|Native to||Southeastern Europe and Albanian diaspora|
|Native speakers||7,436,990 (date missing)|
|Writing system||Latin (Albanian alphabet)
|Official language in|| Albania
|Recognised minority language in|| Italy
|Regulated by||officially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania|
|ISO 639-2||alb (B)
|ISO 639-3||sqi – inclusive code
aae – Arbëreshë
aat – Arvanitika
aln – Gheg
als – Tosk
|Linguasphere||55-AAA-aaa to 55-AAA-ahe (25 varieties)|
Albanian (gjuha shqipe [ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ] or shqip [ʃcip]) is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.4 million people all over the world, primarily in Albania and Kosovo but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including western Republic of Macedonia, southern Montenegro, Greece and Italy. Albanian is also spoken in centuries-old Albanian-based dialect speaking communities scattered in southern Greece, southern Italy, Sicily, and Ukraine. Additionally, speakers of Albanian can be found elsewhere throughout the latter two countries resulting from a modern diaspora, originating from the Balkans, that also includes Scandinavia, Switzerland, Germany, United Kingdom, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Singapore, Brazil, Canada, and the United States.
|Part of a series on|
|Balkan countries with substantial Albanian population|
|Varieties of Albanian|
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The first written mention of the Albanian language was on 14 July 1285 in Dubrovnik when a certain Matthew, witness of a crime, stated "I heard a voice shouting on the mountainside in the Albanian tongue" (Latin: Audivi uriam voce, clamantem in monte in lingua albanesca).
The Albanian language is an Indo-European language in a branch by itself, sharing its branch with no other language; the other extant Indo-European languages each in a branch by itself are Armenian and, in some classifications, Greek. Sharing lexical isoglosses with Greek, Balto-Slavic, and Germanic, the vocabulary of Albanian is quite distinct. Once hastily grouped with Germanic and Balto-Slavic by the merger of PIE *ǒ and *ǎ into *ǎ in a supposed "northern group", Albanian has proven to be distinct from these two, as this vowel shift is only part of a larger push chain that affected all long vowels. Albanian does share two features with Balto-Slavic languages: (1) a lengthening of syllabic consonants before voiced obstruents and (2) a distinct treatment of long syllables ending in a sonorant. Conservative features of Albanian include the retention of the distinction between active and middle voice, present tense and aorist.
Albanian is considered to have evolved from an extinct Paleo-Balkan language, usually taken to be either Illyrian or Thracian, but the relation to modern Albanian is disputed. See also Thraco-Illyrian and Messapian language.
The earliest loanwords attested in Albanian are from Doric Greek (probably indirect) while the heaviest influence was that of Latin. The period during which Proto-Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted and drawn out roughly from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD. This is borne out into roughly three layers of borrowings, the largest number belonging to the second layer. The first, with the fewest borrowings, was a time of less important interaction. The final period, probably preceding the Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a notably smaller number of borrowings. Each layer is characterized by a different treatment of most vowels, the first layer having several that follow the evolution of Early Proto-Albanian into Albanian; later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin and presumably Proto-Romance. Other formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well as a large scale palatalization.
A brief period followed, between the 7th and 9th centuries AD, that was marked by heavy borrowings from Southern Slavic, some of which predate the "o-a" shift common to the modern forms of this language group. Starting in the latter 9th century AD, there was a period characterized by protracted contact with the Proto-Romanians, or Vlachs, though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided—from Albanian into Romanian. Such borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers, i.e. Dardania, where Vlachs are recorded in the 10th century AD. Their movement is probably related to the expansion of the Bulgarian empire into Albania around that time. This fact places the Albanians in the western or central Balkans at a rather early date.
According to the central hypothesis of a project undertaken by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, Old Albanian had a significant influence on the development of many Balkan languages. Intensive research now aims to confirm this theory. Albanian is being researched using all available texts before a comparison with other Balkan languages is carried out. The outcome of this work will include the compilation of a lexicon providing an overview of all Old Albanian verbs.
