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Abbas ibn Firnas عباس بن فرناس The Father of Aviation
Abbas ibn Firnas عباس بن فرناس The Father of Aviation
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: ILM FILM
Debunking The Golden Age Of Islam #3 Abbas Ibn Firnas: The Precursor To Modern Flight Technology?
Debunking The Golden Age Of Islam #3 Abbas Ibn Firnas: The Precursor To Modern Flight Technology?
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: Simon Harris
Abbas Ibn Firnas was the First Man to Tried to Fly Scientific Way
Abbas Ibn Firnas was the First Man to Tried to Fly Scientific Way
Published: 2014/07/01
Channel: Leolito Avenido
Abbas ibn Firnas ISLAMIC inventions in Al-Andalusia(Spain Portugal)
Abbas ibn Firnas ISLAMIC inventions in Al-Andalusia(Spain Portugal)
Published: 2015/07/14
Channel: الشيخ محمد فرحان حسين عبد الباري
Top scientist in Islamic Golden Age [Abbas ibn Firnas , Al Jazari]
Top scientist in Islamic Golden Age [Abbas ibn Firnas , Al Jazari]
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: Ummat-e-Nabi Foundation
Abbas Ibn Firnas - عباس بن فرناس
Abbas Ibn Firnas - عباس بن فرناس
Published: 2013/04/24
Channel: Mahmoud Khatib
The First Aviator Abbas Ibn Firnas
The First Aviator Abbas Ibn Firnas
Published: 2014/10/11
Channel: Anthony Ghelfo
Abbas Ibn Firnas : Le Premier Humain à Voler ~ Civilisation Musulmane ~
Abbas Ibn Firnas : Le Premier Humain à Voler ~ Civilisation Musulmane ~
Published: 2015/07/27
Channel: The_ Addict
Ibn Firnas 810-877 AD- the  (Muur) who could fly
Ibn Firnas 810-877 AD- the (Muur) who could fly
Published: 2016/01/22
Channel: Vanessa Taylor
Engineering in Islam:Al-Jazari and Abbas ibn Firnas
Engineering in Islam:Al-Jazari and Abbas ibn Firnas
Published: 2016/11/26
Channel: Faiz Razak
Digital story ( Abbas Ibn Firnas )
Digital story ( Abbas Ibn Firnas )
Published: 2015/01/13
Channel: Marwa alshehhi
"Abbas ibn Firnas"
"Abbas ibn Firnas"
Published: 2016/08/31
Channel: Sunnah Aroma
Archae-Facts: The First Manned Flight?
Archae-Facts: The First Manned Flight?
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: Archaeosoup Productions
Atrocity The Flight Of Abbas Ibn Firnas
Atrocity The Flight Of Abbas Ibn Firnas
Published: 2011/03/30
Channel: Gabe Cahill
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Published: 2014/05/10
Channel: H66871
The New Abbas ibn Firnas
The New Abbas ibn Firnas
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: Amine Ouaghi
Abbas ibn Firnas - SOS Fast Facts
Abbas ibn Firnas - SOS Fast Facts
Published: 2016/04/04
Channel: Stars Of Science
Abbas Ibn Firnas - Father of Modern Aviation By Adv. Faiz Syed
Abbas Ibn Firnas - Father of Modern Aviation By Adv. Faiz Syed
Published: 2012/03/26
Channel: IRC TV
Who was Abbas ibn Firnas عباس بن فرناس The Father of Aviation
Who was Abbas ibn Firnas عباس بن فرناس The Father of Aviation
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: TOP GLOBAL INVENTION MEDIA
The invention of the airplane. (Abbas Ibn Firnas)
The invention of the airplane. (Abbas Ibn Firnas)
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Nawaz Baloch
Abbas Bin Firnas: The Pioneers of Flight. Dubai
Abbas Bin Firnas: The Pioneers of Flight. Dubai
Published: 2013/02/14
Channel: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf
The First Aviator Abbas ibn Firnas - NHD
The First Aviator Abbas ibn Firnas - NHD
Published: 2017/04/11
Channel: Bilal Sultan
Abbas Ibn Firnas  Father Of Modern Aviation By Adv. Faiz Syed
Abbas Ibn Firnas Father Of Modern Aviation By Adv. Faiz Syed
Published: 2013/04/29
Channel: IRC TV
IB Learner Profile- Abbas Ibn Firnas by: Balquees Bousaleh AIS Kuwait
IB Learner Profile- Abbas Ibn Firnas by: Balquees Bousaleh AIS Kuwait
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: Megan Libassi
Abbas Ibn Firnas- Departing and Landing
Abbas Ibn Firnas- Departing and Landing
