEASE PARTY | SHOT BY @3LEGENDARY
Published: 2013/05/09
Channel: Luke Hefner
2G & Milli - Right Now (In Studio Video)
2G & Milli - Right Now (In Studio Video)
Published: 2015/06/14
Channel: Unkut Records
2G - 2K15/Mac & Fries (Official Video)
2G - 2K15/Mac & Fries (Official Video)
Published: 2015/06/27
Channel: Unkut Records
The Difference Between 2G 3G 4G and LTE Speeds Explained
The Difference Between 2G 3G 4G and LTE Speeds Explained
Published: 2013/04/16
Channel: DHTV - Dan
2G Spectrum Scam | India
2G Spectrum Scam | India's Biggest Political Scam Ever | Case Study | Hindi
Published: 2017/11/19
Channel: The Case Study Channel
2G - Poppin
2G - Poppin' (Official Video)
Published: 2015/10/16
Channel: Unkut Records
CURSO DE SOLDADURA - Cañeria 2G
CURSO DE SOLDADURA - Cañeria 2G
Published: 2015/11/05
Channel: CETI CHILE
2G GSM Architecture
2G GSM Architecture
Published: 2010/09/04
Channel: Rohit Trehan
1G 2G 3G 4G | Lets talk about wireless mobile telecommunications technology (In Hindi)
1G 2G 3G 4G | Lets talk about wireless mobile telecommunications technology (In Hindi)
Published: 2016/10/07
Channel: Technical Sagar
Pipe Welding Basics - 2G Schedule 40 Stick Welded - 6010 Root, 7018 Cap
Pipe Welding Basics - 2G Schedule 40 Stick Welded - 6010 Root, 7018 Cap
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: ChuckE2009
1G,2G,3G & 4G Best Explanation & Comparision
1G,2G,3G & 4G Best Explanation & Comparision
Published: 2015/09/29
Channel: Getspk Channel
¥OUNG BB ¥OUNG ft. 2G - $UP€R TRUMP€T [Official HD Video]
¥OUNG BB ¥OUNG ft. 2G - $UP€R TRUMP€T [Official HD Video]
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: FacingTheSunOfficial
D.u.d.A - 2G 2Fast ft. Zeeroman (Official Music Video)
D.u.d.A - 2G 2Fast ft. Zeeroman (Official Music Video)
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: DudaDoubleG
Duda ft. zero man-aty ku jan 2G
Duda ft. zero man-aty ku jan 2G
Published: 2007/06/20
Channel: tesssa92
2G - MATRIXÉ | RedFilmmaking
2G - MATRIXÉ | RedFilmmaking
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: Red Filmmaking
How to Jailbreak the iPhone 2G - Up to date!
How to Jailbreak the iPhone 2G - Up to date!
Published: 2014/03/31
Channel: The 8-Bit Guy
Активируем iPhone 2G и сравниваем с iPhone 7 Plus
Активируем iPhone 2G и сравниваем с iPhone 7 Plus
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: Wylsacom
soldadura 2G SMAW arco manual horizontal con calificación parte 1.mp4
soldadura 2G SMAW arco manual horizontal con calificación parte 1.mp4
Published: 2010/05/25
Channel: claudioswat1
iPhone 2G vs iPhone 8 Plus Speed Test!
iPhone 2G vs iPhone 8 Plus Speed Test!
Published: 2017/10/09
Channel: Nick Ackerman
iPhone 2G: analisamos o primeiro modelo do iPhone!
iPhone 2G: analisamos o primeiro modelo do iPhone!
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Canaltech
Using the iPhone 2G in 2017
Using the iPhone 2G in 2017
Published: 2017/12/06
Channel: Tailosive Tech
VIAJE EN EL TIEMPO: EL PRIMER iPHONE (2G)
VIAJE EN EL TIEMPO: EL PRIMER iPHONE (2G)
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: neshudo
HO COMPRATO IL PRIMO IPHONE DI SEMPRE (UNBOXING IPHONE 2G)
HO COMPRATO IL PRIMO IPHONE DI SEMPRE (UNBOXING IPHONE 2G)
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: BlackGeekTutorial
Definición de 2G, 3G ... ¿ qué es 4G ?
Definición de 2G, 3G ... ¿ qué es 4G ?
Published: 2013/09/17
Channel: stelladoradus
MC 2G - Da Água Pro Vinho (Videoclipe Oficial)
MC 2G - Da Água Pro Vinho (Videoclipe Oficial)
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: LEGENDA FUNK
Сравнение IPhone 2G VS первый ANDROID!!!
Сравнение IPhone 2G VS первый ANDROID!!!
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: Future Time
モンハン2G G級ミラルーツ 祖龍 裸 爆弾なし 大剣 ソロ 1/4
モンハン2G G級ミラルーツ 祖龍 裸 爆弾なし 大剣 ソロ 1/4
Published: 2010/09/09
Channel: Dai FX
モンハン2G イベントDL 白光 G級ミラルーツ 火事場大剣ソロ 1/3
モンハン2G イベントDL 白光 G級ミラルーツ 火事場大剣ソロ 1/3
Published: 2010/09/07
Channel: Dai FX
Jio 4G Sim 2G Mobile Pe Set Kejeya | 100% Working | Hindi / Urdu (2017)
Jio 4G Sim 2G Mobile Pe Set Kejeya | 100% Working | Hindi / Urdu (2017)
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: Rajesh Bepari
Original iPhone 2G Teardown - TEN YEARS LATER!!
Original iPhone 2G Teardown - TEN YEARS LATER!!
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: JerryRigEverything
Dr Subramanian Swamy Speaks To India Today On 2G Scam Verdict
Dr Subramanian Swamy Speaks To India Today On 2G Scam Verdict
Published: 2017/12/05
Channel: India Today
How to convert 2G/3G mobile in 4G network
How to convert 2G/3G mobile in 4G network
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: TECHNICAL FANDA
EXP Una giornata con IPHONE 2G e non solo...
EXP Una giornata con IPHONE 2G e non solo...
Published: 2017/03/24
Channel: andreagaleazzi.com
Мой самый первый iPhone | Обзор iPhone 2G
Мой самый первый iPhone | Обзор iPhone 2G
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: kazakov
MTK6261 2G Smart Watch
MTK6261 2G Smart Watch
Published: 2017/11/06
Channel: TOMTOP
How to convert 2g,3g phone to 4g LTE WITH PROOF {no root}
How to convert 2g,3g phone to 4g LTE WITH PROOF {no root}
Published: 2016/12/22
Channel: Tech with Jayesh
How To use Jio sim in 2G and 3G Any phones  || with Jiofi || and with || Jio Happy New Year Offer
How To use Jio sim in 2G and 3G Any phones || with Jiofi || and with || Jio Happy New Year Offer
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: Sab kuchh sikho jano
2G Unternehmensvideo.
2G Unternehmensvideo.
Published: 2015/12/21
Channel: 2G Energy AG
AFFORDABLE TONE? Zoom G1Xon vs Vox Stomplab 2G Guitar Multi Effects Processor Comparison
AFFORDABLE TONE? Zoom G1Xon vs Vox Stomplab 2G Guitar Multi Effects Processor Comparison
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Music Bliss Malaysia
그것이 알고싶다.1101회.유서가 된 2G폰의증언 - 국정원 변호사 사망 의혹 (2017-11-25)
그것이 알고싶다.1101회.유서가 된 2G폰의증언 - 국정원 변호사 사망 의혹 (2017-11-25)
Published: 2017/11/26
Channel: ROCK STAR _ UP
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation cellular technology. Second-generation 2G cellular networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991.[1] Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater wireless penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages. 2G technologies enabled the various networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages, and MMS (multimedia messages). All text messages sent over 2G are digitally encrypted, allowing for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it.

