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32-bit vs 64-bit Computers & Phones as Fast As Possible
32-bit vs 64-bit Computers & Phones as Fast As Possible
Published: 2014/09/07
Channel: Techquickie
2D 32-Bit Games - Game Sack
2D 32-Bit Games - Game Sack
Published: 2015/12/20
Channel: Game Sack
What does "32-bit" mean?
What does "32-bit" mean?
Published: 2012/12/06
Channel: Dave Crabbe
[Hindi/Urdu] 32 bit Vs 64 bit Processors: Explained in Detail
[Hindi/Urdu] 32 bit Vs 64 bit Processors: Explained in Detail
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: Technical Guruji
32 Bit vs 64 Bit Processor and Operating System | Which One Do You Need?
32 Bit vs 64 Bit Processor and Operating System | Which One Do You Need?
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: Sohag360 (Bengali)
What Are Bits, and Are They Important? (32-Bit vs 64-Bit)
What Are Bits, and Are They Important? (32-Bit vs 64-Bit)
Published: 2013/01/31
Channel: Computer Clan
Understanding the differences between 8bit, 16bit, 32bit, and 64bit -- Arrow Tech Trivia
Understanding the differences between 8bit, 16bit, 32bit, and 64bit -- Arrow Tech Trivia
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: Arrow Electronics
Homemade 32-bit CPU and OS - Part 1 of 2
Homemade 32-bit CPU and OS - Part 1 of 2
Published: 2015/01/02
Channel: Tom Stanway-Mayers
32-Bit vs 64-Bit - The Advantage
32-Bit vs 64-Bit - The Advantage
Published: 2013/09/17
Channel: Computer Clan
How to Upgrade  32 bit to 64 bit in Windows 7
How to Upgrade 32 bit to 64 bit in Windows 7
Published: 2013/07/29
Channel: Windows and Linux Tutorials from Howtech
32 Bit VS 64 Bit What is The difference?
32 Bit VS 64 Bit What is The difference?
Published: 2015/01/02
Channel: CPU modder
How to Upgrade Windows 10 32-Bit to 64-Bit (Free)
How to Upgrade Windows 10 32-Bit to 64-Bit (Free)
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: MJ Tube
How to upgrade windows 32bit to 64bit (windows 7/8/10)
How to upgrade windows 32bit to 64bit (windows 7/8/10)
Published: 2015/02/27
Channel: Tech Siren
what is a 32 bit processor or 64 bit processor
what is a 32 bit processor or 64 bit processor
Published: 2012/10/22
Channel: Sankar Srivatsa
Maxinfo #10 - Khác biệt giữa CPU 64bit và 32bit?
Maxinfo #10 - Khác biệt giữa CPU 64bit và 32bit?
Published: 2015/07/25
Channel: MaxChannel
How to Upgrade 64 bit From 32 bit in Windows
How to Upgrade 64 bit From 32 bit in Windows
Published: 2016/07/23
Channel: Tech Hindi
Why you should mix down at 32 bit float!
Why you should mix down at 32 bit float!
Published: 2016/01/10
Channel: Gaz Williams
มารู้จักกับ 32bit และ 64 bit
มารู้จักกับ 32bit และ 64 bit
Published: 2015/12/28
Channel: GU ZAP
How-To Remove 32-bit MS Office to Install 64-bit Version
How-To Remove 32-bit MS Office to Install 64-bit Version
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Keith Fox
32 bit vs 64bit Quale è la vera differenza? - PVP
32 bit vs 64bit Quale è la vera differenza? - PVP
Published: 2015/01/30
Channel: Blink46
الشرح 180 : ما هو الفرق بين 32 bit و 64 bit و أيهما أفضل ؟ و كيف أختار المناسب لحاسوبي ؟
الشرح 180 : ما هو الفرق بين 32 bit و 64 bit و أيهما أفضل ؟ و كيف أختار المناسب لحاسوبي ؟
Published: 2014/05/22
Channel: Pro3xplain
32 bit vs 64 bit
32 bit vs 64 bit
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: PowerCert Animated Videos
The Difference Between 32 Bit and 64 Bit Systems (Old Edition - New Video in Description!)
The Difference Between 32 Bit and 64 Bit Systems (Old Edition - New Video in Description!)
Published: 2012/06/20
Channel: Computer Clan
32bit vs 64bit telugu(32 బిట్ vs 64 బిట్ కి తేడా ఏంటి?)
32bit vs 64bit telugu(32 బిట్ vs 64 బిట్ కి తేడా ఏంటి?)
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Prasadtechintelugu
حلقه15/الفرق بين وندوز32و64bit وكيف تختار المناسب لجهازك بالتفصيل Difference Windows 32-bit & 64-bit
حلقه15/الفرق بين وندوز32و64bit وكيف تختار المناسب لجهازك بالتفصيل Difference Windows 32-bit & 64-bit
Published: 2013/11/01
Channel: mrelhlawany1
Windows 7 SP1 Full x86 32-bit x64 64-bit Español Actualizado Noviembre 2017 1 Link Mega MediaFire
