Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 7th century.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 7th century.
7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. The Muslim conquests began with the unification of Arabia by Muhammad starting in 622. After Muhammad's death in 632, Islam expanded beyond the Arabian Peninsula under the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) and the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750). The Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century led to the downfall of the Sassanid Empire. Also conquered during the 7th century were Syria, Palestine, Armenia, Egypt, and North Africa.
Byzantine Empire continued suffering setbacks during the rapid expansion of the Arab Empire.
Iberian Peninsula, the 7th century was the Siglo de Concilios, that is, century of councils, referring to the Councils of Toledo.
Harsha united Northern India, which had reverted to small republics and states after the fall of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century.
China, the Sui dynasty was replaced by the Tang dynasty, which set up its military bases from Korea to Central Asia, and was next to the Arabian later. China began to reach its height. Silla allied itself with the Tang Dynasty, subjugating Baekje and defeating Goguryeo to unite the Korean Peninsula under one ruler. The Asuka period persisted in Japan throughout the 7th century.
Pages of a late 7th century Quran
Silk cloth with four horsemen hunting lions, 7th century.
Islam begins in Arabia, the Quran is documented. The first known Croatian archon
Porga establishes Duchy of Croatia. The
world's population shrinks to about 208 million people.  The
Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy emerges at the beginning of this century or the last in England. 
Sutton Hoo ship burial, East Anglia (modern England).
Xuanzang traveled from China to India, before returning to Chang'an in China to translate Buddhist scriptures.
Timgad, Algeria, is destroyed by Berbers. End of sporadic Buddhist rule in the
Croats enter their present territory early in the 7th century, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations.
Teotihuacan is sacked. The political and religious buildings are burned. The religion of
Shugendo evolves from Buddhism, Taoism, Shinto and other influences in the mountains of Japan. The
Bulgars arrive in the Balkans; establishment of the powerful Bulgarian Empire.
Arab traders penetrate the area of Lake Chad. Earliest attested
English poetry. Side panels,
Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe, are made. Main compound,
Horyu-ji, Nara Prefecture, is built. Asuka period. 7th and 9th century – Mosaics above apse,
Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe, are made.
600: Smallpox spreads from India into Europe.
602: The Third Chinese domination of Vietnam starts following the collapse of the Early Lý dynasty.
603: Last mention of the Roman Senate in Gregorian Register. It mentions that the senate acclaimed the statues of emperor Phocas and empress Leontia. 
606: Boniface elected papal successor on the death of Pope Sabinian. He sought and obtained a decree from Byzantine Emperor Phocas which stated that "the See of Blessed Peter the Apostle should be the head of all the Churches". This ensured that the title of "Universal Bishop" belonged exclusively to the Bishop of Rome.
607: Hōryū-ji temple believed to have been completed by 607 in Ikaruga, Japan.
610: Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows East Roman Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. His first major act is to change the official language of the East Roman Empire from Latin to Greek (already the language of the vast majority of the population).
615: The Sassanid Empire under Shah Khosrau II sacks Jerusalem, taking away the relic of the True cross. 
615: Pacal the Great becomes king of the Mayan city-state of Palenque
616: Shah Chosroes II invades Egypt. 
616: Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeats the Welsh in a battle at Chester in England.
618: Tang Dynasty of China initiated by Li Yuan.
618: The Chenla kingdom completely absorbed Funan.
Guangzhou, China, becomes a major international seaport, hosting maritime travelers from Egypt, East Africa, Arabia, Persia, India, Sri Lanka, and South East Asia, including Muslims, Jews, Hindus, and Nestorian Christians.
622: Year one of the Islamic calendar begins, during which the Hijra occurs—Muhammad and his followers emigrate from Mecca to Medina in September.
623: The Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting their Avar rulers, becomes the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe.
626: The Avars and the Persians jointly besiege but fail to capture Constantinople.
627: Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians, ending the Roman-Persian Wars.
629: The Byzantine-Arab Wars begin. Much of the Roman Empire is conquered by Muslim Arabs led by Khalid ibn al-Walid.
629– 630: Emperor Taizong's campaign against Eastern Tujue, Chinese Tang Dynasty forces under commanders Li Jing and Li Shiji destroy the Göktürk Khanate.
632: The Muslim conquests begin.
