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1
Who were the Mound Builders? The First American Civilization built by Native Americans!
Who were the Mound Builders? The First American Civilization built by Native Americans!
::2013/01/02::
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2
Adena indian Culture (700BC approx) general overview.
Adena indian Culture (700BC approx) general overview.
::2013/04/13::
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3
Adena/ Hopewell Moundbuilder Culture treasures
Adena/ Hopewell Moundbuilder Culture treasures
::2013/07/30::
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4
Grave Creek Mound, WV-and Adena artifacts found in and near-also local petroglyphs
Grave Creek Mound, WV-and Adena artifacts found in and near-also local petroglyphs
::2013/08/25::
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5
Adena culures along the Ohio river valleys(part1)
Adena culures along the Ohio river valleys(part1)
::2014/04/06::
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6
The Cresap (Adena Culture) Indian Mound
The Cresap (Adena Culture) Indian Mound
::2014/04/07::
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7
Adena Culture (part 2)
Adena Culture (part 2)
::2014/04/06::
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8
Adena Mounds near Plains ,Ohio and some Indian artifacts from the area
Adena Mounds near Plains ,Ohio and some Indian artifacts from the area
::2014/03/08::
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9
The Adena Effigy Pipe and HB501
The Adena Effigy Pipe and HB501
::2012/07/12::
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10
Incredible Discoveries about the Great Serpent Mound in Ohio
Incredible Discoveries about the Great Serpent Mound in Ohio
::2013/11/14::
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11
Hopewell/Adena Indian culture animal masks and Hopewell Site mound 25
Hopewell/Adena Indian culture animal masks and Hopewell Site mound 25
::2011/11/22::
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12
Author E.P. Grondine talks about Giant Mound Builders of America
Author E.P. Grondine talks about Giant Mound Builders of America
::2014/09/26::
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13
Native American Mound and Earthworks Sites - Across Ohio
Native American Mound and Earthworks Sites - Across Ohio
::2014/05/17::
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14
Adena - Rise at Dawn
Adena - Rise at Dawn
::2013/06/13::
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15
Mounds State Park..Anderson,Indiana  April2011
Mounds State Park..Anderson,Indiana April2011
::2011/06/13::
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16
Adena Trace Trail.wmv
Adena Trace Trail.wmv
::2012/04/17::
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17
Great Serpent Mount & the Draco Constellation
Great Serpent Mount & the Draco Constellation
::2013/11/02::
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18
Shrum Indian Mound - Campbell Memorial Park - Columbus Ohio
Shrum Indian Mound - Campbell Memorial Park - Columbus Ohio
::2014/09/13::
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19
Adena Pipe
Adena Pipe
::2008/02/08::
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20
AdenA - Swallow (Median Sight album)
AdenA - Swallow (Median Sight album)
::2011/07/01::
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21
Rose Quartz Crystal ADENA!! ~ 152  Artifact Find! MAY 2014
Rose Quartz Crystal ADENA!! ~ 152 Artifact Find! MAY 2014
::2014/05/03::
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22
Adena Indian samples.mp4
Adena Indian samples.mp4
::2012/03/25::
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23
The Mormon delusion of Adena and Hopewell mound-building
The Mormon delusion of Adena and Hopewell mound-building
::2014/05/02::
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24
Adena Myrie sings "I
Adena Myrie sings "I'm Sorry"
::2010/09/23::
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25
Adena Mansion and Gardens: Thomas Worthington
Adena Mansion and Gardens: Thomas Worthington's Estate (Chillicothe)
::2014/04/06::
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26
Adena/Hopewell earthwork (Chrysler Enclosure)
Adena/Hopewell earthwork (Chrysler Enclosure)
::2011/08/30::
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27
Holiday dinner with adena
Holiday dinner with adena's family
::2014/09/24::
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28
Adena Mansion and Gardens, Chillicothe OH
Adena Mansion and Gardens, Chillicothe OH
::2012/04/16::
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29
Larger Spearhead (Adena) 2013
Larger Spearhead (Adena) 2013
::2013/06/02::
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30
Arrowhead Creek Walk 4.28.13 Adena
Arrowhead Creek Walk 4.28.13 Adena
::2013/04/27::
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31
330 Coshocton Adena cache blades
330 Coshocton Adena cache blades
::2012/12/30::
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32
Williamson Adena Mound and Cedar Creek Falls in Peterson Park, Cedarville, Greene County, Ohio
Williamson Adena Mound and Cedar Creek Falls in Peterson Park, Cedarville, Greene County, Ohio
::2012/05/15::
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33
Zion Oshikanlu, MD Adena Cancer Center
Zion Oshikanlu, MD Adena Cancer Center
::2014/02/19::
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34
Haunted Mansion; Ghost at Adena Mansion, Chillicothe Ohio
Haunted Mansion; Ghost at Adena Mansion, Chillicothe Ohio
::2012/11/17::
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35
Adena "Imp" pipe found at Adena estate Chillicothe,Ohio
Adena "Imp" pipe found at Adena estate Chillicothe,Ohio
::2013/01/26::
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36
Location areas of numerous Adena mounds
Location areas of numerous Adena mounds
::2014/04/12::
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37
The First Peoples of Kentucky 9
The First Peoples of Kentucky 9
::2014/05/19::
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38
Adena Friedman to rejoin the Nasdaq
Adena Friedman to rejoin the Nasdaq
::2014/05/16::
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39
adena?
adena?
::2014/08/04::
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40
Upeksha Swarnamali Kukku And Marvin Silva Adena Katha
Upeksha Swarnamali Kukku And Marvin Silva Adena Katha
::2014/03/27::
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41
Adena Arrowhead fro Missouri 5 9/16
Adena Arrowhead fro Missouri 5 9/16
::2012/03/01::
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42
Cave Dig 1-25-11 (KILLER ADENA)
Cave Dig 1-25-11 (KILLER ADENA)
::2011/01/25::
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43
Killer adena!! Caution language
Killer adena!! Caution language
::2013/05/16::
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44
ruins of Adena Earthworks at Portsmouth,Ohio-Horseshoe mound.
ruins of Adena Earthworks at Portsmouth,Ohio-Horseshoe mound.
::2012/09/05::
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45
Arrowhead Hunting 101 Adena Saving Heritage Cherokee
Arrowhead Hunting 101 Adena Saving Heritage Cherokee
::2011/05/30::
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46
My best Adena
My best Adena
::2013/10/11::
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Serpent Mound , Ohio - 2014 HD
Serpent Mound , Ohio - 2014 HD
::2014/08/03::
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48
The Adena Trail
The Adena Trail
::2012/05/21::
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49
Adena mounds at Portsmouth Ohio-Artists Rendition.
Adena mounds at Portsmouth Ohio-Artists Rendition.
::2012/09/05::
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One State-Many Nations -- Prehistoric Ohioans
One State-Many Nations -- Prehistoric Ohioans
::2011/02/10::
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Map of the Archaeological Cultures of Ohio

