Happy Thoughts, Happy Life
1
The Acromion Os Acromiale - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
The Acromion Os Acromiale - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
DATE: 2011/04/27::
2
Surface Anatomy: Acromion Process
Surface Anatomy: Acromion Process
DATE: 2013/09/20::
3
clavicula acromion cabeza humeral espina de la escapula  borde inferior y lateral de la escapula
clavicula acromion cabeza humeral espina de la escapula borde inferior y lateral de la escapula
DATE: 2012/11/30::
4
Basic surface anatomy of shoulder
Basic surface anatomy of shoulder
DATE: 2007/11/06::
5
Shoulder acromion: Type I, II, III
Shoulder acromion: Type I, II, III
DATE: 2012/10/03::
6
acromion
acromion
DATE: 2008/03/26::
7
Fracture of Acromion Process of the Scapula
Fracture of Acromion Process of the Scapula
DATE: 2014/04/25::
8
Acromion palpation
Acromion palpation
DATE: 2013/01/11::
9
Medici Online - I gradi di lussazione dell
Medici Online - I gradi di lussazione dell'Articolazione Acromion Claveare
DATE: 2014/11/07::
10
ACROMION
ACROMION
DATE: 2013/12/14::
11
ACROMION - TSMU FRESHERS PARTY 2012
ACROMION - TSMU FRESHERS PARTY 2012
DATE: 2012/11/12::
12
Shoulder Impingement syndrome; shoulder motion and acromion change
Shoulder Impingement syndrome; shoulder motion and acromion change
DATE: 2012/10/11::
13
Acromion - Live DVD HD - Project Independent
Acromion - Live DVD HD - Project Independent
DATE: 2014/09/07::
14
Shoulder - Sub Acromion Decompression - Impingement
Shoulder - Sub Acromion Decompression - Impingement
DATE: 2013/06/04::
15
Lussazione AC (acromion claveare) Di Terzo Grado
Lussazione AC (acromion claveare) Di Terzo Grado
DATE: 2014/09/11::
16
Dynamic Ultrasound: Supraspinatus onder acromion
Dynamic Ultrasound: Supraspinatus onder acromion
DATE: 2015/01/19::
17
bursal bunching acromion
bursal bunching acromion
DATE: 2009/10/08::
18
"El Acromion" GO Choroy corp. (1 de 2 ) moby films comedy
"El Acromion" GO Choroy corp. (1 de 2 ) moby films comedy
DATE: 2007/05/04::
19
Medici Online - La lussazione dell
Medici Online - La lussazione dell'Articolazione Acromion Claveare
DATE: 2014/11/07::
20
Glenoid Cavity, Acromion, and Coracoid Process with Skeleton Premium
Glenoid Cavity, Acromion, and Coracoid Process with Skeleton Premium
DATE: 2013/02/13::
21
acromion and scapula orif
acromion and scapula orif
DATE: 2013/04/01::
22
Videogiornale di Ortopedia : attrito acromion omerale (1991)
Videogiornale di Ortopedia : attrito acromion omerale (1991)
DATE: 2013/05/29::
23
Burdeos - Acromion.
Burdeos - Acromion.
DATE: 2008/04/20::
24
Deslizamiento clavícula-acromion
Deslizamiento clavícula-acromion
DATE: 2013/03/30::
25
Medici Online - Le lesioni associate della lussazione acromion-claveare
Medici Online - Le lesioni associate della lussazione acromion-claveare
DATE: 2014/11/07::
26
10 Degree Decline Acromion Grip Fat Gripz Bench Press
10 Degree Decline Acromion Grip Fat Gripz Bench Press
DATE: 2010/01/31::
27
After tear of rotator cuff, acromion is going to elongation.
After tear of rotator cuff, acromion is going to elongation.
DATE: 2009/07/16::
28
Penampilan Acromion FKH 47 Jawa Barat part1
Penampilan Acromion FKH 47 Jawa Barat part1
DATE: 2014/07/13::
29
Valutazione Articolazione Acromion-Clavicolare
Valutazione Articolazione Acromion-Clavicolare
DATE: 2014/05/12::
30
Trailer Makrab Acromion-FKH 47
Trailer Makrab Acromion-FKH 47
DATE: 2014/03/07::
31
Trailer "El Acromion" GoChoroy Corp.- 2007-
Trailer "El Acromion" GoChoroy Corp.- 2007-
DATE: 2007/04/22::
32
Acromion To Acromion! La Distanza?
Acromion To Acromion! La Distanza?
DATE: 2014/05/11::
33
Arthroscopic Subacromial Decompression: Spur Removal
Arthroscopic Subacromial Decompression: Spur Removal
DATE: 2012/10/21::
34
Acromion
Acromion
DATE: 2015/04/28::
35
what is the definition of Acromion (Medical Dictionary Online)
what is the definition of Acromion (Medical Dictionary Online)
DATE: 2014/09/06::
36
Acromion - Mourner
Acromion - Mourner
DATE: 2013/10/26::
37
1 Acromion claviculair,omo serato claviculair et  le gléno humeral
1 Acromion claviculair,omo serato claviculair et le gléno humeral
DATE: 2012/01/24::
38
RIVIERA 2011 - ACROMION
RIVIERA 2011 - ACROMION
DATE: 2011/12/29::
39
B 057 Schulterdach Verkalkung  - SD PAL /B 057 Shoulder calcification acromion  - SD PAL
B 057 Schulterdach Verkalkung - SD PAL /B 057 Shoulder calcification acromion - SD PAL
DATE: 2011/04/18::
40
Valutazione Articolazione Acromion-Clavicolare
Valutazione Articolazione Acromion-Clavicolare
DATE: 2014/05/12::
41
Acromion - RIVIERA - Colors Of Friendship Winter 2011
Acromion - RIVIERA - Colors Of Friendship Winter 2011
DATE: 2011/12/29::
42
Ultrasound guided right shoulder sub-acromion injection
Ultrasound guided right shoulder sub-acromion injection
DATE: 2014/12/25::
43
Acromion New Years Party Teaser
Acromion New Years Party Teaser
DATE: 2013/12/31::
44
ACROMION - Mistake
ACROMION - Mistake
DATE: 2012/08/29::
45
After tear of rotator cuff, acromion is going to elongation.
After tear of rotator cuff, acromion is going to elongation.
DATE: 2014/10/13::
46
Ventral gliding acromion clavicular joint
Ventral gliding acromion clavicular joint
DATE: 2014/10/27::
47
Caverna - Acromion
Caverna - Acromion
DATE: 2012/06/01::
48
Scapula Anatomy
Scapula Anatomy
DATE: 2011/09/28::
49
Conflit sous acromial impingment syndrom
Conflit sous acromial impingment syndrom
DATE: 2012/01/18::
50
Acromion Grip Barbell Bench Press
Acromion Grip Barbell Bench Press
DATE: 2009/12/21::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Acromion
Acromion of left scapula01.png
Left scapula. Posterior view. Acromion shown in red.
Acromion of scapula06.png
Details
Latin Acromion
Identifiers
Gray's p.203
Dorlands
/Elsevier
a_10/12108390
TA A02.4.01.009
FMA 23260
Anatomical terms of bone

