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2G - Bourbier
2G - Bourbier
Published: 2018/02/02
Channel: Tidark Production
What is 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G of Cellular Mobile Communications - Wireless Telecommunications
What is 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G of Cellular Mobile Communications - Wireless Telecommunications
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: TELCOMA Training
Ravish Kumar Prime Time , 2G-घोटाले का फैसला , 21 December 2017 , 2G Verdict A Raja , Kanimozi
Ravish Kumar Prime Time , 2G-घोटाले का फैसला , 21 December 2017 , 2G Verdict A Raja , Kanimozi
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: Voice of Dissent
2G BOY$ - โบ้ง Feat. BONGPTON, LIL ICE (Official Music Video)
2G BOY$ - โบ้ง Feat. BONGPTON, LIL ICE (Official Music Video)
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: 2G BOYS
Hype Over, Reality In Our Face, Says Harish Salve On 2G Verdict
Hype Over, Reality In Our Face, Says Harish Salve On 2G Verdict
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: NDTV
2G BOY$ x BARON x HJ - MY LIFE (Audio) [Prod.LIL ICE]
2G BOY$ x BARON x HJ - MY LIFE (Audio) [Prod.LIL ICE]
Published: 2018/02/09
Channel: 2G BOYS
2G Spectrum Scam | India
2G Spectrum Scam | India's Biggest Political Scam Ever | Case Study | Hindi
Published: 2017/11/19
Channel: The Case Study Channel
2G Spectrum Scam: Why The CBI Court Acquitted All Accused
2G Spectrum Scam: Why The CBI Court Acquitted All Accused
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: The Wire
1G 2G 3G 4G | Lets talk about wireless mobile telecommunications technology (In Hindi)
1G 2G 3G 4G | Lets talk about wireless mobile telecommunications technology (In Hindi)
Published: 2016/10/07
Channel: Technical Sagar
Congress leader Kapil Sibal reacts to 2G Case Verdict
Congress leader Kapil Sibal reacts to 2G Case Verdict
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: The Quint
2G BOY$ - My Gang (Official Music Video)
2G BOY$ - My Gang (Official Music Video)
Published: 2017/07/09
Channel: 2G BOYS
DNA: Analysis of  2G spectrum case judgement
DNA: Analysis of 2G spectrum case judgement
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: Zee News
Taal Thok Ke: Is 2G spectrum scam verdict a judiciary system failure ?
Taal Thok Ke: Is 2G spectrum scam verdict a judiciary system failure ?
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: Zee News
What is 2G SCAM case all about? Supreme court verdict, Kanimozhi & A Raja Acquitted -Current Affairs
What is 2G SCAM case all about? Supreme court verdict, Kanimozhi & A Raja Acquitted -Current Affairs
Published: 2017/12/26
Channel: Study IQ education
L
L'héritage de Johnny, un séquoia et 2g sur un transpalette - VERINO #115 // Dis donc internet...
Published: 2018/02/17
Channel: Verino
Jan Gan Man Ki Baat, 168: 2G Spectrum Scam and CAG Report on Ganga Rejuvenation
Jan Gan Man Ki Baat, 168: 2G Spectrum Scam and CAG Report on Ganga Rejuvenation
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: The Wire
Ex-CBI Director On 2G Verdict: Why Did Top Court Accept Our Reports?
Ex-CBI Director On 2G Verdict: Why Did Top Court Accept Our Reports?
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: NDTV
2G - ZÉRO EXCUSE (Prod by Argo)
2G - ZÉRO EXCUSE (Prod by Argo)
Published: 2017/12/26
Channel: ABBASIDE ENT.
All 19 Accused In 2G scam Case Acquitted | 2G Sham | India Development Debate
All 19 Accused In 2G scam Case Acquitted | 2G Sham | India Development Debate
Published: 2017/12/22
Channel: ET NOW
2G - BRUTTO MESTIERE ft. IDOL025
2G - BRUTTO MESTIERE ft. IDOL025
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: 2G
Распаковка iPhone 2G за 500.000р.
Распаковка iPhone 2G за 500.000р.
Published: 2016/12/29
Channel: Wylsacom
2G & Milli - Right Now (In Studio Video)
2G & Milli - Right Now (In Studio Video)
Published: 2015/06/14
Channel: Unkut Records
Ravish Kumar Prime time 21dec17; 2G Scam Verdict | 2G घोटाले में सब बरी
Ravish Kumar Prime time 21dec17; 2G Scam Verdict | 2G घोटाले में सब बरी
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: Ravish Kumar Fan Club
Активируем iPhone 2G и сравниваем с iPhone 7 Plus
Активируем iPhone 2G и сравниваем с iPhone 7 Plus
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: Wylsacom
Aap Leaders Brief Media on 2G  Scam Verdict
Aap Leaders Brief Media on 2G Scam Verdict
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: Aam Aadmi Party
Stick Welding Tips- 7018 2g Plate Test