635- 649: Alopen, a Persian Christian priest introduces Nestorian Christianity into China.
636: Around this time the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah resulted in a decisive victory for Muslims in the Islamic conquest of Persia, the Persian Empire is conquered by Muslim Arabs led by Sad Ibn Abi Waqqas.
638: Emperor Taizong (627-649) issues an edict of universal toleration of religions; Nestorian Christians build a church in Chang'an.
638: Muslim conquest of Palestine.
639: Muslim conquest of Egypt and Armenia.
639: Unsuccessful revolt of Ashina Jiesheshuai of the Turkic people against Tang China.
641: The Coptic period, in its more specific definition, ends when Islam is introduced into Egypt.
642: Library of Alexandria destroyed again.
649- 683: Chinese Emperor Gaozong permits establishment of Christian monasteries in each of 358 prefectures.
650: The Khazar-Arab Wars begin.
Mid-7th century – Durga Mahishasura-mardini (Durga as Slayer of the Buffalo Demon), rock-cut relief,
Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu, India, is made. Pallava period. It is now kept at Asian Art Archives, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Mid-7th century - Portrait of Lord Pacal, from his tomb,
Temple of the Inscriptions, Palenque, Mexico, is made. Maya culture. It is now kept at Museo Nacional de Antropologia, Mexico City. c. mid-7th century – Dharmaraja Ratha,
Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu, India, is built. Pallava period.
651: Emperor Yazdgerd III is murdered in Merv, ending the rule of Sassanid dynasty in Persia ( Iran).
656– 661: The First Islamic civil war.
657: The Chinese Tang Dynasty under Emperor Gaozong of Tang defeats Western Turkic Kaganate.
658: Two Chinese monks, Zhi Yu and Zhi You, reconstruct the 3rd century south-pointing chariot mechanical compass-vehicle for Emperor Tenji of Japan.
661: Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib is assassinated. His successor Hasan ibn Ali abdicated the Caliphate to Muawiyah I, marking the beginning of the Umayyad caliphate. 
663: The Tang Dynasty of China and Korean Silla Kingdom gain victory against the Korean Baekje Kingdom and their Yamato Japanese allies in the naval Battle of Baekgang.
664: Conquest of Kabul by Muslims.
664: A Tang dynasty Chinese source written by I-tsing, mentioned about Holing ( Kalingga) kingdom, located somewhere in the northern coast of Central Java. 
668: The end of the Goguryeo-Tang Wars, as Goguryeo fell to a joint attack by Tang China and Unified Silla of Korea, the latter of which held the former Goguryeo domains.
670: In 670 an Arab Muslim army under Uqba ibn Nafi entered the region of Ifriqiya. In the late 670s conquest of North Africa was completed.
671: I-tsing visited Srivijaya and Malayu in Sumatra and Kedah in Malay peninsula on his way to Nalanda, India. 
674: The first Arab siege of Constantinople begins.
677: Most of the Arab fleet is destroyed by Greek fire; the Persian crown prince flees to the T'ang court.
680: Decisive victory of the Bulgars over the Byzantines in the Battle of Ongal.
680: Battle of Karbala took place near Kufa, which resulted in the death of Husayn ibn Ali and the division of Muslim community.
681: Bulgaria is recognized as independent country by the Byzantine Empire.
682: Revival of the Turkic Khaganate by the efforts of Ilterish Qaghan and Tonyukuk
683: Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa performed Siddhayatra as the journey to expand his influence. The event mentioned in several inscriptions such as Telaga Batu inscription, Talang Tuwo inscription and Kedukan Bukit Inscription. The beginning of Srivijaya hegemony over the maritime region around Malacca strait and Sunda Strait. 
683– 685: The Second Islamic civil war.
686: Srivijaya launch a naval invasion of Java, which is mentioned in Kota Kapur Inscription. This likely contributed to the end of Tarumanagara kingdom. 
687: I-tsing returned to Srivijaya in on his way back from India to China. In his record he reported that the Kingdom of Malayu was captured by Srivijaya. 
688: Emperor Justinian II of the Byzantine Empire defeats the Bulgarians.
690: Pro-Buddhist imperial consort Wu Zetian seizes power and rules as Empress of China
691: Buddhism is made the state religion of China
694: Hispano- Visigothic king Egica accuses the Jews of aiding the Muslims, and sentences all Jews to slavery.