Jernej Kopitar (1829) was the first to note Latin's influence on Albanian and claimed "the Latin loanwords in the Albanian language had the pronunciation of the time of Emperor Augustus". Kopitar gave examples such as Albanian "qiqer" from Latin cicer, "qytet" from civitas, "peshk" from piscis, and "shëngjetë" from sagitta. The hard pronunciations of Latin ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ are retained as palatal and velar stops in the Albanian loanwords. Gustav Meyer (1888) and Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1914) later corroborated this.
Haralambie Mihăescu demonstrated that
Other authors have detected Latin loanwords in Albanian with an ancient sound pattern from the 1st century BC, for example, Albanian qingëlë from Latin cingula and Albanian vjetër from Latin vetus/veteris. The Romance languages inherited these words from Vulgar Latin: Vulgar *cingla became N. Romanian chinga meaning 'belly band, saddle girth' and Vulgar veteran became N. Romanian bătrân meaning 'old'.
The place where the Albanian language was formed is uncertain, but analysis has suggested that it was in a mountainous region, rather than in a plain or seacoast: while the words for plants and animals characteristic of mountainous regions are entirely original, the names for fish and for agricultural activities (such as ploughing) are borrowed from other languages.
The center of Albanian settlement remained the Mat River. In AD 1079 they are recorded farther south in the valley of the Shkumbin river. The Shkumbin, a seasonal stream that lay near the old Via Egnatia, is approximately the boundary of the primary dialect division for Albanian, Tosk-Gheg. The characteristics of Tosk and Gheg in the treatment of the native and loanwords from other languages are evidence that the dialectal split preceded the Slavic migration to the Balkans which means that in that period (5th to 6th centuries AD) Albanians were occupying pretty much the same area around the Shkumbin river, which straddled the Jirecek line.
References to the existence of Albanian as a distinct language survive from the 14th century, but they failed to cite specific words. The oldest surviving documents written in Albanian are the "Formula e Pagëzimit" (Baptismal formula), "Un'te paghesont' pr'emenit t'Atit e t'Birit e t'Spertit Senit." (I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit) recorded by Pal Engjelli, Bishop of Durrës in 1462 in the Gheg dialect, and some New Testament verses from that period.
The oldest known Albanian printed book, Meshari or missal, was written in 1555 by Gjon Buzuku, a Roman Catholic cleric. In 1635, Frang Bardhi wrote the first Latin-Albanian dictionary. The first Albanian school is believed to have been opened by Franciscans in 1638 in Pdhanë.
The Albanian language has been written using many different alphabets since the earliest records from the 15th century. The history of Albanian language orthography is closely related to the cultural orientation and knowledge of certain foreign languages among Albanian writers. The earliest written Albanian records come from the Gheg area in makeshift spellings based on Italian or Greek and sometimes in Turko-Arabic characters. Originally, the Tosk dialect was written in the Greek alphabet and the Gheg dialect was written in the Latin script. Both dialects had also been written in the Ottoman Turkish version of the Arabic script, Cyrillic, and some local alphabets[which?]. More specifically, the writers from Northern Albania and under the influence of the Catholic Church used Latin letters, those in southern Albania and under the influence of the Greek Orthodox church used Greek letters, while others throughout Albania and under the influence of Islam used Arabic letters. There were initial attempts to create an original Albanian alphabet during the 1750–1850 period. These attempts intensified after the League of Prizren and culminated with the Congress of Monastir held by Albanian intellectuals from 14 to 22 November 1908, in Monastir (present day Bitola), which decided the alphabet and standardized spelling for standard Albanian down to the present. The alphabet is the Latin alphabet with the addition of the letters ë, ç, and nine digraphs.
The earliest known texts in Albanian:
The first book in Albanian is the Meshari (The Missal), written by Gjon Buzuku between 20 March 1554 to 5 January 1555. The book was written in the Gheg dialect in the Latin script with some Slavic letters adapted for Albanian vowels. The book was discovered in 1740 by Gjon Nikollë Kazazi, the Albanian archbishop of Skopje. It contains the liturgies of the main holidays. There are also texts of prayers and rituals and catechetical texts. The grammar and the vocabulary are more archaic than those in the Gheg texts from the 17th century. The 188 pages of the book comprise about 154,000 words with a total vocabulary of c. 1,500 different words. The text is archaic yet easily interpreted because it is mainly a translation of known texts, in particular portions of the Bible. The book also contains passages from the Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, the Book of Jeremiah, the Letters to the Corinthians, and many illustrations. The uniformity of spelling seems to indicate an earlier tradition of writing. The only known copy of the Meshari is held by the Apostolic Library. In 1968 the book was published with transliterations and comments by linguists.
