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Beyoncé - Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It)
Beyoncé - Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It)
Published: 2009/10/03
Channel: beyonceVEVO
Hailee Steinfeld - Love Myself
Hailee Steinfeld - Love Myself
Published: 2015/08/14
Channel: HaileeSteinfeldVEVO
Lil
Lil' Wayne - I'm Single [Music Video]
Published: 2010/04/18
Channel: Seranio Carter
Taylor Swift - Look What You Made Me Do
Taylor Swift - Look What You Made Me Do
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: TaylorSwiftVEVO
Sam Hunt - Single For The Summer
Sam Hunt - Single For The Summer
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: SamHuntVEVO
The Chainsmokers New Song - PARIS ( LYRICS VIDEO ) New Single Music 2017
The Chainsmokers New Song - PARIS ( LYRICS VIDEO ) New Single Music 2017
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: Favorites Song
Ne-Yo - Single (Music Video)
Ne-Yo - Single (Music Video)
Published: 2008/09/11
Channel: dangerousclever
Kesha - Praying (Official Video)
Kesha - Praying (Official Video)
Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: keshaVEVO
Adele - Hello
Adele - Hello
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: AdeleVEVO
Miley Cyrus - Malibu (Official Video)
Miley Cyrus - Malibu (Official Video)
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: MileyCyrusVEVO
P!nk - What About Us (Official Video)
P!nk - What About Us (Official Video)
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: PinkVEVO
Kendrick Lamar - HUMBLE.
Kendrick Lamar - HUMBLE.
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: KendrickLamarVEVO
Miley Cyrus - Younger Now (Official Video)
Miley Cyrus - Younger Now (Official Video)
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: MileyCyrusVEVO
Talking To Myself (Official Video) - Linkin Park
Talking To Myself (Official Video) - Linkin Park
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: Linkin Park
Fifth Harmony - Down ft. Gucci Mane
Fifth Harmony - Down ft. Gucci Mane
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: FifthHarmonyVEVO
Raheem DeVaughn - "She
Raheem DeVaughn - "She's Single" Music Video
Published: 2010/12/02
Channel: The Urban Twist
Coldplay - Everglow (Single Version) - Official Video
Coldplay - Everglow (Single Version) - Official Video
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: Coldplay Official
Heavy (Official Video) - Linkin Park (feat. Kiiara)
Heavy (Official Video) - Linkin Park (feat. Kiiara)
Published: 2017/03/09
Channel: Linkin Park
Orlando Octave - Single "2017 Soca"
Orlando Octave - Single "2017 Soca"
Published: 2016/10/11
Channel: JulianspromosTV | 2018 Music
Sam Smith - Too Good At Goodbyes (Official Video)
Sam Smith - Too Good At Goodbyes (Official Video)
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: SamSmithWorldVEVO
teddy afro new single music
teddy afro new single music
Published: 2011/04/27
Channel: 99pitter
PAYITBLACC - PHILIPPINA  (SINGLE MUSIC VIDEO)
PAYITBLACC - PHILIPPINA (SINGLE MUSIC VIDEO)
Published: 2017/09/22
Channel: payitblacc
How To Be Single - Music Scene
How To Be Single - Music Scene
Published: 2016/09/01
Channel: A. Seaty
The Killers - The Man
The Killers - The Man
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: TheKillersVEVO
Ein Mat  - Chan Chan (2016 Chan Chan Single Music Video)
Ein Mat - Chan Chan (2016 Chan Chan Single Music Video)
Published: 2016/01/14
Channel: Myanmar Music Lover
UK Top 40 Single Music JUNE 2016 - BBC
UK Top 40 Single Music JUNE 2016 - BBC
Published: 2016/06/05
Channel: Top 40
New Kids On The Block, Ne-Yo - Single
New Kids On The Block, Ne-Yo - Single
Published: 2009/12/14
Channel: NewKidsVEVO
Teddy Afro NEW Single music lyrics the most powerful video
Teddy Afro NEW Single music lyrics the most powerful video
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: Ethiopia In My Heart
Gete Anley - Yekey Tikur Teyem [NEW! Single Music 2016]
Gete Anley - Yekey Tikur Teyem [NEW! Single Music 2016]