Stick Welding Tips- 7018 2g Plate Test
Published: 2015/02/17
Channel: weldingtipsandtricks
Christmas Gifts for Netas: 2G Spectrum Scam, Adarsh, Fodder Clean Chits |  Live with Dhruv Rathee
Christmas Gifts for Netas: 2G Spectrum Scam, Adarsh, Fodder Clean Chits | Live with Dhruv Rathee
Published: 2017/12/23
Channel: Dhruv Rathee
Pipe Welding Basics - 2G Schedule 40 Stick Welded - 6010 Root, 7018 Cap
Pipe Welding Basics - 2G Schedule 40 Stick Welded - 6010 Root, 7018 Cap
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: ChuckE2009
🔥 TIG Welding 2G Pipe (with Everlast PowerTIG 200DV)
🔥 TIG Welding 2G Pipe (with Everlast PowerTIG 200DV)
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Weld.com
Debate: Did 2G spectrum scam never take place?
Debate: Did 2G spectrum scam never take place?
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: ABP NEWS
What is 2G Spectrum Scam? | Biggest Scam of All Times | CNN-News18
What is 2G Spectrum Scam? | Biggest Scam of All Times | CNN-News18
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: CNN-News18
#EXCLUSIVE : A. Raja
#EXCLUSIVE : A. Raja's interview on 2G case in 2012 | Thanthi TV
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: Thanthi TV
Prime Time with Ravish Kumar: A 1.76 crore 2G scam that never happened
Prime Time with Ravish Kumar: A 1.76 crore 2G scam that never happened
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: NDTV
2G BOY$ - เธอ ( her ) Feat.FOUTHEND (Official Music Video)
2G BOY$ - เธอ ( her ) Feat.FOUTHEND (Official Music Video)
Published: 2018/01/27
Channel: 2G BOYS
2G - COSE MIE (Prod by Westy)
2G - COSE MIE (Prod by Westy)
Published: 2017/09/28
Channel: ABBASIDE ENT.
Rangaraj Pandey on 2G Case Verdict | Thanthi TV
Rangaraj Pandey on 2G Case Verdict | Thanthi TV
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: Thanthi TV
Definición de 2G, 3G ... ¿ qué es 4G ?
Definición de 2G, 3G ... ¿ qué es 4G ?
Published: 2013/09/17
Channel: stelladoradus
Schannel - Ngược dòng thời gian: iPhone 2G - Smartphone thay đổi cuộc chơi
Schannel - Ngược dòng thời gian: iPhone 2G - Smartphone thay đổi cuộc chơi
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: Schannel
🔥 2G SMAW with Run Off Tabs
🔥 2G SMAW with Run Off Tabs
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: Weld.com
Dede Toruna Karşı: Tarihin İlk iPhone
Dede Toruna Karşı: Tarihin İlk iPhone'u 2G iPhone X'a Karşı! (2017 VS 2007)
Published: 2018/01/15
Channel: webtekno
2G GSM Architecture
2G GSM Architecture
Published: 2010/09/04
Channel: Rohit Trehan
Telecom Minister Kapil Sibal and BJP leader Subramanian react on 2G verdict
Telecom Minister Kapil Sibal and BJP leader Subramanian react on 2G verdict
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: Republic World
2G Verdict: A Scam Out of THIN Air | Did Rai Dent India
2G Verdict: A Scam Out of THIN Air | Did Rai Dent India's Global Image? | Face Off With Zakka Jacob
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: CNN-News18
iPhone X vs iPhone 2G! (2017 vs 2007)
iPhone X vs iPhone 2G! (2017 vs 2007)
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: iPhoneItalia
D.u.d.A - 2G 2Fast ft. Zeeroman (Official Music Video)
D.u.d.A - 2G 2Fast ft. Zeeroman (Official Music Video)
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: DudaDoubleG
2G - MATRIXÉ | RedFilmmaking
2G - MATRIXÉ | RedFilmmaking
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: Red Filmmaking
2G Acquittals: No Scam, Or Inept Probe?
2G Acquittals: No Scam, Or Inept Probe?
Published: 2017/12/21
Channel: NDTV
My Ear Stretching Journey: 14g to 2g!
My Ear Stretching Journey: 14g to 2g!
Published: 2014/08/20
Channel: Ericka Talks
MC 2G - Da Água Pro Vinho (Videoclipe Oficial)
MC 2G - Da Água Pro Vinho (Videoclipe Oficial)
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: LEGENDA FUNK
モンハン2G イベントDL 白光 G級ミラルーツ 火事場大剣ソロ 1/3
モンハン2G イベントDL 白光 G級ミラルーツ 火事場大剣ソロ 1/3
Published: 2010/09/07
Channel: Dai FX
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation cellular technology. Second-generation 2G cellular networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991.[1] Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater wireless penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages. 2G technologies enabled the various networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages, and MMS (multimedia messages). All text messages sent over 2G are digitally encrypted, allowing for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it.