"A star has fallen in a place in the woods, distinguish the star, distinguish it.
Distinguish the star from the others, they are ours, they are.Call the light when the moon falls and no longer exists ..."
Do you see where the great voice has resounded? Stand beside it
That thunder. It did not fall. It did not fall for you, the one which would do it.
Like the ears, you should not believe ... that the moon fell when ...
Try to encompass that which spurts far ...
Dr. Robert Elsie, a specialist in Albanian studies, considers that "The Todericiu/Polena Romanian translation of the non-Latin lines, although it may offer some clues if the text is indeed Albanian, is fanciful and based, among other things, on a false reading of the manuscript, including the exclusion of a whole line."
In 1635 Frang Bardhi (1606–1643) published in Rome his Dictionarum latinum-epiroticum, the first known Latin-Albanian dictionary. Other scholars who studied the language during the 17th century include Andrea Bogdani (1600–1685), author of the first Latin-Albanian grammar book, Nilo Katalanos (1637–1694) and others.
Standard Albanian is based on the Tosk dialect. Prior to World War II, dictionaries consulted by developers of the standard have included Lexikon tis Alvanikis glossis (Albanian: Fjalori i Gjuhës Shqipe (Kostandin Kristoforidhi, 1904), Fjalori i Bashkimit (1908), Gazulli (1941). After World War II standardization was directed by the Institute of Albanian Language and Literature of the Academy of Sciences of Albania. Two dictionaries were published in 1954, an Albanian language dictionary and a Russian–Albanian dictionary. New orthography rules were eventually published in 1967Template:Lloshi and 1973 (Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe (Orthography of the Albanian Language). More recent dictionaries from the Albanian government are Fjalori drejtshkrimor i gjuhës shqipe (1976) (Orthographic Dictionary of the Albanian Language) and Dictionary of Today's Albanian language (Fjalori i sotëm i gjuhës shqipe) (1980).
Albanian was formerly compared by some Indo-Europeanists with Balto-Slavic and Germanic, both of which share a number of isoglosses with Albanian. Moreover, Albanian has undergone a vowel shift in which stressed, long o has fallen to a, much like in the former and opposite the latter. Likewise, Albanian has taken the old relative jos and innovatively used it exclusively to qualify adjectives, much in the way Balto-Slavic has used this word to provide the definite ending of adjectives. Other linguists link Albanian with Greek and Armenian, while placing Germanic and Balto-Slavic in another branch of Indo-European. Nakhleh, Ringe, and Warnow argued that Albanian can be placed at a variety of points within the Indo-European tree with equally good fit; determining its correct placement is hampered by the loss of much of its former diagnostic inflectional morphology and vocabulary.
Albanian is often seen as the descendant of Illyrian, although this hypothesis has been challenged by some linguists, who maintain that it derives from Dacian or Thracian. (Illyrian, Dacian, and Thracian, however, may have formed a subgroup or a Sprachbund; see Thraco-Illyrian).
According to the central hypothesis of a project undertaken by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, Old Albanian had a significant influence on the development of many Balkan languages. Intensive research now aims to confirm this theory. This little-known language is being researched using all available texts before a comparison with other Balkan languages is carried out. The outcome of this work will include the compilation of a lexicon providing an overview of all Old Albanian verbs.
The demonstrative pronoun *ko is ancestral to Albanian ky/kjo and English he.
