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Adena indian Culture (700BC approx) general overview.
Adena indian Culture (700BC approx) general overview.
Published: 2013/04/13
Channel: johndugbryan
Adena Culture of North America Exposed
Adena Culture of North America Exposed
Published: 2017/04/01
Channel: nicolas thierry
Who were the Mound Builders? The First American Civilization built by Native Americans!
Who were the Mound Builders? The First American Civilization built by Native Americans!
Published: 2013/01/02
Channel: Thomas Oklahoma
Adena culures along the Ohio river valleys(part1)
Adena culures along the Ohio river valleys(part1)
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: johndugbryan
Adena Mounds near Plains ,Ohio and some Indian artifacts from the area
Adena Mounds near Plains ,Ohio and some Indian artifacts from the area
Published: 2014/03/09
Channel: johndugbryan
Adena/ Hopewell Moundbuilder Culture treasures
Adena/ Hopewell Moundbuilder Culture treasures
Published: 2013/07/30
Channel: johndugbryan
Jim Vieira - Adena Intellect in Ancient America
Jim Vieira - Adena Intellect in Ancient America
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: pbatusa
Adena Culture "Great Mound" Earthwork - Native American
Adena Culture "Great Mound" Earthwork - Native American
Published: 2017/03/25
Channel: HNX Media
Adena Culture of North America Exposed
Adena Culture of North America Exposed
Published: 2018/01/21
Channel: Dovie Lemarr
The Mound Builders CLIP
The Mound Builders CLIP
Published: 2012/07/16
Channel: 2100Media
MOUNDSVILLE WV-TOUR OF "THE MOUND"
MOUNDSVILLE WV-TOUR OF "THE MOUND"
Published: 2016/06/04
Channel: Christine Lowery -Beachcricket
Adena culture
Adena culture
Published: 2017/10/29
Channel: Viki History
Adena Culture
Adena Culture
Published: 2017/12/01
Channel: Ambrosia Gonzalez
Indian Fort Mountain, Kentucky: Hopewell or Adena?
Indian Fort Mountain, Kentucky: Hopewell or Adena?
Published: 2015/05/22
Channel: atagreg1
Miamisburg Mound  - Primitive/Native Adena Culture
Miamisburg Mound - Primitive/Native Adena Culture
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: HNX Media
The Cresap (Adena Culture) Indian Mound
The Cresap (Adena Culture) Indian Mound
Published: 2014/04/07
Channel: johndugbryan
Columbus Neighborhoods: Clintonville Adena Mounds
Columbus Neighborhoods: Clintonville Adena Mounds
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: WOSU Public Media
Incredible Discoveries about the Great Serpent Mound in Ohio
Incredible Discoveries about the Great Serpent Mound in Ohio
Published: 2013/11/14
Channel: ConspiracyInfoTV2
Download The Adena Culture of the Sandy Hill Area, Dorchester County, Maryland
Download The Adena Culture of the Sandy Hill Area, Dorchester County, Maryland
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: J Lockwood
Wolf Plains Group - Ancient Adena Mounds
Wolf Plains Group - Ancient Adena Mounds
Published: 2017/12/27
Channel: Mike Does History
Beautiful Adena!! Hematite?
Beautiful Adena!! Hematite?
Published: 2010/04/02
Channel: PioneerPauly
Author E.P. Grondine talks about Giant Mound Builders of America
Author E.P. Grondine talks about Giant Mound Builders of America
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: Phenomenal Travel Videos
Jim Vieira - Adena Remains in Ancient America
Jim Vieira - Adena Remains in Ancient America
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: pbatusa
Adena Monoliths
Adena Monoliths