In human anatomy, the acromion (from Greek: akros, "highest", ōmos, "shoulder", plural: acromia) is a bony process on the scapula (shoulder blade). Together with the coracoid process it extends laterally over the shoulder joint. The acromion is a continuation of the scapular spine, and hooks over anteriorly. It articulates with the clavicle (collar bone) to form the acromioclavicular joint.

Structure[edit]

The acromion forms the summit of the shoulder, and is a large, somewhat triangular or oblong process, flattened from behind forward, projecting at first lateralward, and then curving forward and upward, so as to overhang the glenoid cavity.[1]

Surfaces[edit]

Its superior surface, directed upward, backward, and lateralward, is convex, rough, and gives attachment to some fibers of the deltoideus, and in the rest of its extent is subcutaneous. Its inferior surface is smooth and concave.[1]

Borders[edit]

Its lateral border is thick and irregular, and presents three or four tubercles for the tendinous origins of the deltoid. Its medial border, shorter than the lateral, is concave, gives attachment to a portion of the trapezius, and presents about its center a small oval surface for articulation with the acromial end of the clavicle.[1]

Variation[edit]

There are three morphologically distinct types of acromia and a correlation between these morphologies and rotator cuff tear:[2]

Type Prevalence Angle of
anterior slope
Rotator
cuff tear
Flat 17.1% 13.18 3.0%
Curved 42.9% 29.98 24.2%
Hooked 39.3% 26.98 69.8%