Published: 2013/04/11
Channel: Ida15046
İbni Firnas: İlk Uçan İnsan
İbni Firnas: İlk Uçan İnsan
Published: 2016/07/15
Channel: Asaf Hocanın Günlüğü
UÇAN ADAM | Abbas İbn Firnas
UÇAN ADAM | Abbas İbn Firnas
Published: 2016/02/03
Channel: Recep Firat
Puente Abbas Ibn Firnas 3D
Puente Abbas Ibn Firnas 3D
Published: 2011/05/23
Channel: rojunson
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Published: 2013/04/10
Channel: YoussefRamzy
Abbas Ibn Firnas glider from the middle ages
Abbas Ibn Firnas glider from the middle ages
Published: 2014/05/03
Channel: 01Beaker Animations
IBN FIRNAS the first aviator
IBN FIRNAS the first aviator
Published: 2016/04/20
Channel: asrul mahdi
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Published: 2013/11/05
Channel: Anthony Frederick
Puente de Abbas Ibn Firnas
Puente de Abbas Ibn Firnas
Published: 2016/01/07
Channel: Victor Juarez Ibañez
Abbas lbn Firnas honoured through Rolls-Royce Bespoke Collection
Abbas lbn Firnas honoured through Rolls-Royce Bespoke Collection
Published: 2013/01/06
Channel: RollsRoyceADM
PUENTE DE ABBAS IBN FIRNAS 091209
PUENTE DE ABBAS IBN FIRNAS 091209
Published: 2009/12/09
Channel: Paco Muñoz
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: Alexandria Koretsky
Abbas Ibn Firnas was the First aviator to fly a scientific way. part 1.flv
Abbas Ibn Firnas was the First aviator to fly a scientific way. part 1.flv
Published: 2010/05/11
Channel: mr777AVIATOR
The Knowledge#2 Part 3 : "Abbas Ibnu Firnas" @sharechanneltv
The Knowledge#2 Part 3 : "Abbas Ibnu Firnas" @sharechanneltv
Published: 2014/04/16
Channel: Share Channel
Thank you Vodafone Egypt for removing Abbas Ibn Firnas
Thank you Vodafone Egypt for removing Abbas Ibn Firnas
Published: 2010/11/19
Channel: masterpeace8000
عباس ابن فرناس Abbas Bin Firnas
عباس ابن فرناس Abbas Bin Firnas
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: SulaitiToon
Keine Islamische Erfindung! Abbas ibn Firnas hat (nicht) das Fliegen erfunden.
Keine Islamische Erfindung! Abbas ibn Firnas hat (nicht) das Fliegen erfunden.
Published: 2017/07/04
Channel: JesusTV
IT Abass Ibn Firnas -1
IT Abass Ibn Firnas -1
Published: 2013/04/07
Channel: MBEDDA1
Abbas Ibn Firnas was the First aviator to fly a scientific way. part 2.flv
Abbas Ibn Firnas was the First aviator to fly a scientific way. part 2.flv
Published: 2010/05/11
Channel: mr777AVIATOR
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Published: 2016/12/14
Channel: 9001956
Vodafone   USB   Abbas Ibn Fernas   2010   HQ   YouTube
Vodafone USB Abbas Ibn Fernas 2010 HQ YouTube
Published: 2012/02/10
Channel: AS
Abbas Bin Firnas: Construction of the Flying Machine
Abbas Bin Firnas: Construction of the Flying Machine
Published: 2013/02/13
Channel: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf
Ibn Firnas UAV System - Abdulkareem Alokush and Osama Abbas Grad Project
Ibn Firnas UAV System - Abdulkareem Alokush and Osama Abbas Grad Project
Published: 2013/01/08
Channel: kareem alokush
الجزيرة الوثائقية 🎓 عباس ابن فرناس الامازيغي ... المخترع والطيار الأول
الجزيرة الوثائقية 🎓 عباس ابن فرناس الامازيغي ... المخترع والطيار الأول
Published: 2013/07/03
Channel: ImazighenLibya
The Knowledge#2 Part 1 : "Abbas Ibnu Firnas" @sharechanneltv
The Knowledge#2 Part 1 : "Abbas Ibnu Firnas" @sharechanneltv
Published: 2014/04/16
Channel: Share Channel
Rutas a pie,Río Guadajoz,Abbas ibn Firnas Vertice G.Los Visos.wmv
Rutas a pie,Río Guadajoz,Abbas ibn Firnas Vertice G.Los Visos.wmv
Published: 2011/12/28
Channel: RAFAEL MARTIN
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Abbas ibn Firnas
Born 810
Izn-Rand Onda (Ronda), Al-Andalus
Died 887
Cordoba
Other names Abu l-Qāsim Abbās ibn Firnās, Armen Firman
Nationality Andalusian (actual Spain)
Ethnicity Berber
Era Islamic Golden Age
Religion Islam
Main interest(s) Medicine, astrology, engineering

Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini (810–887 A.D.), also known as Abbas ibn Firnas (Arabic: عباس بن فرناس‎‎), was an Andalusian polymath:[1][2] an inventor, physician, chemist, engineer, Andalusian musician, and Arabic-language poet.[2] Of Berber descent, his name's root is AFERNAS, which is fairly widespread today in Morocco and Algeria.[3] He was born in Izn-Rand Onda, Al-Andalus (today's Ronda, Spain), lived in the Emirate of Córdoba, and is reputed to have attempted flight.[4][5]

The crater Ibn Firnas on the Moon is named in his honor, as well as the Ibn Firnas Airport in Baghdad and one of the bridges over the Guadalquivir river in Cordoba.

Work[edit]

Abbas Ibn Firnas designed a water clock called al-Maqata, devised a means of manufacturing colorless glass, invented various glass planispheres, made corrective lenses ("reading stones"), devised a chain of rings that could be used to simulate the motions of the planets and stars, and developed a process for cutting rock crystal that allowed Spain to cease exporting quartz to Egypt to be cut.[4][5]

Aviation[edit]

Some seven centuries after the death of Firnas, the Moroccan historian Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari (d. 1632) wrote a description of Firnas that included the following:[6]

Among other very curious experiments which he made, one is his trying to fly. He covered himself with feathers for the purpose, attached a couple of wings to his body, and, getting on an eminence, flung himself down into the air, when according to the testimony of several trustworthy writers who witnessed the performance, he flew a considerable distance, as if he had been a bird, but, in alighting again on the place whence he had started, his back was very much hurt, for not knowing that birds when they alight come down upon their tails, he forgot to provide himself with one.[5]

Al-Maqqari is said to have used in his history works "many early sources no longer extant", but in the case of Firnas, he does not cite his sources for the details of the reputed flight, though he does claim that one verse in a 9th-century Arab poem is actually an allusion to Firnas's flight. The poem was written by Mu'min ibn Said, a court poet of Córdoba under Muhammad I (d. 886), who was acquainted with and usually critical of Ibn Firnas.[5] The pertinent verse runs: "He flew faster than the phoenix in his flight when he dressed his body in the feathers of a vulture."[6] No other surviving sources refer to the event.[7]

It has been suggested that Ibn Firnas's attempt at glider flight might have inspired the attempt by Eilmer of Malmesbury between 1000 and 1010 in England,[8] but there is no evidence supporting this hypothesis.[5]

Armen Firman[edit]

Armen Firman may be the Latinized name of Abbas Ibn Firnas.[9]