|Albanian||muaj||ri||motër (sister)||vajzë (girl)||natë||hundë||tre||zi||pruth (red hair)||gjelbër||diell (sun)||ujk|
|Other Indo-European languages|
|Old Church Slavonic||мѣсѧць
Phonologically Albanian is not so conservative. Like many IE stocks it has merged the two series of voiced stops (e.g. both *d and *dʰ became d). In addition the voiced stops tend to disappear when between vowels. There is almost complete loss of final syllables and very widespread loss of other unstressed syllables (e.g. mik "friend" from Lat. amicus). PIE *a and *o appear as a (further e if a high front vowel *i follows) while *ē and *ā become o, and PIE *ō appears as e. The palatals, velars and labiovelars all remain distinct before front vowels, a conservation found otherwise in Luvian and related Anatolian languages. Thus PIE *ḱ, *k and *kʷ become th, q and s respectively (before back vowels *ḱ becomes th while *k and *kʷ merge as k). Another remarkable retention is the preservation of initial *h4 as Alb. h (all other laryngeals disappear completely).[dubious ]
|*p||p||*pékʷo—"cook"||pjek "to cook, roast, bake"|
|*b||b||*sorbéi̯e/o—"drink, slurp"||gjerb "to drink"|
|*bʰ||b||*bʰaḱeh₂—"bean"||bathë "broad bean"|
|*t||t||*túh₂—"thou"||ti "you (singular)"|
|dh[* 1]||*pérde/o—"fart"||pjerdh "to fart"|
|g||*dl̥h₁gʰós—"long"||gjatë "long" (Tosk dial. glatë)|
|*dʰ||d||*dʰégʷʰe/o—"burn"||djeg "to burn"|
|dh[* 1]||*gʰórdʰos—"enclosure"||gardh "fence"|
|*ḱ||th||*ḱéh₁mi—"I say"||thom "I say"|
|s[* 1]||*ḱuk—"horn"||sutë "doe"|
|k[* 2]||*ḱreh₂u—"limb"||krah "arm"|
|ç/c[* 3]||*ḱentro—"to stick"||çandër "prop"|
|*ǵ||dh||*ǵómbʰos—"tooth, peg"||dhëmb "tooth"|
|d[* 4]||*ǵēusnō—"to enjoy"||dua "to love, want"|
|*ǵʰ||dh||*ǵʰedi̯e/o—"to defecate"||dhjes "to defecate"|
|d[* 4]||*ǵʰr̥sdʰi—"grain, barley"||drithë "grain"|
|*k||k||*kágʰmi—"I catch, grasp"||kam "I have"|
|q||*klau-ei̯e/o—"to weep"||qaj "to weep, cry" (Gheg qanj, Salamis kla)|
|gj||*h₁reuge—"to retch"||regj "to tan hides"|
|gj||*gʰédni̯e/o—"get"||gjej "to find" (Gheg gjêj)|
|s||*kʷéle/o—"turn"||sjell "to fetch, bring"|
|z||*gʷērHu—"heaviness"||zor "heaviness; trouble"|
|*gʷʰ||g||*dʰégʷʰe/o—"to burn"||djeg "to burn"|
|z||*h1en-dʰogʷʰéi̯e/o—"to ignite"||ndez "to kindle, turn on"|
|*s||gj[* 1]||*séḱstis—"six"||gjashtë "six"|
|h[* 2]||*nosōm—"us" (gen.)||nahe "us" (dat.)|
|sh[* 3]||*bʰreusinos—"break"||breshër "hail"|
|th[* 4]||*gʷésdos—"leaf"||gjeth "leaf"|
|h[* 5]||*sḱi-eh₂—"shadow"||hije "shadow"|
|f[* 6]||*spélnom—"speech"||fjalë "word"|
|sht[* 7]||*h₂osti "bone"||asht "bone"|
|th[* 8]||*suh₁s—"swine"||thi "boar"|
|∅||h₁ésmi—"am"||jam "to be"|
|*i̯||gj[* 1]||*i̯ése/o—"to ferment"||gjesh "to knead"|
|j[* 2]||*i̯uHs—"you" (nom.)||ju "you (plural)"|
|∅[* 3]||*bʰéri̯ō—"bear, carry"||bie(r) "to bring"|
|h[* 4]||*streh₂i̯eh₂—"straw"||strohë "kennel"|
|*u̯||v||*u̯oséi̯e/o—"to dress"||vesh "to wear, dress"|
|*n||n||*nōs—"we" (acc.)||ne "we"|
|nj||*eni-h₁ói-no—"that one"||një "one" (Gheg njâ, njo)|
|∅/^||*pénkʷe—"five"||pesë, Gheg pês "five"|
|r||*ǵʰeimen—"winter"||dimër "winter" (Gheg dimën)|
|ll||*kʷéle/o—"turn"||sjell "to fetch, bring"|
|rr||*u̯rh₁ḗn—"sheep"||rrunjë "yearling lamb"|
|*l̥||uj||*u̯ĺ̥kʷos—"wolf"||ujk "wolf" (Chamian ulk)|
|*r̥||ri, ir||*ǵʰr̥sdom—"grain, barley"||drithë "grain"|
|*h1||∅||*h₁ésmi—"am"||jam "to be"|
|*i||i||*sínos—"bosom"||gji "bosom, breast"|
|*e||e||*pénkʷe—"five"||pesë "five" (Gheg pês)|
|je||*u̯étos—"year" (loc.)||vjet "last year"|
|*a||a||*bʰaḱeh₂- "bean"||bathë "bean"|
Albanian is spoken by approximately 7.4 million people, mainly in Albania, Kosovo, Turkey, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Italy (Arbereshe); and by immigrant communities in many other countries, notably the United Kingdom, the USA, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland.