After 2G was launched, the previous mobile wireless network systems were retroactively dubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networks are digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the devices) to the rest of the mobile system.

2G has been superseded by newer technologies such as 2.5G, 2.75G, 3G, and 4G; however, 2G networks are still used in most parts of the world.

With General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), 2G offers a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 50 kbit/s (40 kbit/s in practice).[2][not in citation given] With EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution), there is a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 1 Mbit/s (500 kbit/s in practice).[2][not in citation given]

2G Technologies[edit]

2G technologies can be divided into time division multiple access (TDMA)-based and code division multiple access (CDMA)-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. The main 2G standards are:

  • GSM (TDMA-based), originally from Europe but used in most of the world outside North America. Over 60 GSM operators were also using CDMA2000 in the 450 MHz frequency band (CDMA450) by 2010.[3]
  • PDC also known as JDC (Japanese Digital Cellular) (TDMA based), used exclusively in Japan
  • iDEN (TDMA-based), proprietary network used by Nextel in the United States and Telus Mobility in Canada
  • IS-136 a.k.a. Digital AMPS or D-AMPS (TDMA-based, commonly referred as simply 'TDMA' in the US), was once prevalent in the Americas, but most have migrated to GSM.

Evolution[edit]

2.5G (GPRS)[edit]

2.5G ("second and a half generation"[citation needed]) is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain. It does not necessarily provide faster service because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit-switched data services (HSCSD) as well.

