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ALEXANDER OPARIN Y EL ORIGEN DE LA VIDA - bioPAOC
ALEXANDER OPARIN Y EL ORIGEN DE LA VIDA - bioPAOC
Published: 2012/10/28
Channel: bio PAOC
Origin of Life | Oparin-Haldane Theory
Origin of Life | Oparin-Haldane Theory
Published: 2014/08/18
Channel: Angie García
Oparin-Haldane Theory of Origin of Life
Oparin-Haldane Theory of Origin of Life
Published: 2015/06/24
Channel: Flexiguru
El Origen De La Vida, Alexander Oparin
El Origen De La Vida, Alexander Oparin
Published: 2014/11/09
Channel: Ronny Zapata
El origen de la vida - Explicación Sencilla HD (720p). ESPAÑOL
El origen de la vida - Explicación Sencilla HD (720p). ESPAÑOL
Published: 2012/06/07
Channel: TOABU2013
Me Salva! OV02 - Evolução química, Oparin e Haldane, Miller
Me Salva! OV02 - Evolução química, Oparin e Haldane, Miller
Published: 2013/04/29
Channel: Me Salva!
Alexander Oparin-Experimento de Miller y Urey
Alexander Oparin-Experimento de Miller y Urey
Published: 2013/06/21
Channel: TheAdria77
EL ORIGEN DE LA VIDA  AUDIO LIBRO
EL ORIGEN DE LA VIDA AUDIO LIBRO
Published: 2015/03/15
Channel: santo gamer
What Was The Miller-Urey Experiment?
What Was The Miller-Urey Experiment?
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: Stated Clearly
Clase 3A  2 - Alexander Oparin - Origen de la vida
Clase 3A 2 - Alexander Oparin - Origen de la vida
Published: 2013/05/23
Channel: Alberto Barrantes
What did Oparin Theorize About the Origin of Life?
What did Oparin Theorize About the Origin of Life?
Published: 2015/06/09
Channel: John Ankerberg Show
oparin-haldane model
oparin-haldane model
Published: 2014/05/06
Channel: jackie Urbina
El Caldo Primitivo
El Caldo Primitivo
Published: 2013/11/04
Channel: Misiac Rodrigo Emiliano
Urey Miller experiment | origin of life
Urey Miller experiment | origin of life
Published: 2013/01/07
Channel: Shomu's Biology
Teoria de Oparin Haldane
Teoria de Oparin Haldane
Published: 2013/08/23
Channel: quepedo81
Teoría de oparin
Teoría de oparin
Published: 2014/01/24
Channel: wendy lopez ariza
Nikitin. 23.09.2014. Oparin-2014
Nikitin. 23.09.2014. Oparin-2014
Published: 2014/10/27
Channel: Research Center of Biotechnology RAS
Biografía Alexandr Ivánovich Oparin ¿Quien es?
Biografía Alexandr Ivánovich Oparin ¿Quien es?
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: Biografías Contadas
ALEXANDER OPARIN -SINTESIS ABIOTICA-
ALEXANDER OPARIN -SINTESIS ABIOTICA-
Published: 2014/09/12
Channel: Erica Santiago
The Oparin and Haldane Experiment
The Oparin and Haldane Experiment
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: Senior Secondary Biology
El oriden de la vida- Alexander Oparin
El oriden de la vida- Alexander Oparin
Published: 2013/05/08
Channel: Ichliebedich8918
Oparin Haldane model
Oparin Haldane model
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: yarmen
Alexander Oparin Pregunta
Alexander Oparin Pregunta
Published: 2010/02/19
Channel: Xacobo de Toro Cacharrón
teoria quimica de oparin
teoria quimica de oparin
Published: 2013/01/28
Channel: juan1234353
TEORIA DE Oparin
TEORIA DE Oparin
Published: 2014/09/07
Channel: Erica Santiago
Teoria fisico quimica del Origen de la Vida
Teoria fisico quimica del Origen de la Vida
Published: 2009/09/04
Channel: Yuvicela Quiroz
Experimento #2 Teoría de Oparin – El caldo de la vida
Experimento #2 Teoría de Oparin – El caldo de la vida
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: Eloy Perez
ORIGEN DE LA VIDA  Louis pasteur y Alexander Oparin
ORIGEN DE LA VIDA Louis pasteur y Alexander Oparin
Published: 2015/05/18
Channel: Agustina Antonio Cruz
Teoria de Oparin e Haldane