Os acromiale[edit]

The acromion has four ossification centers called (from tip to base) pre-acromion, meso-acromion, meta-acromion, and basi-acromion. In most cases, the first three fuse at 15–18 years, whereas the base part fuses to the scapular spine at 12 years. However, in between 1% and 15% of cases, this osseous union fails and the acromion remains a separate bone. This condition is referred to as os acromiale, but rarely causes pain. Earlier estimates of its prevalence were as low as 1.4%, and this higher estimate was made by Sammarco in the year 2000, based on radiographic and anatomical studies.[3][4]

Four types of os acromiale can be distinguished:[5]

  • A non-union between the meso- and meta-acromia, the most common or typical os acromiale
  • A non-union between the pre- and meso-acromia
  • A non-union between the pre- and meso-acromia; and between the meso- and meta-acromia, atypical
  • A non-union between the pre- and meso-acromia; between the pre- and meso-acromia; and between the meta- and basi-acromia

This feature was common in skeletons recovered from the Mary Rose shipwreck: it is thought that in those men, much archery practice from childhood on with the mediaeval war bow (which needs a pull three times as strong as the modern standard Olympic bow) pulled at the acromion so much that it prevented bony fusion of the acromion with the scapula.

Although historically regarded as an incidental finding, the os acromiale may occasionally produce symptoms from subacromial impingement or instability at the site of non-union.[6] Dynamic US evaluation may demonstrate hypermobility of the non-union during shoulder motion or graded compression with the probe in symptomatic individuals.[7]

In other animals[edit]

The acromion process of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) is particularly elongated compared to that of humans.

Turtles have an acromion that forms the anterior part of the triradiate pectoral girdle (together with the coracoid and scapula). In this highly specialized endoskeletal structure, the scapula is a dorsal (directed upwards) process attached to the first rib; the coracoid is a posteroventral (directed backward and down) process; and the acromion is a medioventral (directed inwards and down) process (also known as the prescapular process) located at the base of the scapula. This had led to some controversy regarding the evolutionary origin of turtles, because in both pareiasaurs and non-mammalian therapsids the acromion is located at the dorsal tip of the scapula. [8]

In modern turtles, the acromion projects ventrally and articulates with the plastron (the flat lower part of the shell), but it evolved in a common ancestor of pareiasaurs and turtles long before the plastron. In these primitive ancestors, the acromion projected forward to form a strong and flexible articulation between the shoulder girdle and the clavicle. Notwithstanding these changes, the acromion of turtles retains its original function, to support the shoulder girdle and increase stride length. [9]

Additional images[edit]

Notes[edit]

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. ^ a b c Gray's Anatomy 1918, see infobox
  2. ^ Habermeyer, Magosch & Lichtenberg 2006, pp. 1–3
  3. ^ Warner, Beim & Higgins 1998, Introduction
  4. ^ Sammarco, VJ (March 2000). "Os acromiale: frequency, anatomy, and clinical implications". J Bone Joint Surg Am 82 (3): 394–400. PMID 10724231. Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  5. ^ Habermeyer, Magosch & Lichtenberg 2006, p. 4
  6. ^ Kurtz CA, Humble BJ, Rodosky MW, Sekiya JK. Symptomatic os acromiale. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2006; 14:12-9.
  7. ^ Arend CF. Ultrasound of the Shoulder. Master Medical Books, 2013. Chapter on os acromiale available at ShoulderUS.com
  8. ^ Rieppel & Reisz 1999
  9. ^ Lee 1996, Abstract
  • Habermeyer, Peter; Magosch, Petra; Lichtenberg, Sven (2006). Classifications and Scores of the Shoulder. Heidelberg: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-24350-2. 
  • Lee, Michael S. Y. (January 22, 1996). "The Homologies and Early Evolution of the Shoulder Girdle in Turtles". Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 263 (1366): 111–117. doi:10.1098/rspb.1996.0018. 
  • Rieppel, Olivier; Reisz, Robert R. (1999). "The Origin and Early Evolution of Turtles" (PDF). Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 1–22. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.30.1.1. 
  • Warner, Jon J.P.; Beim, Gloria M.; Higgins, Laurence (September 1998). "The Treatment of Symptomatic Os Acromiale". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 80: 1320–6. 

External links[edit]

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