The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BCE, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in a variety of locations, including: Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky, New York, and parts of Pennsylvania and Maryland.

Importance[edit]

Adena sites are concentrated in a relatively small area - maybe 200 sites in the central Ohio Valley, with perhaps another 200 scattered throughout Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia and Pennsylvania, although they may once have numbered in the thousands. The importance of the Adena complex comes from its considerable influence on other contemporary and succeeding cultures.[1] The Adena culture is seen as the precursor to the traditions of the Hopewell culture, which are sometimes thought as an elaboration, or zenith, of Adena traditions.

The Adena were notable for their agricultural practices, pottery, artistic works and extensive trading network, which supplied them with a variety of raw materials, ranging from copper from the Great Lakes to shells from the Gulf Coast.[2][3][4] The Adena culture was named for the large mound on Thomas Worthington's early 19th-century estate called "Adena", in Chillicothe, Ohio.[5]

Art and religion[edit]

Mounds[edit]

Lasting traces of Adena culture are still seen in their substantial earthworks. Once Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, but only a small number of Adena earthen monuments still survive today. These mounds generally ranged in size from 20 feet (6.1 m) to 300 feet (91 m) in diameter and served as burial structures, ceremonial sites, historical markers and possibly gathering places. These mounds were built using hundreds of thousands of baskets full of specially selected and graded earth. According to archaeological investigations, Adena mounds were usually built as part of burial ritual, in which the earth of the mound was piled immediately atop a burned mortuary building. These mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their final burial was performed. Before the construction of the mounds, some utilitarian and grave goods would be placed on the floor of the structure, which was burned with the goods and honored dead within. The mound would then be constructed, and often a new mortuary structure would be placed atop the new mound. After a series of repetitions, mound/mortuary/mound/mortuary, a quite prominent earthwork would remain. In the later Adena period, circular ridges of unknown function were sometimes constructed around the burial mounds.[1] Adena mounds stood in isolation from domestic living areas.[6]

Prominent mounds[edit]