Published: 2016/03/07
Channel: DireTube Ethiopia
New Kids On The Block & Ne-Yo - Making of SINGLE Music Video
New Kids On The Block & Ne-Yo - Making of SINGLE Music Video
Published: 2008/09/02
Channel: koya106
【ラブライブ!】μ
【ラブライブ!】μ's 6th single「Music S.T.A.R.T!!」試聴動画
Published: 2013/10/13
Channel: Lantis Channel
"Camino del Sol" - Mamihlapinatapai (Official Single Music Video)
"Camino del Sol" - Mamihlapinatapai (Official Single Music Video)
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: Mamihlapinatapai Music
Chan Chan - Phae See Lite Mal (2016 Chan Chan Single Music Video Album)
Chan Chan - Phae See Lite Mal (2016 Chan Chan Single Music Video Album)
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: Myanmar Music Lover
Coheleth Singers- SIKIA MBIU (New Brand Single Music Audio)
Coheleth Singers- SIKIA MBIU (New Brand Single Music Audio)
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: injilileoTV
Black Oxygen - David Lyle GRAMMYs! NEW Single/Music Video "A Step Away" releasing 4.1.17!
Black Oxygen - David Lyle GRAMMYs! NEW Single/Music Video "A Step Away" releasing 4.1.17!
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: blackoxygenmusic
AfterAlice 99 Gold New Single Music Video
AfterAlice 99 Gold New Single Music Video
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: After Alice
Mario Joy- I like the way (official single music)
Mario Joy- I like the way (official single music)
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: Arslan Budag
Ragsy - Silver Screen Dream (Official Single Music Video)
Ragsy - Silver Screen Dream (Official Single Music Video)
Published: 2014/02/09
Channel: Gary Ryland
Melinda - Disaat Aku Mencintaimu (New Single Music 2013)
Melinda - Disaat Aku Mencintaimu (New Single Music 2013)
Published: 2013/10/17
Channel: Asep Sunanda Zain
Tere bin by rahul prasad ( single music album) Romantic song
Tere bin by rahul prasad ( single music album) Romantic song
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: Rahul Prasad
Louis Tomlinson - Back to You (Official Video) ft. Bebe Rexha, Digital Farm Animals
Louis Tomlinson - Back to You (Official Video) ft. Bebe Rexha, Digital Farm Animals
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: LouisTomlinsonVEVO
Eevee Ang Sarap Maging Single Official Music Video
Eevee Ang Sarap Maging Single Official Music Video
Published: 2011/12/23
Channel: MusikoInc
Instrumental Guitarist Rob Tardik - Smile (the single) Music Video @RobTardik #RobTardik
Instrumental Guitarist Rob Tardik - Smile (the single) Music Video @RobTardik #RobTardik
Published: 2012/07/09
Channel: Rob Tardik
strange ranger new single music video!!!
strange ranger new single music video!!!
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: Johnny Utah
Black Oxygen - NEW Single/Music Video "On That Vibe" ft. Navé Monjo 300 ENT 6.1.17!
Black Oxygen - NEW Single/Music Video "On That Vibe" ft. Navé Monjo 300 ENT 6.1.17!
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: blackoxygenmusic
ቴዲ አፍሮ እና የቄራው መዘጋት -Teddy Single Music April 2017 - DW
ቴዲ አፍሮ እና የቄራው መዘጋት -Teddy Single Music April 2017 - DW
Published: 2017/04/22
Channel: NileTube
Black Oxygen - David Lyle & Chantel Zales announce NEW Single/Music Video "A Step Away" 4.1.17.!
Black Oxygen - David Lyle & Chantel Zales announce NEW Single/Music Video "A Step Away" 4.1.17.!
Published: 2017/03/05
Channel: blackoxygenmusic
Harry Styles - Sign of the Times
Harry Styles - Sign of the Times
Published: 2017/05/08
Channel: HarryStylesVEVO
Ruben Studdard Talks Being Single, Music Stemming from Divorce + New Song "Can
Ruben Studdard Talks Being Single, Music Stemming from Divorce + New Song "Can't Nobody Love You"
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: wblsfm1075
"Rod- Bristi" single music video- promo
"Rod- Bristi" single music video- promo
Published: 2017/08/27
Channel: Sudipta Samanta
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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45 rpm single on a turntable, waiting to be played