Published: 2017/01/08
Channel: Edmund Grondine
Adena Culture (part 2)
Adena Culture (part 2)
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: johndugbryan
Columbus Neighborhoods: Columbus
Columbus Neighborhoods: Columbus' Ancient History
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: WOSU Public Media
8-26-16 Well-Crafted Adena
8-26-16 Well-Crafted Adena
Published: 2016/08/29
Channel: Illini Arrowheads
Adena Hopewell culture around 2000 years old
Adena Hopewell culture around 2000 years old
Published: 2016/04/16
Channel: TeamTRUMP Radio Network
Tips for Saving & Farming Adena in Lineage 2: Revolutions - Beat the Adena Grind
Tips for Saving & Farming Adena in Lineage 2: Revolutions - Beat the Adena Grind
Published: 2017/12/22
Channel: Hella Clash
Adena Pipe
Adena Pipe
Published: 2008/02/09
Channel: OHCEditor
Tennessee Arrowhead Hunting: Another Broken Adena
Tennessee Arrowhead Hunting: Another Broken Adena
Published: 2017/01/06
Channel: BeyondTheBowOutdoors
Missouri arrowhead hunting. Killer Adena Blade
Missouri arrowhead hunting. Killer Adena Blade
Published: 2014/12/09
Channel: ridgewalkerbrian
Amazing Ascent of Columbus, Ohio
Amazing Ascent of Columbus, Ohio's 3rd Highest Summit Hopewell Native Burial Mound without Oxygen
Published: 2016/04/16
Channel: TeamTRUMP Radio Network
Columbus Neighborhoods: Clintonville
Columbus Neighborhoods: Clintonville
Published: 2014/01/28
Channel: WOSU Public Media
Arrowhead Kentucky Adena 4/16/12
Arrowhead Kentucky Adena 4/16/12
Published: 2012/04/16
Channel: mrrockhead1965
Arrowheads Adena bi concave gorget
Arrowheads Adena bi concave gorget
Published: 2013/06/07
Channel: lance kokas
Thin Dover Adena
Thin Dover Adena
Published: 2012/10/12
Channel: Theditchwalker
ARROWHEAD HUNTING IN MISSOURI
ARROWHEAD HUNTING IN MISSOURI
Published: 2009/07/17
Channel: richardsrockhouse
Must have been an Adena day....
Must have been an Adena day....
Published: 2012/05/15
Channel: MrRickjitsu
adena and charley
adena and charley
Published: 2013/06/09
Channel: Jazmin Johnson
Mo arrowhead adena 2/26/13
Mo arrowhead adena 2/26/13
Published: 2013/02/26
Channel: Treasurehunter4life
L2 Revolution Daily Adena and Adena Farming.
L2 Revolution Daily Adena and Adena Farming.
Published: 2018/01/08
Channel: ThyShadowPaladin
Adena Illinois arrowhead hunt 11/29/15
Adena Illinois arrowhead hunt 11/29/15
Published: 2015/12/01
Channel: IllinoisHeadHunter
Hopewell/Adena Indian culture animal masks and Hopewell Site mound 25
Hopewell/Adena Indian culture animal masks and Hopewell Site mound 25
Published: 2011/11/22
Channel: johndugbryan
News Section for CTM Episode 879 with James O
News Section for CTM Episode 879 with James O'Keefe
Published: 2018/02/08
Channel: John B. Wells The ONLY Official CTM Channel
arrowhead hunt Adena site 2
arrowhead hunt Adena site 2
Published: 2013/01/06
Channel: relicsofky
April 6th 2011 Adena
April 6th 2011 Adena
Published: 2011/04/06
Channel: Lenape84
Prehistoric Mound - Reily, Ohio
Prehistoric Mound - Reily, Ohio
Published: 2018/01/30
Channel: Greenspace Explorer
Stained adena drill
Stained adena drill
Published: 2013/02/17
Channel: Cody Maddux
June 23rd Ohio River Adena arrowhead find
June 23rd Ohio River Adena arrowhead find
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Robert Rice
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Geographic distribution of the Adena (800 BC–100 AD), Hopewell (200 BC–500 AD), and Fort Ancient (1000–1750 AD) cultures.

