Symposium: Where did the Albanian language & the Albanians come from? (10 November 2012, Leiden)
The history of the Albanian alphabet is closely linked with the influence of religion among Albanians. The writers from the North of Albania used Latin letters under the influence of the Catholic Church, those from the South of Albania under the Greek Orthodox church used Greek letters, while others used Arabic letters under the influence of Islam. There were also attempts for an original Albanian alphabet in the period of 1750-1850. The current alphabet in use among Albanians is one of the two variants approved in the Congress of Monastir held by Albanian intellectuals from November 14 to 22 November 1908, in Monastir (Bitola, Macedonia).
A first reference for Latin letters was in a medieval Latin manuscript of 1332, possibly attributed to a monk called Brocardus Monacus or to one Guillaume Adam. In this manuscript there is a quoted phrase about the existence of books in Albania "licet Albanenses aliam omnino linguam a latina habeant et diversam, tamen litteram latinam habent in usu et in omnibus suis libris" (English: The Albanians indeed have a language quite different from Latin, however they use Latin letters in all their books).
The first certain document in Albanian "Formula e pagëzimit" (1462) (Baptesimal formula), issued by Pal Engjëlli, (1417–1470) was written in Latin characters. It was a simple phrase that was supposed to be used by the relatives of a dying person if they couldn't make it to churches during the troubled times of the Ottoman invasion.
Also, the five Albanian writers of the 16th and 17th centuries (Gjon Buzuku, Lekë Matrënga, Pjetër Budi, Frang Bardhi and Pjetër Bogdani) who form the core of early Albanian literature, all used a Latin alphabet for their Albanian books; this alphabet remained in use by writers in northern Albania until the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1857 Kostandin Kristoforidhi, an Albanian scholar and translator, drafted in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire, a Memorandum for the Albanian language'. He then went to Malta where he stayed until 1860 in a Protestant seminary, finishing the translation of The New Testament in the Tosk and Gheg dialects. He was helped by Nikolla Serreqi from Shkodër with the Gheg version of the Testament. Nikolla Serreqi was also the propulsor for the use of the Latin script for the translation of the New Testament, which had already been used by the early writers of the Albanian literature and Kristoforidhi enthousiastically embraced the idea of a Latin alphabet.
In November 1869, a Commission for the Alphabet of the Albanian Language was gathered in Istanbul. One of its members was Kostandin Kristoforidhi and the main purpose of the Commission was the creation of a unique alphabet for all the Albanians. In January 1870 the Commission ended its work of the standardization of the alphabet, which was mainly in Latin letters. A plan on the creation of textbooks and spread of Albanian schools was drafted. However this plan was not realized, because the Ottoman Government wouldn't finance the expenses for the establishment of such schools.
Although this commission had gathered and delivered an alphabet in 1870, the writers from the North still used the Latin based alphabet, whereas in Southern Albania writers used mostly the Greek letters. In Southern Albania, the main activity of Albanian writers consisted mostly in translating Greek Orthodox religious text and not in forming any kind of literature which could form a strong tradition for the use of Greek letters. As the Albanologist Robert Elsie has written:
The predominance of Greek as the language of Christian education and culture in southern Albania and the often hostile attitude of the Orthodox church to the spread of writing in Albanian made it impossible for an Albanian literature in Greek script to evolve. The Orthodox church, as the main vehicle of culture in the southern Balkans, while intent on spreading Christian education and values, was never convinced of the utility of writing in the vernacular as a means of converting the masses, as the Catholic church in northern Albania had been, to a certain extent, during the Counter-Reformation. Nor, with the exception of the ephemeral printing press in Voskopoja, did the southern Albanians ever have at their disposal publishing facilities like those available to the clerics and scholars of Catholic Albania in Venice and Dalmatia. As such, the Orthodox tradition in Albanian writing, a strong cultural heritage of scholarship and erudition, though one limited primarily to translations of religious texts and to the compilation of dictionaries, was to remain a flower which never really blossomed.
The turning point was the aftermath of the League of Prizren (1878) events when in 1879 Sami Frashëri and Naim Frashëri formed the Society for the Publication of Albanian Writings. Sami Frashëri, Koto Hoxhi, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto created an alphabet. This was based on the principle of "one sound one letter" (although the revision of 1908 replaced the letter ρ by the rr digraph to avoid confusion with p). This was called the "Istanbul alphabet" (also "Frashëri alphabet"). In 1905 this alphabet was in widespread use in all Albanian territory, North and South, including Catholic, Muslim and Orthodox areas.
One year earlier, in 1904 had been published the Albanian dictionary (Albanian: Fjalori i Gjuhës Shqipe) of Kostandin Kristoforidhi, after the author's death. The dictionary had been drafted 25 years before its publication and was written in the Greek alphabet.
The so-called Bashkimi alphabet was designed for being written on a French typewriter and includes no diacritics other than é (compared to ten graphemes of the Istanbul alphabet which were either non-Latin or had diacritics).