In music, a single, record single or music single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record, an album or an EP record. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album.

As digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to also be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more heavily promoted or more popular song (or group of songs) within an album collection.

Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks on them. The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify.[1] Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play (EP) or, if over six tracks long, an album.

Early history[edit]

The basic specifications of the music single were set[vague] in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured with a range of playback speeds (from 16 rpm to 78 rpm) and in several sizes (including 12-inch/30 cm). By about 1910, however, the 10-inch (25 cm), 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most commonly used format.

The inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The relatively crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, and a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity. 78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm.

With these factors applied to the 10-inch format, songwriters and performers increasingly tailored their output to fit the new medium. The 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, and separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, and that radio stations play the song in its entirety.[2]

Types[edit]

45 rpm single record with large central hole as used in the USA for jukeboxes

Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch (18 cm), 10-inch (25 cm), and 12-inch (30 cm) vinyl discs (usually playing at 45 rpm); 10-inch (25-cm) shellac discs (playing at 78 rpm); cassette, 8 and 12 cm (3- and 5-inch) CD singles and 7-inch (18 cm) plastic flexi discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on digital compact cassette, DVD, and LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc (5-inch/12 cm, 8-inch/20 cm, etc.). Some artist release singles on records, a trend more common in musical subcultures.[3]

7-inch format[edit]

The most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, and the standard diameter, 7 inches (18 cm).

The 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.[4] The first 45 rpm records were monaural, with recordings on both sides of the disc. As stereo recordings became popular in the 1960s, almost all 45 rpm records were produced in stereo by the early 1970s. Columbia, which had released the 33 ⅓ rpm 12-inch vinyl LP in June 1948, also released 33 ⅓ rpm 7-inch vinyl singles in March 1949, but they were soon eclipsed by the RCA Victor 45. The first 45 rpm record created was "PeeWee the Piccolo" RCA Victor 47-0146 pressed 7 December 1948 at the Sherman Avenue plant in Indianapolis, R.O. Price, plant manager.[5] The first release of the 45 came in seven translucent colors, one for each type of music: dark blue 52-xxxx light classics series, light blue 51-xxxx international series, yellow 47-xxxx juvenile series, bright red (cerise) 50-xxxx blues/spiritual series, deep red 49-xxxx classical series, green (teal) 48-xxxx country series, and black 47 -xxxx popular series.[6]

12-inch format[edit]

Although 7 inches remained the standard size for vinyl singles, 12-inch singles were introduced for use by DJs in discos in the 1970s. The longer playing time of these singles allowed the inclusion of extended dance mixes of tracks. In addition, the larger surface area of the 12-inch discs allowed for wider grooves (larger amplitude) and greater separation between grooves, the latter of which results in less cross-talk. Consequently, they "wore" better, and were less susceptible to scratches. The 12-inch single is still considered a standard format for dance music, though its popularity has declined in recent years.

Video single[edit]

A video single (also videotape single or VHS single) is a music single in the form of a videotape (mostly VHS, but occasionally Betamax, and/or Video 8) or Laserdisc. In 1983 British Synthpop band The Human League released the first commercial Video Single called "The Human League Video Single"[7] on both VHS and Betamax. It was not a huge commercial success due to the high retail price of £10.99, compared to around £1.99 for a 7" vinyl single.

Radio-only single[edit]

Physical single continued declining in the United States, and many record companies stopped releasing physical singles altogether to concentrate more on album sales. Since its establishment of Billboard Hot 100, singles were not eligible to enter the chart unless they were available to purchase as a physical single. By the late 1990s, several popular mainstream hits never charted on the Hot 100. No Doubt's 1996 hit "Don't Speak" spent 16 weeks at number one on the Hot 100 Airplay chart, but it never charted on the Billboard Hot 100. As a result, on December 5, 1998, Billboard changed the rule to allow airplay-only songs onto the chart. Aaliyah's "Try Again" (2000) was the first single ever to reach number one on the Billboard Hot 100 based solely on radio airplay.[8]

Digital single[edit]

The internet era introduced music download and streaming as a release format of a single. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store (then called iTunes Music Store) in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod.

Culture[edit]

The sales of singles are recorded in record charts in most countries in a Top 40 format. These charts are often published in magazines and numerous television shows and radio programs count down the list. In order to be eligible for inclusion in the charts the single must meet the requirements set by the charting company, usually governing the number of songs and the total playing time of the single.