Teoria de Oparin e Haldane
Published: 2016/04/04
Channel: Paula Eduarda
Matveev. 23.09.2014. Oparin-2014
Matveev. 23.09.2014. Oparin-2014
Published: 2014/10/22
Channel: Research Center of Biotechnology RAS
Como se inició la vida 22 Sopa de ingredientes Aleksandr Oparin y JBS Haldane
Como se inició la vida 22 Sopa de ingredientes Aleksandr Oparin y JBS Haldane
Published: 2009/07/11
Channel: hugoxgomez
Чемпионат Москвы по блицу 2016. GM Oparin Grigoriy - IM Moskalenko Alexander. Шахматы
Чемпионат Москвы по блицу 2016. GM Oparin Grigoriy - IM Moskalenko Alexander. Шахматы
Published: 2016/09/05
Channel: ♛ ШахМатКанал Шахматы
43. Oparin Vs Nepomniachtchi
43. Oparin Vs Nepomniachtchi
Published: 2017/07/01
Channel: Chess Bee
Markov. 23.09.2014. Oparin-2014
Markov. 23.09.2014. Oparin-2014
Published: 2014/10/27
Channel: Research Center of Biotechnology RAS
2016-09-04 GM Oparin Grigoriy GM Morozevich Alexander  Moscow blitz 07
2016-09-04 GM Oparin Grigoriy GM Morozevich Alexander Moscow blitz 07
Published: 2016/09/05
Channel: Chess Video +
Oparin y Haldane: la Teoría del Caldo Primordial.
Oparin y Haldane: la Teoría del Caldo Primordial.
Published: 2012/11/07
Channel: Pregúntale al Empollón
Oparin-Haldane Hypothesis (chemical evolution)-EVOLUTION for all biology exams.
Oparin-Haldane Hypothesis (chemical evolution)-EVOLUTION for all biology exams.
Published: 2017/04/03
Channel: Vipin Sharma Biology Tutorials
Teoría De Oparin
Teoría De Oparin
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: camilo9045
Teoría Oparin.
Teoría Oparin.
Published: 2016/03/14
Channel: Janett Silverio
Schopf 26.09.2014. Oparin-2014
Schopf 26.09.2014. Oparin-2014
Published: 2014/10/21
Channel: Research Center of Biotechnology RAS
Origen de la vida según Oparin
Origen de la vida según Oparin
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: Erick Lara
A. Morozevich - G. Oparin. Blitz
A. Morozevich - G. Oparin. Blitz
Published: 2015/10/21
Channel: Chess Cast
2 Oparin-Haldane hypothesis (Chemical Evolution-1)
2 Oparin-Haldane hypothesis (Chemical Evolution-1)
Published: 2015/01/09
Channel: guj studyboard
Alexandr Invanovich Oparin
Alexandr Invanovich Oparin
Published: 2012/09/09
Channel: Georgina Ramirez Espindola
2016-09-04 GM Oparin Grigoriy - IM Moskalenko Alexander Moscow blitz
2016-09-04 GM Oparin Grigoriy - IM Moskalenko Alexander Moscow blitz
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: Chess Video +
Popov. 22.09.2014. Oparin-2014
Popov. 22.09.2014. Oparin-2014
Published: 2014/10/21
Channel: Research Center of Biotechnology RAS
TAYCLUB VLADIMIR OPARIN MUAY THAI
TAYCLUB VLADIMIR OPARIN MUAY THAI
Published: 2017/01/01
Channel: Oparin Vladimir
Lazcano. Oparin-2014
Lazcano. Oparin-2014
Published: 2014/10/21
Channel: Research Center of Biotechnology RAS
Varfolomeev. Oparin-2014
Varfolomeev. Oparin-2014
Published: 2014/10/21
Channel: Research Center of Biotechnology RAS
Stetter. Oparin-2014
Stetter. Oparin-2014
Published: 2014/10/21
Channel: Research Center of Biotechnology RAS
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Alexander Oparin
Alexander Oparin.jpg
Born (1894-03-02)March 2, 1894
Uglich, Russian Empire
Died April 21, 1980(1980-04-21) (aged 86)
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Nationality Russian
Citizenship Soviet Union
Alma mater Moscow State University
Known for Contributions to the theory of the origin of life
coacervates
Awards Hero of Socialist Labour (1969)
Lenin Prize (1974)
Kalinga Prize (1976)
Lomonosov Gold Medal (1979)
Scientific career
Fields Biochemistry
Institutions Moscow State University
USSR Academy of Sciences