In 1908, the Congress of Monastir was held by Albanian intellectuals in Bitola, Ottoman Empire, modern-day Republic of Macedonia. The Congress was hosted by the Bashkimi ("unity") club, and prominent delegates included Gjergj Fishta, Ndre Mjeda, Mit'hat Frashëri, Sotir Peçi, Shahin Kolonja, and Gjergj D. Qiriazi. There was much debate and the contending alphabets were Istanbul, Bashkimi and Agimi. However, the Congress was unable to make a clear decision and opted for a compromise solution of using both the widely used Istanbul, with minor changes, and a modified version of the Bashkimi alphabet. Usage of the alphabet of Istanbul declined rapidly and it was essentially extinct over the following decades.
During 1909 and 1910 there were movements by Young Turks supporters to adopt an Arabic alphabet, as they considered the Latin script to be un-Islamic. In Korçë and Gjirokastër, demonstrations took place favoring the Latin script, and in Elbasan, Muslim clerics led a demonstration for the Arabic script, telling their congregations that using the Latin script would make them infidels. In 1911, the Young Turks dropped their opposition to the Latin script; finally, the Latin Bashkimi alphabet was adopted, and is still in use today.
The modifications to the Bashkimi alphabet were made to include characters used in the Istanbul and Agimi alphabets. Ç was chosen over ch since c with cedilla could be found on every typewriter, given its extensive use in Romance languages. Other changes were more esthetic and as a way to combine the three scripts.
|Bashkimi alphabet:||A a||B b||Ts ts||Ch ch||D d||Dh dh||É é||E e||F f||G g||Gh gh||H h||I i||J j||K k||L l||Ll ll||M m||N n||Gn gn||O o||P p||C c||R r||Rr rr||S s||Sh sh||T t||Th th||U u||V v||Z z||Zh zh||Y y||X x||Xh xh|
|Istanbul alphabet:||A a||B b||C c||Ç ç||D d||Б δ||E ε||♇ e||F f||G g||Γ γ||H h||I i||J j||K k||L l||Λ λ||M m||N n||И ŋ||O o||Π p||Q q||R r||Ρ ρ||S s||Ϲ σ||T t||Θ θ||U u||V v||X x||X̦ x̦||Y y||Z z||Z̧ z̧|
|Manastir alphabet (modified Bashkimi, current alphabet):||A||B||C||Ç||D||Dh||E||Ë||F||G||Gj||H||I||J||K||L||Ll||M||N||Nj||O||P||Q||R||Rr||S||Sh||T||Th||U||V||X||Xh||Y||Z||Zh|
A second congress at Monastir (Bitola) was held on 21 March 1910, which confirmed the decision taken in the first congress of Monastir. After Albanian independence in 1912, there were two alphabets in use. Following the events of the Balkan wars and World War I, the Bashkimi variant dominated. The Bashkimi alphabet is at the origin of the official alphabet of the Albanian language in use today.
The modern Latin-based Albanian alphabet is the result of long evolution. Before the creation of the unified alphabet, Albanian was written in several different alphabets, with several sub-variants:
Latin Derived Alphabet
Greek Derived Alphabet
Ottoman Derived Alphabet
Before the standardisation of the Albanian alphabet, there were several ways of writing the sounds peculiar to Albanian, namely c, ç, dh, ë, gj, ll, nj, q, rr, sh, th, x, xh, y, z and zh.
The earliest Albanian sources were written by people educated in Italy, as a consequence, the value of the letters were similar to those of the Italian alphabet. The present-day c was written with a z, and the present-day ç was written as c as late as 1895. Conversely, the present-day k was written as c until 1868. c was also written as ts (Reinhold 1855), tz (Rada 1866) and zz. It was first written as c in 1879 by Frashëri but also in 1908 by Pekmezi. ç was also written as tz (Leake 1814), ts (with an overlined s, Reinhold 1855), tš, ci (Kristoforidis 1872), tç (Dozon 1878), č (by Agimi) and ch (by Bashkimi). ç itself was first used by Frasheri (1879).
The present-day q was variously written as ch, chi, k, ky, kj, and as a k with various diacritics (dot, overline, apostrophe). Q was first used in Frashëri's Stamboll mix-alphabet in 1879 and also in the Grammaire albanaise of 1887.
The present day dh was originally written with a character similar to the Greek xi (ξ). This was doubled (ξξ) to write 'th'. These characters were used as late as 1895. Leake first used dh and th in 1814. dh was also written using the Greek letter delta (δ), while Alimi used đ and Frasheri used a d with a hook on the top stem of the letter.
This letter was not usually differentiated from e, but when it was, it was usually done by means of diacritics: ė (Bogdani 1685, da Lecce 1716 and Kristoforidis 1872), e̊ (Lepsius 1863), ẹ̄ (Miklosich 1870) or by new letters ö (Reinhold 1855), υ (Rada 1866), ε (Meyer 1891, note Frasheri used ε for e, and e to write ë; the revision of 1908 swapped these letters) and ə (Alimi). Rada first used ë in 1870.