Site Image Description
Adena Mound Adena Mound Adena Mound, the type site for the culture, a registered historic structure near Chillicothe, Ohio
Biggs Site Biggs Site The site, located in Greenup County, Kentucky, is a conical abide surrounded by a series of circular ditches and embankments. It is connected to the Portsmouth Earthworks directly across the Ohio River in Portsmouth, Ohio.[7][8]
Criel Mound Criel Mound A 35-foot (11 m) high and 175-foot (53 m)-diameter conical mound, is the second largest of its type in West Virginia. It is located in South Charleston, West Virginia. P. W. Norris of the Smithsonian Institution oversaw the excavation. His team discovered numerous skeletons along with weapons and jewelry.[9]
Enon Mound Enon Mound Ohio's second largest conical burial mound, it is believed to have been built by the Adena.
Grave Creek Mound Grave Creek Mound At 69 feet (21 m) high and 295 feet (90 m) in diameter, is the largest conical-type burial mound in the United States. It is located in Moundsville, West Virginia. In 1838, much of the archaeological evidence in this mound was destroyed when several non-archaeologists tunneled into the mound.[9][10]
Miamisburg Mound Miamisburg Mound Once serving as an ancient burial site, the Mound is the most recognizable landmark in Miamisburg. It is the largest conical burial mound in Ohio, and remains virtually intact. Located in a city park at 900 Mound Avenue, it is an Ohio historical site and serves as a popular attraction and picnic destination for area families. Visitors can climb to the top of the mound, via stone-masonry steps.
Wolf Plains Group Wolf Plains Group A Late Adena group of 30 earthworks including 22 conical mounds and nine circular enclosures.[11] located a few miles to the northwest of Athens, Ohio,

Shamanism[edit]

Although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many later Native Americans began with the Adena.[6] Motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures. Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, and the transformation of humans into animals—particularly birds, wolves, bears and deer—and back to human form. This may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals' qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects. Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf, deer and mountain lion jawbones, and many other objects were fashioned into costumes, necklaces and other forms of regalia by the Adena.[12] Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with either flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces, suggest the offering of smoke to the spirits. The objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, achieved through the use of the hallucinogenic plant Nicotiana rustica. All told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs.[6]

Stone tablets[edit]

The Adena also carved small stone tablets, usually 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by .5 inches thick. On one or both flat sides were gracefully composed stylized zoomorphs or curvilinear geometric designs in deep relief. Paint has been found on some Adena tablets, leading archaeologists to propose that these stone tablets were probably used to stamp designs on cloth or animal hides, or onto their own bodies.[12] Its possible they were used to outline designs for tattooing.[6]

Pottery[edit]

Unlike in other cultures, Adena pottery was not buried with the dead or the remains of the cremated, as were other artifacts. Usually tempered with grit or crushed limestone, it was largely plain, cord-marked or fabric marked, although one type bore a nested-diamond design incised into its surface. The vessel shapes were sub-conoidal or flat-bottomed jars, sometimes with small foot-like supports.[13]

Domestic life[edit]

Settlement patterns[edit]

The large and elaborate mound sites served a nearby scattering of people. The population was dispersed in small settlements of one to two structures. A typical house was built in a circle form from 15 to 45 feet in diameter. The walls were made of paired posts tilted outward, joined to other wood to form a cone shaped roof. The roof was then covered with bark and the walls may have been bark and/or wickerwork.[14]

Food sources[edit]

Their subsistence was acquired through foraging and the cultivation of native plants.

  • Hunted deer, elk, black bear, woodchuck, beaver, porcupine, turkey, trumpeter swan, ruffed grouse
  • Gathered several edible seed grasses and nuts.[15]
  • Cultivated pumpkin, squash, sunflower, and goosefoot.[6]

Tools[edit]

The Adena ground stone tools and axes. Somewhat rougher slab-like stones with chipped edges were probably used as hoes. Bone and antler were used in small tools but even more prominently in ornamental objects such as beads, combs, and worked animal-jaw gorgets or paraphernalia. Spoons, beads and other implements were made from the marine conch. A few copper axes have been found, but otherwise the metal was hammered into ornamental forms, such as bracelets, rings, beads, and reel-shaped pendants.[13]

See also[edit]

Preceded by
Early Woodland Period
Adena culture
1000 BCE-200 BCE
Succeeded by
Ohio Hopewell

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Native Peoples of North America–Adena". Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  2. ^ "Civilizations Of The Americas, The Peoples To The North". Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  3. ^ "Early Woodland: Northeastern Middlesex Tradition". Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  4. ^ "Grave Creek Mound Archaeological Complex". Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  5. ^ "Identifying Flint Artifacts/Early Woodland People". Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Adena-Definition from Answers.com". Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  7. ^ "Portsmouth Earthworks-Ohio Central History". Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  8. ^ Lewis, R. Barry (1996). Kentucky Archaeology. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-1907-6. 
  9. ^ a b "Mounds and Mound Builders". Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  10. ^ "Mounds and Mound Builders". Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  11. ^ "The Archaeological Conservancy-2008 Annual Report". Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  12. ^ a b Power, Susan (2004). Early Art of the Southeastern Indians-Feathered Serpents and Winged Beings. University of Georgia Press. pp. 29–34. ISBN 978-0-8203-2501-9. 
  13. ^ a b "Adena Site". Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  14. ^ "The Adena Mounds". Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  15. ^ "NA Archaeology : Adena". Archived from the original on 2008-06-27. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°04′21″N 83°57′03″W / 38.07250°N 83.95083°W / 38.07250; -83.95083

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