Alexander Ivanovich Oparin (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Опа́рин[1]) (March 2 [O.S. February 18] 1894 – April 21, 1980) was a Soviet biochemist notable for his theories about the origin of life, and for his book The Origin of Life. He also studied the biochemistry of material processing by plants and enzyme reactions in plant cells. He showed that many food-production processes were based on biocatalysis and developed the foundations for industrial biochemistry in the USSR.[2]

Life[edit]

Born in Uglich in 1894, Oparin graduated from the Moscow State University in 1917 and became a professor of biochemistry there in 1927. Many of his early papers were about plant enzymes and their role in metabolism.[3] In 1924 he put forward a hypothesis suggesting that life on Earth developed through a gradual chemical evolution of carbon-based molecules in the Earth's primordial soup. In 1935, along with academician Alexey Bakh, he founded the Biochemistry Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences.[2] In 1939, Oparin became a Corresponding Member of the Academy, and, in 1946, a full member. In 1940s and 1950s he supported the theories of Trofim Lysenko and Olga Lepeshinskaya, who made claims about "the origin of cells from noncellular matter". "Taking the party line" helped advance his career.[4] In 1970, he was elected President of the International Society for the Study of the Origins of Life. He died in Moscow on April 21, 1980, and was interred in Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow.

Oparin became Hero of Socialist Labour in 1969, received the Lenin Prize in 1974 and was awarded the Lomonosov Gold Medal in 1979 "for outstanding achievements in biochemistry". He was also a five-time recipient of the Order of Lenin.

Aleksandr Oparin (right) and Andrei Kursanov in the enzymology laboratory, 1938

Theory of the origin of life[edit]

Although Oparin's started out reviewing various panspermia theories, including those of Hermann von Helmholtz and William Thomson Kelvin,[3] he was primarily interested in how life began. As early as 1922, he asserted that:

  1. There is no fundamental difference between a living organism and lifeless matter. The complex combination of manifestations and properties characteristic of life must have arisen as a part of the process of the evolution of matter.
  2. Taking into account the recent discovery of methane in the atmospheres of Jupiter and the other giant planets, Oparin suggested that the infant Earth had possessed a strongly reducing atmosphere, containing methane, ammonia, hydrogen and water vapor. In his opinion, these were the raw materials for the evolution of life.
  3. In Oparin's formulation, there were first only simple solutions of organic matter, the behavior of which was governed by the properties of their component atoms and the arrangement of these atoms into a molecular structure. Gradually though, he said, the resulting growth and increased complexity of molecules brought new properties into being and a new colloidal-chemical order developed as a successor to more simple relationships between and among organic chemicals. These newer properties were determined by the interactions of these more complex molecules.
  4. Oparin posited that this process brought biological orderliness into prominence. According to Oparin, competition, speed of cell growth, survival of the fittest, struggle for existence and, finally, natural selection determined the form of material organization characteristic of modern-day living things.

Oparin outlined a way he thought that basic organic chemicals might have formed into microscopic localized systems, from which primitive living things could have developed. He cited work done by de Jong on coacervates and research by others, including himself, into organic chemicals which, in solution, might spontaneously form droplets and layers. Oparin suggested that different types of coacervates could have formed in the Earth's primordial ocean and been subject to a selection process that led, eventually, to life.

While Oparin himself was unable to conduct experiments to test any of these ideas, later researchers tried. In 1953, Stanley Miller attempted an experiment to investigate whether chemical self-organization could have been possible on pre-historic Earth. The Miller–Urey experiment introduced heat (to provide reflux) and electrical energy (sparks, to simulate lightning) into a mixture of several simple components that would be present in a reducing atmosphere. Within a fairly short period of time a variety of familiar organic compounds, such as amino acids, were synthesised. The compounds that formed were somewhat more complex than the molecules present at the beginning of the experiment.

The influence of dialectical materialism on Oparin's theory[edit]

The Communist Party's official interpretation of Marxism, dialectical materialism, fit Oparin's speculation on the origins of life as 'a flow, an exchange, a dialectical unity'. This notion was re-enforced by Oparin's association with Lysenko.[5]

Bibliography and references[edit]

  • Oparin, A. I. The Origin of Life. Moscow: Moscow Worker publisher, 1924 (in Russian)
    • English translation: Oparin, A. I. The Origin and Development of Life (NASA TTF-488). Washington: D.C.L GPO, 1968
  • Oparin, A. I. The Origin of Life, Moscow 1936
    • English translation: Oparin, A. I. The Origin of Life. New York: Dover (1952) (first translation published in 1938).
  • Oparin, A., Fesenkov, V. Life in the Universe. Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences publisher, 3rd edition, 1956 (in Russian)
    • English translation: Oparin, A., and V. Fesenkov. Life in the Universe. New York: Twayne Publishers (1961).

Major works[edit]

  • "The External Factors in Enzyme Interactions Within a Plant Cell"
  • "The Origin of Life on Earth"
  • "Life, Its Nature, Origin and Evolution"
  • "The History of the Theory of Genesis and Evolution of Life"

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Britannica Encyclopedia - Aleksandr Oparin
  2. ^ a b Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, entry on "Опарин", available online here
  3. ^ a b Dick, Steven J. (1999). The Biological Universe: The Twentieth Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and the Limits of Science. Cambridge University Press. pp. 338–339. ISBN 978-0-521-66361-8. 
  4. ^ Vadim J. Birstein. The Perversion Of Knowledge: The True Story of Soviet Science. Westview Press (2004) ISBN 0-8133-4280-5
  5. ^ Schopf, J. William (2001). Cradle of Life: The Discovery of Earth's Earliest Fossils. Princeton University Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-691-08864-8. 

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