According to some secondary sources, about 20 years before Ibn Firnas attempted to fly he may have witnessed Firman as he wrapped himself in a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts and jumped from a tower in Córdoba, intending to use the garment as wings on which he could glide. The alleged attempt at flight was unsuccessful, but the garment slowed his fall enough that he only sustained minor injuries.[4]

However, there is no reference to Armen Firman in other secondary sources, all of which deal exhaustively with Ibn Firnas' flight attempt.[5][10][11] Armen Firman is not mentioned in al-Maqqari's account.[4]

As this story was recorded only in a single primary source, al-Maqqari,[5] and since Firman's jump is said to have been Ibn Firnas' source of inspiration,[4] the lack of any mention of Firman in al-Maqqari's account may point to synthesis, the tower jump later confused with Ibn Firnas' gliding attempt in secondary writings.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ibn Firnas ('Abbâs)" by Ahmed Djebbar, Dictionnaire culturel des science, by Collective under the direction of Nicolas Witkowski, Du Regard Editions, 2003, ISBN 2-84105-128-5.
  2. ^ a b Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), p. 97-111 [100]:

    "Ibn Firnas was a polymath: a physician, a rather bad poet, the first to make glass from stones (quartz), a student of music, and inventor of some sort of metronome."

  3. ^ Lévi-Provençal, E. "ʿAbbās b. Firnās". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1 (2nd ed.). Brill publishers. p. 11. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f John H. Lienhard (2004). "'Abbas Ibn Firnas". The Engines of Our Ingenuity. Episode 1910. Transcript. NPR. KUHF-FM Houston. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), p. 97-111 [100f.]
  6. ^ a b Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), p. 97-111 [101]
  7. ^ Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), p. 97-111 [101]:

    The Moroccan historian al-Maqqari, who died in 1632 A.D. but who used many early sources no longer extant, tells of a certain Abu'l Qasim 'Abbas b. Firnas who lived in Cordoba in the later ninth century. […] No modern historian can be satisfied with a source written 750 years after the event, and it is astonishing that, if indeed several eye-witnesses recorded Firnas's flight, no mention of it independent of al-Maqqari has survived. Yet al-Maqqari cites a contemporary poem by Mu'min b. Said, a minor court poet of Cordoba under Muhammad I (d. 886 A.D.), which appears to refer to this flight and which has the greater evidential value because Mu'min did not like b. Firnas: he criticized one of his metaphors and disapproved his artificial thunder. […] Although the evidence is slender, we must conclude that b. Firnas was the first man to fly successfully, and that he has priority over Eilmer for this honor. But it is not necessary to assume that Eilmer needed foreign stimulus to build his wings. Anglo-Saxon England in his time provided an atmosphere conducive to originality, perhaps particularly in technology.

  8. ^ Lienhard, John H. (1988). "The Flying Monk". University of Houston. Retrieved 2015-02-06. 
  9. ^ Arabic and Islamic Names of the Moon Craters MuslimHeritage 9-28-07
  10. ^ Terias, Elias, "Sobre el vuelo de Abbas Ibn Firnas", Al-Andalus, Vol. 29, No. 2 (1964), p. 365–369
  11. ^ Lévi-Provençal, E. "ʿAbbās b. Firnās b. Wardūs, Abu 'l-Ḳāsim." Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs, 2009

Sources[edit]

  • J. Vernet, Abbas Ibn Firnas. Dictionary of Scientific Biography (C.C. Gilespie, ed.) Vol. I, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970–1980. pg. 5.
  • Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), p. 97–111 [100f.], doi:10.2307/3101411.
  • Salim T.S. Al-Hassani (ed.), Elisabeth Woodcock (au.), and Rabah Saoud (au.). 2006. 1001 Inventions. Muslim Heritage in Our World. Manchester: Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation. See pages 308–313. (ISBN 978-0-9555035-0-4)
  • Zaheer, Syed Iqbal. An Educational Encyclopedia of Islam. Iqra Welfare Trust. p. 1280. ISBN 9786039000440. 

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