The single of "Put a Little Love in Your Heart" was a hit record for Jackie DeShannon in 1968. It was certified Gold in the United States when it sold more than 1,000,000 copies.

In popular music, the commercial and artistic importance of the single (as compared to the EP or album) has varied over time, technological development, and according to the audience of particular artists and genres. Singles have generally been more important to artists who sell to the youngest purchasers of music (younger teenagers and pre-teens), who tend to have more limited financial resources. Perhaps the golden age of the single was on 45s in the 1950s to early 1960s in the early years of rock music.[4] Starting in the mid-sixties, albums became a greater focus and more important as artists created albums of uniformly high quality and coherent themes, a trend which reached its apex in the development of the concept album. Over the 1990s and early 2000s, the single generally received less and less attention in the United States as albums, which on compact disc had virtually identical production and distribution costs but could be sold at a higher price, became most retailers' primary method of selling music. Singles continued to be produced in the UK and Australia, surviving the transition from compact disc to digital download.

The discontinuation of the single has been cited as a major marketing mistake by the record companies considering it eliminated an inexpensive recording format for young fans to use to become accustomed to purchasing music. In its place was the predominance of the album which alienated customers by the expense of purchasing an expensive format for only one or two songs of interest. This in turn encouraged interest in file sharing software on the internet like Napster for single recordings initially which began to seriously undercut the music recording market.[9]

Dance music, however, has followed a different commercial pattern, and the single, especially the 12-inch vinyl single, remains a major method by which dance music is distributed.

Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.[10] As a result, downloads were gradually introduced into the UK Singles Chart from April 2005 to January 2007. Sales gradually improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 and that further being overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011.[11] Portable audio players, which make it extremely easy to load and play songs from many different artists, are claimed to be a major factor behind this trend.

A related development has been the popularity of mobile phone ringtones based on pop singles (on some modern phones, the actual single can be used as a ringtone). In September 2007, Sony BMG announced they would introduce a new type of CD single, called "ringles", for the 2007 holiday season. The format included three songs by an artist, plus a ringtone accessible from the user's computer. Sony announced plans to release 50 ringles in October and November, while Universal Music Group expected to release somewhere between 10 and 20 titles.[12]

In a reversal of this trend, a single has been released based on a ringtone itself. The Crazy Frog ringtone, which was a cult hit in Europe in 2004, was released as a mashup with "Axel F" in June 2005 amid a massive publicity campaign and subsequently hit #1 on the UK charts.

The term "single" is sometimes regarded as a misnomer since one record usually has 2 songs on it, when considering the "A" and "B" sides. In 1982, CBS marketed one-sided singles at a lower price than two-sided singles.[13]

On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing physical CD singles. Selling on downloads alone Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 in April 2006. It was released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads (including unbundled album tracks[14][15]) became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Single and EP Definitions on iTunes - EmuBands". 22 April 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2016. 
  2. ^ Greil Marcus, 2005, Like a Rolling Stone, p. 145.
  3. ^ "Songs on records". wiseGEEK. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Britt, Bruce (10 August 1989). "The 45-rpm single will soon be history". Spokesman-Review. (Los Angeles Daily News). p. C4. 
  5. ^ Indiana State Museum document no. 71.2010.098.0001
  6. ^ The Fabulous Victrola 45 Phil Vourtsis
  7. ^ Virgin Records 1983
  8. ^ Ramirez, Erika (August 25, 2011). "Aaliyah's Top 10 Billboard Hits". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved August 25, 2011. 
  9. ^ Knopper, Steve (2009). Appetite for Self-Destruction: The Spectacular Crash of the Record Industry. Simon and Schuster. pp. 105–7. 
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ Christman, Ed (2007-09-09). "Music industry betting on 'ringle' format". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  13. ^ 99 CENTS. Billboard. 15 May 1982. 
  14. ^ "OCC test charts reveal likely effects of rule changes". Music Week. 2006-12-11. Archived from the original on 2011-08-18. Retrieved 2010-02-18. 
  15. ^ "Download Official UK Single Chart Rules - PDF". The Official Chart Company. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-18. 
  16. ^ "The Official UK Charts Company : Info pack from The Official UK Charts Company". Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-18. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • The 45 Adaptor — A short article looking at the history of the 45 rpm single spindle adaptor.

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