After 2G was launched, the previous mobile wireless network systems were retroactively dubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networks are digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the devices) to the rest of the mobile system.

2G has been superseded by newer technologies such as 2.5G, 2.75G, 3G, and 4G; however, 2G networks are still used in most parts of the world.[citation needed]

With General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), 2G offers a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 50 kbit/s (40 kbit/s in practice).[2][not in citation given] With EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution), there is a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 1 Mbit/s (500 kbit/s in practice).[2][not in citation given]

The most common 2G technology was the time division multiple access (TDMA)-based GSM, originally from Europe but used in most of the world outside North America. Over 60 GSM operators were also using CDMA2000 in the 450 MHz frequency band (CDMA450) by 2010.[3]

Evolution[edit]

2.5G (GPRS)[edit]

2.5G ("second and a half generation"[citation needed]) is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain. It does necessarily provide faster service because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit-switched data services (HSCSD) as well.

2.75G (EDGE)[edit]

GPRS networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding, While the symbol rate remained the same at 270.833 samples per second, each symbol carried three bits instead of one. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003—initially by AT&T in the United States.

Shutdown[edit]

America[edit]

United States[edit]

Various carriers have made announcements that 2G technology in the United States is in the process of being shut down so that carriers can reclaim those radio bands and re-purpose them for newer technologies (e.g. 4G LTE). AT&T's 2G GSM service was shut down in January 2017.[4][5][6] This shutdown had a notable impact on the electronic security industry, where many 2G GSM radios were in use for alarm signal communication to central station dispatch centers. 2G GSM radios were required to be replaced by newer generation radios to avoid service outages.[7] Verizon plans to shut down its 2G CDMA 1X network by 31 December 2019.[8] Whereas, T-Mobile US has postponed shutdown of their 2G network until 2020.[9]

Asia Pacific[edit]

Australia[edit]

Telstra closed their GSM network on 1 December 2016, being the first mobile provider in Australia to switch off 2G.[10]

Optus shut down 2G in Western Australia and Northern Territory on 1 April and completed the shutdown within the rest of Australia on 1 August 2017.[11]

Vodafone plans to decommission its legacy GSM network on 30 April 2018.[12]

India[edit]

Reliance Communications, a group led by Reliance ADAG, decided to shut down its entire 2G network at the end of November 2017. It is the first operator in the country to do so.[13]

New Zealand[edit]

Spark's 2G network (CDMA) was shut down on 31 July 2012. Spark now operates 3G and 4G networks, and was the first mobile provider in New Zealand to switch off 2G.[14] 2degrees plans to shutdown its 2G network in March 2018.[15]

Singapore[edit]

Singtel, M1, and StarHub ceased 2G services on 1 April 2017.[16]

Europe[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

T-Mobile Netherlands will shutdown 2G services by 2020.[17]

Switzerland[edit]

Telecommunications in Switzerland is mainly operated by state-owned Swisscom, and the two privately held Salt and Sunrise Communications AG as these companies have a license to operate 2G. Swisscom will cease 2G services due to its "public service requirements" only by 1 January 2021.[18]

Sunrise Communications AG has announced plans to phase out its GSM network by the end of 2018. GSM, GPRS and EDGE will be ended by the end of 2018 in favour of expanded 4G and 4G+ coverage.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Radiolinja's History". 20 April 2004. Archived from the original on 23 October 2006. Retrieved 23 December 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "Wi-Fi and mobile Internet (3G or 4G)". Proximus. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2017. 
  3. ^ "CDMA Worldwide". Archived from the original on 30 January 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2009. 
  4. ^ Gryta, Thomas (3 August 2012). "AT&T to Leave 2G Behind". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  5. ^ "AT&T 2G Sunset". povertymobile. 2016-01-20. Retrieved 2017-01-11. 
  6. ^ "AT&T's Donovan Says 2G Network in 'Soft Lock', Decommissioning to Begin in Coming Months". FierceWireless.com. Retrieved 2017-01-11. 
  7. ^ "2G Sunset Overview". Telguard. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  8. ^ Danno, Mike. "Verizon to Shut Down 2G CDMA 1X Network by the End of 2019". FierceWireless. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  9. ^ Abent, Eric (Sep 14, 2016). "T-Mobile Takes a Swing at AT&T, Says Its 2G Network Will Stay Active through 2020". SlashGear. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  10. ^ Turner, Adam (4 November 2016). "Budget Mobile Customers Brace for Australia's 2G Shutdown". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  11. ^ "2G Network Closure Update" (Press release). Optus. Retrieved 6 July 2017. 
  12. ^ Chanthadavong, Aimee. "A step-by-step guide to saying goodbye to 2G". Vodafone.com.au. 
  13. ^ "RComm to Shut Down 2G Network in a Month, Will Continue with 4G Only Network Like JIO". 
  14. ^ "Telecom closes CDMA network". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 August 2012. 
  15. ^ "2degrees to close down 2G access in March 2018". 2degrees. Retrieved 26 September 2017. 
  16. ^ "2G network to be completely shut by Apr 18" (Press release). Channel Newsasia. 27 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  17. ^ "T-Mobile Netherlands plans GSM shutdown by 2020". 
  18. ^ "Swisscom is equipping its mobile network for the future". Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  19. ^ "Sunrise to shut down GSM network by end-2018". Retrieved 20 June 2017. 
Preceded by
1st Generation (1G)
Mobile Telephony Generations Succeeded by
3rd Generation (3G)

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