Standard Albanian, based on the Tosk dialect of southern Albania, is the official language of Albania and Kosovo; and is also official in municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia where ethnic Albanians form more than 20% of the municipal population. It is also an official language of Montenegro, where it is spoken in the municipalities with ethnic Albanian populations.
Albanian is divided into three major dialects: Gheg, Tosk, and a transitional dialect zone between them. The Shkumbin river is roughly the dividing line, with Gheg spoken north of the Shkumbin and Tosk south of it.
Standard Albanian has 7 vowels and 29 consonants. Gheg uses long and nasal vowels which are absent in Tosk, and the mid-central vowel ë is lost at the end of the word. The stress is fixed mainly on the last syllable. Gheg n (femën: compare English feminine) changes to r by rhotacism in Tosk (femër).
|Plosive||p b||t d||c ɟ||k ɡ|
|Affricate||ts dz||tʃ dʒ|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||h|
|IPA||Description||Written as||Pronounced as in|
|p||Voiceless bilabial plosive||p||pen|
|b||Voiced bilabial plosive||b||bat|
|t||Voiceless alveolar plosive||t||tan|
|d||Voiced alveolar plosive||d||debt|
|c||Voiceless palatal plosive||q||~ cute|
|ɟ||Voiced palatal plosive||gj||~ legume|
|k||Voiceless velar plosive||k||car|
|ɡ||Voiced velar plosive||g||go|
|ts||Voiceless alveolar affricate||c||hats|
|dz||Voiced alveolar affricate||x||goods|
|tʃ||Voiceless postalveolar affricate||ç||chin|
|dʒ||Voiced postalveolar affricate||xh||jet|
|θ||Voiceless dental fricative||th||thin|
|ð||Voiced dental fricative||dh||then|
|f||Voiceless labiodental fricative||f||far|
|v||Voiced labiodental fricative||v||van|
|s||Voiceless alveolar fricative||s||son|
|z||Voiced alveolar fricative||z||zip|
|ʃ||Voiceless postalveolar fricative||sh||show|
|ʒ||Voiced postalveolar fricative||zh||vision|
|h||Voiceless glottal fricative||h||hat|
|l||Alveolar lateral approximant||l||lean|
|ɫ||Velarized alveolar lateral approximant||ll||ball|
|r||Alveolar trill||rr||Spanish perro|
|ɾ||Alveolar tap||r||Spanish pero|
|IPA||Description||Written as||Pronounced as in|
|i||Close front unrounded vowel||i||seed|
|ɛ||Open-mid front unrounded vowel||e||bed|
|a||Open front unrounded vowel||a||father, Spanish casa|
|ə||Schwa||ë||about, Dutch de|
|ɔ||Open-mid back rounded vowel||o||law|
|y||Close front rounded vowel||y||French tu, German über|
|u||Close back rounded vowel||u||boot|
Although the Indo-European schwa (*ə or *-h2-) was preserved in Albanian, in some cases it was lost possibly when a stressed syllable preceded it. Until the standardization of the modern Albanian alphabet, in which the schwa is spelled as <ë> as in the work of Gjon Buzuku in the 16th century, various vowels and gliding vowels were employed including <ae> by Lekë Matrënga and <é> by Pjetër Bogdani in the late 16th and early 17th century. The schwa in Albanian has a great degree of variability from extreme back to extreme front articulation. Within the borders of Albania the phoneme is pronounced about the same in both the Tosk and the Gheg dialect due to the influence of standard Albanian. But in the Gheg dialects spoken in the neighbouring Albanian-speaking areas of Kosovo and Macedonia, the phoneme is still pronounced as back and rounded.