The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). CDMA2000 networks similarly evolved through the introduction of 2.5G. Its approach centred on the use of packet data. Up until this time all circuits had been dedicated to a given user in an approach known as circuit switched, i.e. where a complete circuit is switched for a given user. This was inefficient when a channel was only carrying data for a small percentage of the time. The new packet switched approach routed individual packets of data from the transmitter to the receiver allowing the same circuit to be used by different users. This enabled circuits to be used more efficiently and charges to be metered according to the data transferred.

2.75G (EDGE)[edit]

GPRS networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding, While the symbol rate remained the same at 270.833 samples per second, each symbol carried three bits instead of one. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003—initially by AT&T in the United States.

EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and it is an upgrade that provides a potential three-fold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks.The 2G digital service provided very useful features, such as caller ID, call forwarding, and short messaging.

Shutdown[edit]

America[edit]

United States[edit]

Various carriers have made announcements that 2G technology in the United States is in the process of being shut down so that carriers can reclaim those radio bands and re-purpose them for newer technologies (e.g. 4G LTE). AT&T's 2G GSM service was shut down in January 2017.[4][5][6] This shutdown had a notable impact on the electronic security industry, where many 2G GSM radios were in use for alarm signal communication to central station dispatch centers. 2G GSM radios were required to be replaced by newer generation radios to avoid service outages.[7] Verizon plans to shut down its 2G CDMA 1X network by 31 December 2019.[8] Whereas, T-Mobile US has postponed shutdown of their 2G network until 2020.[9]

Asian and Pacific[edit]

Australia[edit]

Telstra closed their GSM network on 1 December 2016, being the first mobile provider in Australia to switch off 2G.[10]

Optus shut down 2G in Western Australia and Northern Territory on 1 April and completed the shutdown within the rest of Australia on 1 August 2017.[11]

Vodafone plans to decommission its legacy GSM network on 31 March 2018.[12]

India[edit]

Reliance Communications, a group led by Reliance ADAG, decided to shut down its entire 2G network at the end of November 2017. It is the first operator in the country to do so.[13]

New Zealand[edit]

2degrees plans to shutdown its 2G network in March 2018.[14]

Singapore[edit]

Singtel, M1, and StarHub ceased 2G services on 1 April 2017.[15]

Europe[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

T-Mobile Netherlands will shutdown 2G services by 2020.[16]

Switzerland[edit]

Telecommunications in Switzerland is mainly operated by state-owned Swisscom, and the two privately held Salt and Sunrise Communications AG as these companies have a license to operate 2G. Swisscom will cease 2G services due to its "public service requirements" only by 1 January 2021.[17]

Sunrise Communications AG has announced plans to phase out its GSM network by the end of 2018. GSM, GPRS and EDGE will be ended by the end of 2018 in favour of expanded 4G and 4G+ coverage.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Radiolinja's History". 20 April 2004. Archived from the original on 23 October 2006. Retrieved 23 December 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "Wi-Fi and mobile Internet (3G or 4G)". Proximus. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2017. 
  3. ^ "CDMA Worldwide". Archived from the original on 30 January 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2009. 
  4. ^ Gryta, Thomas (3 August 2012). "AT&T to Leave 2G Behind". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  5. ^ "AT&T 2G Sunset". povertymobile. 2016-01-20. Retrieved 2017-01-11. 
  6. ^ "AT&T's Donovan says 2G network in 'soft lock,' decommissioning to begin in coming months | FierceWireless". www.fiercewireless.com. Retrieved 2017-01-11. 
  7. ^ "2G Sunset Overview". Telguard. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  8. ^ Danno, Mike. "Verizon to shut down 2G CDMA 1X network by the end of 2019". FierceWireless. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  9. ^ "T-Mobile takes a swing at AT&T, says its 2G network will stay active through 2020". SlashGear. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  10. ^ Turner, Adam (4 November 2016). "Budget Mobile Customers Brace for Australia's 2G Shutdown". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  11. ^ "2G Network Closure Update" (Press release). Optus. Retrieved 6 July 2017. 
  12. ^ Zemek, Jen (30 September 2016). "Vodafone to switch off 2G network next year". Vodafone.com.au (Press release). Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  13. ^ "RComm to Shut Down 2G Network in a Month, Will Continue with 4G Only Network Like JIO". 
  14. ^ "2degrees to close down 2G access in March 2018". 2degrees. Retrieved 26 September 2017. 
  15. ^ "2G network to be completely shut by Apr 18" (Press release). Channel Newsasia. 27 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  16. ^ "T-Mobile Netherlands plans GSM shutdown by 2020". 
  17. ^ "Swisscom is equipping its mobile network for the future". Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  18. ^ "Sunrise to shut down GSM network by end-2018". Retrieved 20 June 2017. 
Preceded by
1st Generation (1G)
Mobile Telephony Generations Succeeded by
3rd Generation (3G)

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