These two sounds were not usually differentiated. They were variously written as g, gh and ghi. When they were differentiated, g was written as g or (by Liguori 1867) as gh, while gj was written as gi (Leake 1814), g with an overline (Reinhold 1855), g with an acute accent (first used by Lepsius 1863), gy (Dozon 1878) and a modified g (Frasheri). Librandi first used 'gj' in 1897. Rada (1866) used g, gh, gc, and gk for g, and gki for gj.
The older versions of the Albanian alphabet differentiated between two h sounds, one for [h] one for the Voiceless velar fricative. The second sound was written as h, kh, ch, and Greek khi χ.
Three “l” sounds were distinguished in older Albanian alphabets, represented by IPA as /l ɫ ʎ/. l /l/ was written as l. ll /ɫ/ was written as λ, italic l, lh and ł. Blanchi (1635) first used ll. /ʎ/ was written as l, li, l’, lh, gl, ly and lj.
This sound was most commonly written as gn in Italian fashion. It was also written as italic n (Leake 1814), overlined n (Reinhold 1855), ń (first used by Lepsius 1863), dotted n (Miklosich 1870 and Meyer 1888). The Grammaire albanaise first used nj in 1887.
Blanchi first used rr to represent this sound. However, also used were Greek rho (ρ) (Miklosich 1870), dotted r (Kristoforidis 1872), rh (Dozon 1878 and Grammaire albanaise 1887), overlined r (Meyer 1888 and 1891), r with a grave accent (Alimi) and p (Frasheri, who used a modified p for [p]).
These two sounds were not consistently differentiated in the earliest versions of the Albanian alphabet. When they were differentiated, s was represented by s or ss, while sh was represented by sc, ſc, overlined s (Reinhold 1855), ç (Dozon 1878) and š. sh was first used by Rada in 1866.
Frasheri first used x to represent this sound. Formerly, it was written variously as ds (Kristoforidis 1872), dz, z, and zh.
The Grammaire albanaise (1887) first used xh. Formerly, it was written variously as gi, g, dš, dž, x and zh.
This sound was written as y in 1828. Formerly it was written as uk, italic u (Leake 1814), ü, u with two underdots, and ε.
Leake first used z to represent this sound in 1814. Formerly, it was written variously as a backward 3, Greek zeta (ζ), x (Bashkimi) and a symbol similar to p (Altsmar).
This sound was variously written as an overlined ζ, sg, ž, j, underdotted z, xh (Bashkimi), zc. It was also written with a backward 3 in combination: 3gh and 3c.
Orthodox Albanians in the south of the country used the Greek alphabet to write in Albanian.
|Modern Albanian||Albanian written in the Greek alphabet|
|b||μπ, π, dotted π, b, b|
|ç||τσσ, τσ (σ with two dots)|
|d||ντ, τ, dotted δ, d|
|ë||α with a small vertical stroke underneath, underlined ε|
|g||γκ, γ, dotted γ, γ’|
|gj||γκι, γι, dotted γj, γj|
|h||χ, dotted χ|
|j||γ, γι, j|
|k||κ, dotted κ|
|ll||λ, dotted λ|
|lj||λι, dotted λ, λj|
|nj||ννι, dotted ν, νj|
|q||κι, κj, dotted κ|
|rr||ρρ, dotted ρ|
|sh||σσ, σ with two dots, σ’, σς|
|u||ου, ѹ (uk)|
|xh||dς, dσ (σ with two dots)|
|zh||ζζ, dotted ζ|
The letters ξ and ψ were also used to represent modern letter combinations ks and ps, respectively.
|Cyrillic:||а||б||ц||ч||д||δ||е||ъ||ф||г||гї, гj, ђ||х||ї, и||ѣ, j||к||л, љ||л||м||н||нї, њ||о||п||кї, ћ||р||рр||с||ш||т||ѳ||у||в||дс||џ||ју, ӱ||з||ж|
|Arabic:||آ||ب||تس||چ||د||ذ||ا َ||ف||غ||ﻚ||ﻫ||ا ِ||ى||ڧ||لل||ل||م||ن||نى||ٻ||ﮎ||ر||رر||س||ش||ت||ث||او||و||دس||ج||و َ||ز||ژ|
Cuvendi i arbenit o concilli provintiaalli mbelieδune viettit mije sctat cint e tre ndne schiptarin Clementin XI. pape pretemaδin. E duta sctamp. Conciliun albanum provinciale sive nationale habitum anno MDCCCIII. Clemente XI. pont. max. albano. Editio secunda, posteriorum constitutionum apostolicarum ad Epiri ecclesias spectantium appendice ditata. Romae. Typis s. congregationis de propaganda fide. 1868.
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