Windows 7 SP1 Full x86 32-bit x64 64-bit Español Actualizado Noviembre 2017 1 Link Mega MediaFire
Published: 2016/02/12
Channel: Javier Enrique Sampayo Rodríguez
32 BIT - EPISODE 1 | TempleMonkeysTV
32 BIT - EPISODE 1 | TempleMonkeysTV
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: Temple Monkeys
How to Tell if Your Operating System is 32-Bit or 64-Bit
How to Tell if Your Operating System is 32-Bit or 64-Bit
Published: 2011/12/03
Channel: Youseftube1
32-bit vs 64-bit OS performance
32-bit vs 64-bit OS performance
Published: 2015/07/02
Channel: Sanjeev S
Upgrade windows 32 bit to 64 bit with usb
Upgrade windows 32 bit to 64 bit with usb
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Tech Siren
5 ways to Know if your Running 32 bit or 64 bit Windows
5 ways to Know if your Running 32 bit or 64 bit Windows
Published: 2013/08/04
Channel: Britec09
32 bits vs 64 bits... ¿Cuál es la diferencia? - VTechnoun
32 bits vs 64 bits... ¿Cuál es la diferencia? - VTechnoun
Published: 2015/07/09
Channel: Denis Veprev
How to Get 32 Bit Version of Ubuntu 17.10
How to Get 32 Bit Version of Ubuntu 17.10
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: quidsup
Tahu Perbedaan Windows 32 bit dan 64 bit?
Tahu Perbedaan Windows 32 bit dan 64 bit?
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: JalanTikus
How to Upgrade Windows 10 from 32 bit to 64 bit (For Free)
How to Upgrade Windows 10 from 32 bit to 64 bit (For Free)
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: Computer Garage_org
Windows 32Bit & 64Bit Version Explained  (Hindi)
Windows 32Bit & 64Bit Version Explained (Hindi)
Published: 2016/12/15
Channel: BantuTechTips
32-Bit Light Gun Games - Game Sack
32-Bit Light Gun Games - Game Sack
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: Game Sack
How To Install Windows 10 Pro 32-Bit Or 64-Bit (2016)
How To Install Windows 10 Pro 32-Bit Or 64-Bit (2016)
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: Everything Helpful
32-Bit vs 64-Bit Smartphones and Tablets
32-Bit vs 64-Bit Smartphones and Tablets
Published: 2014/01/14
Channel: Computer Clan
Like going from Windows 7 32-bit to 64 bits you do not need USB and CD
Like going from Windows 7 32-bit to 64 bits you do not need USB and CD
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: Videostube
Processadores 32-bit vs 64 bit: qual a diferença?
Processadores 32-bit vs 64 bit: qual a diferença?
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: EscolhaSegura
Megaman 9 and 10 in 32-bit (Galaxy Man and Sheep Man Boss Battles)
Megaman 9 and 10 in 32-bit (Galaxy Man and Sheep Man Boss Battles)
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: ultimatemaverickx
32 Bit Calculator in Minecraft
32 Bit Calculator in Minecraft
Published: 2014/02/10
Channel: Kirk Hendrix
DIFERENCIA entre 32 Y 64 BITS | Hardware Para Novatos
DIFERENCIA entre 32 Y 64 BITS | Hardware Para Novatos
Published: 2016/05/22
Channel: THE SEGA RED
Is My Windows 10 Version 32-bit or 64-bit?
Is My Windows 10 Version 32-bit or 64-bit?
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: HP Printer Support
How to Run or Install 32- bit software or programme in windows 7 64- bit
How to Run or Install 32- bit software or programme in windows 7 64- bit
Published: 2016/10/22
Channel: Mahmud Murshed
How to install Java JDK 8 in Windows 7 32 bit
How to install Java JDK 8 in Windows 7 32 bit
Published: 2016/04/13
Channel: Girish K
Tutorial Cara Flashing Xiaomi Redmi 3s di Windows 32 bit 100% Sukses
Tutorial Cara Flashing Xiaomi Redmi 3s di Windows 32 bit 100% Sukses
Published: 2016/12/08
Channel: Asry HYm
PAINTING WITH LIGHT IN 32-BIT - BoroSchool
PAINTING WITH LIGHT IN 32-BIT - BoroSchool
Published: 2016/05/09
Channel: BORODANTE
絶対に押さえておきたい「32bit float」の基礎知識(Sleepfreaks DTMスクール)
絶対に押さえておきたい「32bit float」の基礎知識(Sleepfreaks DTMスクール)
Published: 2016/03/28
Channel: SLEEP FREAKS
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Bit
1 2 4 8 12 16 18 24 26 31 32 36 48 60 64 128 256 512
Application
8 16 32 64
Binary floating point precision
16 32 40 64 80 128 256
×½ ×1 ×2 ×4 ×8
Decimal floating point precision
32 64 128

