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The Acromion Os Acromiale - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
The Acromion Os Acromiale - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2011/04/27
Channel: nabil ebraheim
Surface Anatomy: Acromion Process
Surface Anatomy: Acromion Process
Published: 2013/09/20
Channel: Chee-Wee Tan
Fracture of Acromion Process of the Scapula
Fracture of Acromion Process of the Scapula
Published: 2014/04/25
Channel: Eric Kennedy
acromion
acromion
Published: 2008/03/26
Channel: UPM
Shoulder acromion: Type I, II, III
Shoulder acromion: Type I, II, III
Published: 2012/10/03
Channel: Young Lae Moon
Acromion palpation
Acromion palpation
Published: 2013/01/11
Channel: taylor weir
"Weight-lifter
"Weight-lifter's shoulder" pain from an unstable AC joint | Feat. Tim Keeley | No. 27 | Physio REHAB
Published: 2015/03/08
Channel: Physio Fitness | Physio REHAB | Tim Keeley
Shoulder Pain from Your AC Joint?? 3 Quick Tests You Can Do.
Shoulder Pain from Your AC Joint?? 3 Quick Tests You Can Do.
Published: 2015/02/16
Channel: physicaltherapyvideo
Palpation and Observation of the Shoulder Complex
Palpation and Observation of the Shoulder Complex
Published: 2012/11/06
Channel: Jason Craig
Basic surface anatomy of shoulder
Basic surface anatomy of shoulder
Published: 2007/11/06
Channel: radiographicanatomy
Shoulder Impingement syndrome; shoulder motion and acromion change
Shoulder Impingement syndrome; shoulder motion and acromion change
Published: 2012/10/11
Channel: Young Lae Moon
Examination Of The AC Joint - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Examination Of The AC Joint - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2015/09/03
Channel: nabil ebraheim
BAD Shoulder Genetics / Your Acromion Shape Is Critical!
BAD Shoulder Genetics / Your Acromion Shape Is Critical!
Published: 2016/02/11
Channel: Fitness Oriented
Acromion Types and How They Affect Overhead Pressing
Acromion Types and How They Affect Overhead Pressing
Published: 2015/11/07
Channel: Power Chord Powerlifting
clavicula acromion cabeza humeral espina de la escapula  borde inferior y lateral de la escapula
clavicula acromion cabeza humeral espina de la escapula borde inferior y lateral de la escapula
Published: 2012/12/01
Channel: Hola Chao
Tipos de Acromion
Tipos de Acromion
Published: 2015/07/11
Channel: Sistema de Gestión de la Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo
Bursitis sub acromial o del hombro
Bursitis sub acromial o del hombro
Published: 2014/08/29
Channel: Fisioterapia-online.com
subacromial impingement aetiology.mp4
subacromial impingement aetiology.mp4
Published: 2011/01/21
Channel: Lennard Funk
¿Qué es una lesión acromioclavicular como la del madridista Marcelo?
¿Qué es una lesión acromioclavicular como la del madridista Marcelo?
Published: 2016/02/10
Channel: Efesalud
Shoulder Arthroscopy - Acromioplasty
Shoulder Arthroscopy - Acromioplasty
Published: 2015/01/26
Channel: Docteur Paillard - Chirurgie Orthopedique Paris
Shoulder 101 Kinesthetic   shoulder blade, acromion
Shoulder 101 Kinesthetic shoulder blade, acromion
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: InBody Space
Glenoid Cavity, Acromion, and Coracoid Process with Skeleton Premium
Glenoid Cavity, Acromion, and Coracoid Process with Skeleton Premium
Published: 2013/02/13
Channel: Visible Body
Shoulder Impingement
Shoulder Impingement
Published: 2013/12/19
Channel: Smart PT Pro
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L'épaule: l'articulation acromio-claviculaire
Published: 2015/07/19
Channel: Anatomie 3D Lyon
The Acromion Os Acromiale
The Acromion Os Acromiale
Published: 2016/10/04
Channel: Medical Video