698: The Arabs capture Carthage from the Byzantine Empire.
698: Active but unofficial anti-Christian persecution begins in China
698: North South States Period begins in Korea.
700: The Mount Edziza volcanic complex erupts in northern British Columbia, Canada.
700: The Sumatra-based Srivijaya naval kingdom flourishes and declines. (to 1500) 
700: Wet-field rice cultivation, small towns and kingdoms flourish. Trade links are established with China and India. 
700: The Sojomerto inscription, possibly dated around late 7th century, is discovered in Batang, Central Java. It mentions Dapunta Selendra, possibly the ancestor of Sailendra dynasty. The inscription was written in Old Malay, suggesting a Srivijayan link to this family. 
Significant people [ edit ]
Abu Bakr, first caliph of Islam
Ælfflæd of Whitby
Aethelbert, King of Kent
Æthelburg of Faremoutiers
Æthelburg of Kent
Ali ibn Abi Talib ( 600– 661), cousin of Muhammad, fourth caliph of Islam, first Shi'a Imam
Anna of East Anglia
Antara Ibn Shaddad, Arab poet The
Unknown Archont led the Serbs to the Balkans from the north
Asparuh— Khan of the Bulgars and founder of contemporary Bulgaria
Augustine Eriugena, Irish scientist
Benjamin I, Coptic patriarch of Alexandria during the Islamic Conquest of Egypt
Bertha of Kent
Brahmagupta, Indian mathematician
Cædmon, English poet
Cenn Fáelad mac Aillila, Irish scholar, died 679
Chan Imix K'awiil (628–695) 12th Ajaw of Copan
Dae Jo-yeong, founder of Korean Balhae
Emperor Gaozong of Tang (r. 649- 683), China
Gregory the Great, ( 540– 604), Theologian, Pope, Civil Administrator of Rome
Heraclius—Warrior Emperor of Byzantium who won numerous victories against the Sassanids (Persians)
Hilda of Whitby, (c. 614–680)
Huineng, (638-713) sixth and last Patriarch of Chán Buddhism
Ilterish Qaghan founder of the second Turkic Khaganate
Isaac of Nineveh (d 700) Nestorian Christian theologian
Khalid ibn al-Walid ( 592– 642), Muslim Arab military commander who defeated the Roman and Persian empires in over eighty battles
Kumarila Bhatta, philosopher and Vedic exegete.
Li Jing, Chinese general who conquered the Eastern Turkic Khaganate and defeated the Tuyuhun Kingdom
Li Shiji, Chinese general and later prime minister
Muhammad ( 570– 632), final prophet in Islamic religion
Narasimhavarman, Pallava Dynasty, Tamil Nadu
Pacal the Great, ruler of Maya state of Palenque
Pulakeshin II, fourth ruler of the Chalukya Dynasty in India
Rædwald of East Anglia
Sambandar, Saiva poet-saint of Tamil Nadu
Seaxburh of Ely
Sigeberht of East Anglia
Su Dingfang, a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who succeeded in destroying the Western Turkic Khaganate
Emperor Taizong of Tang ( 599– 649), China
Tirunavukkarasar, Indian poet (late 6th century-mid-7th century)
Tong Yabgu, leader of the Western Turks and the probable founder of the Khazar Khaganate
Umar, second caliph of Islam
Uthman, third caliph of Islam
Wu Zetian, the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Empress Regnant (Huangdi)
Yeon Gaesomun, Generalissimo of Korean Goguryeo
Inventions, discoveries, introductions [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ The good and bad of a population drop
^ a b c d e Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.
^ Jeffrey Richards. The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages, 476–752
^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1988) . Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2 , 2nd ed. (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 37.
^ Junjiro Takakusu, (1896), A record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago AD 671–695, by I-tsing, Oxford, London.
^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.38
^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.39
^ Buddhist Monks Pilgrimage of Tang Dynasty
^ Taylor (2003), pp. 22–26; Ricklefs (1991), p. 3.
^ Taylor (2003), pp. 8–9, 15–18
^ Boechari (1966). "Preliminary report on the discovery of an Old Malay inscription at Sojomerto". MISI. III: 241–251.