The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Kentucky, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland.

Importance[edit]

The Adena Culture was named for the large mound on Thomas Worthington's early 19th-century estate located near Chillicothe, Ohio[1], which he named "Adena",

Adena sites are concentrated in a relatively small area - maybe 200 sites in the central Ohio Valley, with perhaps another 200 scattered throughout Wisconsin, Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, although those in Ohio may once have numbered in the thousands. The importance of the Adena complex comes from its considerable influence on other contemporary and succeeding cultures.[2] The Adena culture is seen as the precursor to the traditions of the Hopewell culture, which are sometimes thought as an elaboration, or zenith, of Adena traditions.

The Adena were notable for their agricultural practices, pottery, artistic works and extensive trading network, which supplied them with a variety of raw materials, ranging from copper from the Great Lakes to shells from the Gulf Coast.[3][4][5]

Art and religion[edit]

Mounds[edit]

Lasting traces of Adena culture are still seen in the remains of their substantial earthworks. At one point, larger Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, but only a small number of the remains of the larger Adena earthen monuments still survive today. These mounds generally ranged in size from 20 feet (6.1 m) to 300 feet (91 m) in diameter and served as burial structures, ceremonial sites, historical markers and possibly gathering places. These earthen monuments were built using hundreds of thousands of baskets full of specially selected and graded earth. According to archaeological investigations, Adena earthworks were often built as part of their burial rituals, in which the earth of the earthwork was piled immediately atop a burned mortuary building. These mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their final burial was performed. Before the construction of the earthworks, some utilitarian and grave goods would be placed on the floor of the structure, which was burned with the goods and honored dead within. The earthwork would then be constructed, and often a new mortuary structure would be placed atop the new earthwork. After a series of repetitions, mortuary/earthwork/mortuary/earthwork, a quite prominent earthwork would remain. In the later Adena period, circular ridges of unknown function were sometimes constructed around the burial earthworks.[2]

Prominent mounds[edit]

Site Image Description
Adena Mound Adena Mound The Adena Mound, the type site for the culture, is a registered historic structure near Chillicothe, Ohio.
Biggs Site Biggs Site The site, located in Greenup County, Kentucky, is a conical abide surrounded by a series of circular ditches and embankments. It is connected to the Portsmouth Earthworks directly across the Ohio River in Portsmouth, Ohio.[6][7]
Criel Mound Criel Mound A 35-foot (11 m) high and 175-foot (53 m)-diameter conical mound, it is the second largest of its type in West Virginia. It is located in South Charleston, West Virginia. P. W. Norris of the Smithsonian Institution oversaw the excavation. His team discovered numerous skeletons along with weapons and jewelry.[8]
Enon Mound Enon Mound Ohio's second largest conical burial mound, it is believed to have been built by the Adena.
Grave Creek Mound Grave Creek Mound At 69 feet (21 m) high and 295 feet (90 m) in diameter, it is one of the largest conical-type burial mounds in the United States. It is located in Moundsville, West Virginia. In 1838, much of the archaeological evidence in this mound was destroyed when several non-archaeologists tunneled into the mound.[8][9]
Miamisburg Mound Miamisburg Mound Once serving as an ancient burial site, the Miamisburg Mound is the most recognizable landmark in Miamisburg. It is the largest conical burial mound in Ohio, and remains virtually intact. Located in a city park at 900 Mound Avenue, it is an Ohio historical site and serves as a popular attraction and picnic destination for area families. Visitors can climb to the top of the mound via stone-masonry steps.
Wolf Plains Group Wolf Plains Group A Late Adena group of 30 earthworks including 22 conical mounds and nine circular enclosures.[10] It is located a few miles to the northwest of Athens, Ohio.