Dolor en la articulación acromioclavicular
Dolor en la articulación acromioclavicular
Published: 2013/04/22
Channel: ProductosTecnomed
Acromion clavicular traction
Acromion clavicular traction
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: Thomas Glorks
what is the definition of Acromion (Medical Dictionary Online)
what is the definition of Acromion (Medical Dictionary Online)
Published: 2014/09/06
Channel: Medical Dictionary Online
Deslizamiento clavícula-acromion
Deslizamiento clavícula-acromion
Published: 2013/03/31
Channel: USS TTOMANUAL
1 YEAR WITH ACROMION
1 YEAR WITH ACROMION
Published: 2016/12/20
Channel: ACROMION 2015
Penampilan Acromion FKH 47 Jawa Barat part1
Penampilan Acromion FKH 47 Jawa Barat part1
Published: 2014/07/13
Channel: Wijaya Kupit
Shoulder Acromion fracture
Shoulder Acromion fracture
Published: 2016/04/23
Channel: Young Lae Moon
Shoulder Bony Palpations(suprasternal notch, SC joint, clavicle, AC joint, acromion)
Shoulder Bony Palpations(suprasternal notch, SC joint, clavicle, AC joint, acromion)
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: samantha islas
Shoulder - Sub Acromion Decompression - Impingement
Shoulder - Sub Acromion Decompression - Impingement
Published: 2013/06/04
Channel: Dr Raghuveer
Dynamic Ultrasound: Supraspinatus onder acromion
Dynamic Ultrasound: Supraspinatus onder acromion
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: ICONE Orthopaedie en Sportletsels
Acromion mars 2017
Acromion mars 2017
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: Åsa Brodd
Conflit sous acromial impingment syndrom
Conflit sous acromial impingment syndrom
Published: 2012/01/18
Channel: ajcepaule
FK UMS 2015 "Acromion"
FK UMS 2015 "Acromion"
Published: 2016/11/09
Channel: yoga oktavian
Kin 241-2013(acromial depression)
Kin 241-2013(acromial depression)
Published: 2013/03/23
Channel: Patrick Dessaulles
scapula and acromion orif 1
scapula and acromion orif 1
Published: 2013/04/01
Channel: pr Bezawada
After tear of rotator cuff, acromion is going to elongation.
After tear of rotator cuff, acromion is going to elongation.
Published: 2009/07/16
Channel: Young Lae Moon
5th Anniversary of ACROMION
5th Anniversary of ACROMION
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: FK UMI 2010
Sub acromial decompression. Early post op exercises (oxford
Sub acromial decompression. Early post op exercises (oxford
Published: 2013/11/28
Channel: PLYMOUTHNHSPHYSIO
KT Tape: AC Joint Sprain
KT Tape: AC Joint Sprain
Published: 2010/07/09
Channel: KT Tape
How to Pronounce Acromion
How to Pronounce Acromion
Published: 2012/12/31
Channel: Emma Saying
Deslizamiento clavícula acromion
Deslizamiento clavícula acromion
Published: 2013/07/25
Channel: técnicas kinesicas de tratamiento U.Andes
Medici Online - I gradi di lussazione dell
Medici Online - I gradi di lussazione dell'Articolazione Acromion Claveare
Published: 2014/11/07
Channel: Medici Online
rééducation conflit sous acromial
rééducation conflit sous acromial
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: Polocraft974
Arthroscopic Subacromial Decompression: Spur Removal
Arthroscopic Subacromial Decompression: Spur Removal
Published: 2012/10/21
Channel: mysportsdoc
The Point of Shoulder Impingement on Abduction : Greater Tuberosity and acromion
The Point of Shoulder Impingement on Abduction : Greater Tuberosity and acromion
Published: 2016/12/18
Channel: Young Lae Moon
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Acromion
Acromion of left scapula01.png
Left scapula. Posterior view. Acromion shown in red.
Acromion of scapula06.png
Details
Identifiers
Latin Acromion
Dorlands
/Elsevier
a_10/12108390
TA A02.4.01.009
FMA 23260
Anatomical terms of bone