In computer architecture, 32-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 32 bits (4 octets) wide. Also, 32-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.

Range for storing integers[edit]

A 32-bit register can store 232 different values. The range of integer values that can be stored in 32 bits depends on the integer representation used. With the two most common representations, the range is 0 through 4,294,967,295 (232 − 1) for representation as an (unsigned) binary number, and −2,147,483,648 (−231) through 2,147,483,647 (231 − 1) for representation as two's complement.

One important consequence is that a processor with 32-bit memory addresses can directly access at most 4 GiB of byte-addressable memory (though in practice the limit may be lower).

Technical history[edit]

Memory, as well as other digital circuits and wiring, was expensive during the first decades of 32-bit architectures (the 1960s to the 1980s).[1] Older 32-bit processor families (or simpler, cheaper variants thereof) could therefore have many compromises and limitations in order to cut costs. This could be a 16-bit ALU, for instance, or external (or internal) buses narrower than 32 bits, limiting memory size or demanding more cycles for instruction fetch, execution or write back.

Despite this, such processors could be labeled "32-bit," since they still had 32-bit registers and instructions able to manipulate 32-bit quantities. For example, the original Motorola 68000 had a 16-bit data ALU and a 16-bit external data bus, but had 32-bit registers and a 32-bit based instruction set. Such designs were sometimes referred to as "16/32-bit".[2]

However, the opposite is often true for newer 32-bit designs. For example, the Pentium Pro processor is a 32-bit machine, with 32-bit registers and instructions that manipulate 32-bit quantities, but the external address bus is 36 bits wide, giving a larger address space than 4 GB, and the external data bus is 64 bits wide, primarily in order to permit a more efficient prefetch of instructions and data.[3]

Architectures[edit]

Prominent 32-bit instruction set architectures used in general-purpose computing include the IBM System/360 and IBM System/370 (which had 24-bit addressing) and the System/370-XA, ESA/370, and ESA/390 (which had 31-bit addressing), the DEC VAX, the NS320xx, the Motorola 68000 family (the first two models of which had 24-bit addressing), the Intel IA-32 32-bit version of the x86 architecture, and the 32-bit versions of the ARM,[4] SPARC, MIPS, PowerPC and PA-RISC architectures. 32-bit instruction set architectures used for embedded computing include the 68000 family and ColdFire, x86, ARM, MIPS, PowerPC, and Infineon TriCore architectures.

Applications[edit]

On the x86 architecture, a 32-bit application normally means software that typically (not necessarily) uses the 32-bit linear address space (or flat memory model) possible with the 80386 and later chips. In this context, the term came about because DOS, Microsoft Windows and OS/2[5] were originally written for the 8088/8086 or 80286, 16-bit microprocessors with a segmented address space where programs had to switch between segments to reach more than 64 kilobytes of code or data. As this is quite time-consuming in comparison to other machine operations, the performance may suffer. Furthermore, programming with segments tend to become complicated; special far and near keywords or memory models had to be used (with care), not only in assembly language but also in high level languages such as Pascal, compiled BASIC, Fortran, C, etc.

The 80386 and its successors fully support the 16-bit segments of the 80286 but also segments for 32-bit address offsets (using the new 32-bit width of the main registers). If the base address of all 32-bit segments is set to 0, and segment registers are not used explicitly, the segmentation can be forgotten and the processor appears as having a simple linear 32-bit address space. Operating systems like Windows or OS/2 provide the possibility to run 16-bit (segmented) programs as well as 32-bit programs. The former possibility exists for backward compatibility and the latter is usually meant to be used for new software development.

Images[edit]

A 32-bit floating point image of Nahal Amud In Israel. The format allows for modification of exposure and gamma for high dynamic range results.

In digital images/pictures, 32-bit usually refers to RGBA color space; that is, 24-bit truecolor images with an additional 8-bit alpha channel. Other image formats also specify 32 bits per pixel, such as RGBE.

In digital images, 32-bit sometimes refers to high-dynamic-range imaging (HDR) formats that use 32 bits per channel, a total of 96 bits per pixel. 32-bit-per-channel images are used to represent values brighter than what sRGB color space allows (brighter than white); these values can then be used to more accurately retain bright highlights when either lowering the exposure of the image or when it is seen through a dark filter or dull reflection.

For example, a reflection in an oil slick is only a fraction of that seen in a mirror surface. HDR imagery allows for the reflection of highlights that can still be seen as bright white areas, instead of dull grey shapes.

File formats[edit]

A 32-bit file format is a binary file format for which each elementary information is defined on 32 bits (or 4 bytes). An example of such a format is the Enhanced Metafile Format.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Patterson, David; Ditzel, David (2000). Readings in Computer Architecture. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 136. ISBN 9781558605398. 
  2. ^ "68000 users manual" (PDF). 
  3. ^ Gwennap, Linley (16 February 1995). "Intel’s P6 Uses Decoupled Superscalar Design" (PDF). Microprocessor Report. Retrieved 3 December 2012. 
  4. ^ "ARM architecture overview" (PDF). 
  5. ^ There were also variants of UNIX for the 80286.

External links[edit]

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