Shamanism[edit]

Although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many later Native Americans began with the Adena.[11] Motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures. Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, and the transformation of humans into animals—particularly birds, wolves, bears and deer—and back to human form. This may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals' qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects. Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf, deer and mountain lion jawbones, and many other objects were fashioned into costumes, necklaces and other forms of regalia by the Adena.[12] Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with either flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces, suggest the offering of smoke to the spirits. The objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, achieved through the use of the hallucinogenic plant Nicotiana rustica. All told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs.[11]

Stone tablets[edit]

The Adena also carved small stone tablets, usually 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by .5 inches thick. On one or both flat sides were gracefully composed stylized zoomorphs or curvilinear geometric designs in deep relief. Paint has been found on some Adena tablets, leading archaeologists to propose that these stone tablets were probably used to stamp designs on cloth or animal hides, or onto their own bodies.[12] It is possible that they were used to outline designs for tattooing.[13]

Pottery[edit]

Unlike in other cultures, Adena pottery was not buried with the dead or the remains of the cremated, as were other artifacts. Usually Adena pottery was tempered with grit or crushed limestone and was very thick; its decoration was largely plain, cord-marked or fabric marked, although one type bore a nested-diamond design incised into its surface. The vessel shapes were sub-conoidal or flat-bottomed jars, sometimes with small foot-like supports.[14]

Domestic life[edit]

Settlement patterns[edit]

The large and elaborate mound sites served a nearby scattering of people. The population was dispersed in small settlements of one to two structures. A typical house was built in a circle form from 15 to 45 feet in diameter. The walls were made of paired posts tilted outward, that were then joined to other pieces of wood to form a cone shaped roof. The roof was then covered with bark and the walls may have been bark and/or wickerwork.[15]

Food sources[edit]

Their sustenance was acquired through foraging and the cultivation of native plants.

  • Hunted deer, elk, black bear, woodchuck, beaver, porcupine, turkey, trumpeter swan, and ruffed grouse.
  • Gathered several edible seed, grasses, and nuts.[16]
  • Cultivated pumpkin, squash, sunflower, and goosefoot. [17]

Tools[edit]

The Adena ground stone tools and axes. Somewhat rougher slab-like stones with chipped edges were probably used as hoes. Bone and antler were used in small tools, but even more prominently in ornamental objects such as beads, combs, and worked animal-jaw gorgets or paraphernalia. Spoons, beads and other implements were made from the marine conch. A few copper axes have been found, but otherwise the metal was hammered into ornamental forms, such as bracelets, rings, beads, and reel-shaped pendants.[14]

See also[edit]

Preceded by
Early Woodland Period
Adena culture
1000 BC–200 AD
Succeeded by
Ohio Hopewell

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Identifying Flint Artifacts/Early Woodland People". Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  2. ^ a b "Native Peoples of North America–Adena". Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  3. ^ "Civilizations Of The Americas, The Peoples To The North". Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  4. ^ "Early Woodland: Northeastern Middlesex Tradition". Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  5. ^ "Grave Creek Mound Archaeological Complex". Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  6. ^ "Portsmouth Earthworks-Ohio Central History". Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  7. ^ Lewis, R. Barry (1996). Kentucky Archaeology. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-1907-6. 
  8. ^ a b "Mounds and Mound Builders". Archived from the original on 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  9. ^ "Mounds and Mound Builders". Archived from the original on 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  10. ^ "The Archaeological Conservancy-2008 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  11. ^ a b "Adena-Definition from Answers.com". Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  12. ^ a b Power, Susan (2004). Early Art of the Southeastern Indians-Feathered Serpents and Winged Beings. University of Georgia Press. pp. 29–34. ISBN 978-0-8203-2501-9. 
  13. ^ "Virtual First Ohioans". 
  14. ^ a b "Adena Site". Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  15. ^ "The Adena Mounds". Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  16. ^ "NA Archaeology : Adena". Archived from the original on 2008-06-27. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  17. ^ Whitaker, Alex. "The Mound Builders". www.ancient-wisdom.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°04′21″N 83°57′03″W / 38.07250°N 83.95083°W / 38.07250; -83.95083

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