Albanian has a canonical word order of SVO (subject–verb–object) like English and many other Indo-European languages. Albanian nouns are inflected by gender (masculine, feminine and neuter) and number (singular and plural). There are five declensions with six cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative and vocative), although the vocative only occurs with a limited number of words. Some dialects also retain a locative case which is not in standard Albanian. The cases apply to both definite and indefinite nouns and there are numerous cases of syncretism. The equivalent of a genitive is formed by using the prepositions i/e/të/së with the dative.
The following shows the declension of mal (mountain), a masculine noun which ends with "i":
|Indefinite singular||Indefinite plural||Definite singular||Definite plural|
|Nominative||një mal (a mountain)||male (mountains)||mali (the mountain)||malet (the mountains)|
|Genitive||i/e/të/së një mali||i/e/të/së maleve||i/e/të/së malit||i/e/të/së maleve|
|Ablative||(prej) një mali||(prej) malesh||(prej) malit||(prej) maleve|
The following shows the declension of the masculine noun zog (bird), a masculine noun which ends with "u":
|Indefinite singular||Indefinite plural||Definite singular||Definite plural|
|Nominative||një zog (a bird)||zogj (birds)||zogu (the bird)||zogjtë (the birds)|
|Genitive||një i/e/të/së zogu||i/e/të/së zogjve||i/e/të/së zogut||i/e/të/së zogjve|
|Ablative||(prej) një zogu||(prej) zogjsh||(prej) zogut||(prej) zogjve|
The following table shows the declension of the feminine noun vajzë (girl):
|Indefinite singular||Indefinite plural||Definite singular||Definite plural|
|Nominative||një vajzë (a girl)||vajza (girls)||vajza (the girl)||vajzat (the girls)|
|Genitive||i/e/të/së një vajze||i/e/të/së vajzave||i/e/të/së vajzës||i/e/të/së vajzave|
|Ablative||(prej) një vajze||(prej) vajzash||(prej) vajzës||(prej) vajzave|
Albanian has developed an analytical verbal structure in place of the earlier synthetic system, inherited from Proto-Indo-European. Its complex system of moods (6 types) and tenses (3 simple and 5 complex constructions) is distinctive among Balkan languages. There are two general types of conjugation. See Albanian morphology for more information.
In Albanian the constituent order is subject–verb–object and negation is expressed by the particles nuk or s' in front of the verb, for example:
However, the verb can optionally occur in sentence-initial position, especially with verbs in the non-active form (forma joveprore):
In imperative sentences, the particle mos is used:
Albanian verbs, like those of other Balkan languages, have an "admirative" mood (mënyra habitore) which is used to indicate surprise on the part of the speaker, or to imply that an event is known to the speaker by report and not by direct observation. In some contexts, this mood can be translated by English "apparently".
There are some 30 Ancient Greek loanwords in Albanian. Many of these reflect a dialect which voiced its aspirants, as did the Macedonian dialect. Other loanwords are Doric; these words mainly refer to commodity items and trade goods, and probably came through trade with a now-extinct intermediary.
The earliest accepted document in the Albanian language is from the 15th century AD. It is assumed that Greek and Balkan Latin (which was the ancestor of Romanian and other Balkan Romance languages) would exert a great influence on Albanian. Examples of words borrowed from Latin: qytet < civitas (city), qiell < caelum (sky), mik < amicus (friend).
After the Slavs arrived in the Balkans, the Slavic languages became an additional source of loanwords. The rise of the Ottoman Empire meant an influx of Turkish words; this also entailed the borrowing of Persian and Arabic words through Turkish. Surprisingly[editorializing] the Persian words seem to have been absorbed the most. Some loanwords from Modern Greek also exist especially in the south of Albania. A lot of the borrowed words have been resubstituted from Albanian rooted words or modern Latinized (international) words.
|Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Albanian language|
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