In human anatomy, the acromion (from Greek: akros, "highest", ōmos, "shoulder", plural: acromia) is a bony process on the scapula (shoulder blade). Together with the coracoid process it extends laterally over the shoulder joint. The acromion is a continuation of the scapular spine, and hooks over anteriorly. It articulates with the clavicle (collar bone) to form the acromioclavicular joint.

Structure[edit]

The acromion forms the summit of the shoulder, and is a large, somewhat triangular or oblong process, flattened from behind forward, projecting at first lateralward, and then curving forward and upward, so as to overhang the glenoid cavity.[1]

Surfaces[edit]

Its superior surface, directed upward, backward, and lateralward, is convex, rough, and gives attachment to some fibers of the deltoideus, and in the rest of its extent is subcutaneous. Its inferior surface is smooth and concave.[1]

Borders[edit]

Its lateral border is thick and irregular, and presents three or four tubercles for the tendinous origins of the deltoid. Its medial border, shorter than the lateral, is concave, gives attachment to a portion of the trapezius, and presents about its center a small oval surface for articulation with the acromial end of the clavicle.[1]

Variation[edit]

There are three morphologically distinct types of acromia and a correlation between these morphologies and rotator cuff tear:[2]

Type Prevalence Angle of
anterior slope
Rotator
cuff tear
Flat 17.1% 13.18 3.0%
Curved 42.9% 29.98 24.2%
Hooked 39.3% 26.98 69.8%

Os acromiale[edit]

The acromion has four ossification centers called (from tip to base) pre-acromion, meso-acromion, meta-acromion, and basi-acromion. In most cases, the first three fuse at 15–18 years, whereas the base part fuses to the scapular spine at 12 years. However, in between 1% and 15% of cases, this osseous union fails and the acromion remains a separate bone. This condition is referred to as os acromiale, but rarely causes pain. Earlier estimates of its prevalence were as low as 1.4%, and this higher estimate was made by Sammarco in the year 2000, based on radiographic and anatomical studies.[3][4]

Four types of os acromiale can be distinguished:[5]

  • A non-union between the meso- and meta-acromia, the most common or typical os acromiale
  • A non-union between the pre- and meso-acromia
  • A non-union between the pre- and meso-acromia; and between the meso- and meta-acromia, atypical
  • A non-union between the pre- and meso-acromia; between the pre- and meso-acromia; and between the meta- and basi-acromia

This feature was common in skeletons recovered from the Mary Rose shipwreck: it is thought that in those men, much archery practice from childhood on with the mediaeval war bow (which needs a pull three times as strong as the modern standard Olympic bow) pulled at the acromion so much that it prevented bony fusion of the acromion with the scapula.

Although historically regarded as an incidental finding, the os acromiale may occasionally produce symptoms from subacromial impingement or instability at the site of non-union.[6] In people with symptoms of os acromiale, dynamic ultrasound sometimes shows hypermobility in the area during shoulder movement, or graded compression with the probe[clarify].[7]

In other animals[edit]

The acromion process of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) is particularly elongated compared to that of humans.

Turtles have an acromion that forms the anterior part of the triradiate pectoral girdle (together with the coracoid and scapula). In this highly specialized endoskeletal structure, the scapula is a dorsal (directed upwards) process attached to the first rib; the coracoid is a posteroventral (directed backward and down) process; and the acromion is a medioventral (directed inwards and down) process (also known as the prescapular process) located at the base of the scapula. This had led to some controversy regarding the evolutionary origin of turtles, because in both pareiasaurs and non-mammalian therapsids the acromion is located at the dorsal tip of the scapula. [8]

In modern turtles, the acromion projects ventrally and articulates with the plastron (the flat lower part of the shell), but it evolved in a common ancestor of pareiasaurs and turtles long before the plastron. In these primitive ancestors, the acromion projected forward to form a strong and flexible articulation between the shoulder girdle and the clavicle. Notwithstanding these changes, the acromion of turtles retains its original function, to support the shoulder girdle and increase stride length. [9]

Additional images[edit]

Notes[edit]

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. ^ a b c Gray's Anatomy 1918, see infobox
  2. ^ Habermeyer, Magosch & Lichtenberg 2006, pp. 1–3
  3. ^ Warner, Beim & Higgins 1998, Introduction
  4. ^ Sammarco, VJ (March 2000). "Os acromiale: frequency, anatomy, and clinical implications". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 82 (3): 394–400. PMID 10724231. Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  5. ^ Habermeyer, Magosch & Lichtenberg 2006, p. 4
  6. ^ Kurtz CA, Humble BJ, Rodosky MW, Sekiya JK. Symptomatic os acromiale. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2006; 14:12-9.
  7. ^ Arend CF. Ultrasound of the Shoulder. Master Medical Books, 2013. Chapter on os acromiale available at ShoulderUS.com
  8. ^ Rieppel & Reisz 1999
  9. ^ Lee 1996, Abstract
  • Habermeyer, Peter; Magosch, Petra; Lichtenberg, Sven (2006). Classifications and Scores of the Shoulder. Heidelberg: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-24350-2. 
  • Lee, Michael S. Y. (January 22, 1996). "The Homologies and Early Evolution of the Shoulder Girdle in Turtles". Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 263 (1366): 111–117. doi:10.1098/rspb.1996.0018. 
  • Rieppel, Olivier; Reisz, Robert R. (1999). "The Origin and Early Evolution of Turtles" (PDF). Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 30: 1–22. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.30.1.1. 
  • Warner, Jon J.P.; Beim, Gloria M.; Higgins, Laurence (September 1998). "The Treatment of Symptomatic Os Acromiale". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 80: 1320–6. 

External links[edit]

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