||This article contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. (November 2014)|
علي رضا ع (Arabic)
8th Imam of Twelver Shia Islam
1 January 766 |
(11 Dhul Qa`dah 148 AH)
Medina, Abbasid Empire
|Died||c. 26 May 819
(17 Safar 203 AH)
Tus, Abbasid Empire
Cause of death
|Death by poisoning|
|Imam Reza shrine, Iran
|Other names||Alī 'ibn Mūsā|
|Spouse(s)||Sabīkah aka Khayzurān|
Ummul Banīn Najmah
'Alī ibn Mūsā al-Riḍā (Arabic: علي بن موسى الرضا) also called abu al-Hasan is commonly known as Ali al-Ridha (also spelled Ali al-Rida, Ali Rezā, and Ali Rizā) (c. 29 December 765 – 23 August 818) is the eighth Shiite Imam after his father Musa al-Kadhim and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad; and was an Imam of knowledge according to the Zaydi (Fiver) Shia school and Sufis. He lived in a period when Abbasid caliphs were facing numerous difficulties the most important of which was Shiite revolts. The Caliph Al-Ma'mun thought out a remedy for this problem by appointing Al al-Ridha as his successor, through which he could involve the imam in the worldly affairs and consequently could turn the loyalty of his followers away from him. Later on, however, when Al-Ma'mun saw that the Imam gained even more popularity, decided to correct his mistake by poisoning him. The Imam was buried in a village in Khorasan where afterwards gained its new name, Mashhad, the place of martyrdom.
On the eleventh of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 148 AH (December 29, 765 CE), a son was born in the house of Imam Musa al-Kadhim (the seventh Imam of Twelver Shia Islam) in Medina, who took over the position of the Imamate, after his father. He was named Ali and titled al-Ridha, however in the Shiite sources he is commonly called Abu’l-Ḥasan al-Ṯānī in order not to be confused with his father, Imam Musa al-Kadhim, who was known as Abu’l-Ḥasan al-Awwal. He was born one month after the death of his grandfather, and brought up in Medina,Ja'far as-Sādiq. under the direction of his father. His mother, Najmah, was also a distinguished lady and pious one. It is said that the boy al-Ridha required a great deal of milk, so that when his mother was asked whether her milk was sufficient, she answered, "it is not because my milk is not sufficient, but he wants it all the time, and consequently I am falling short in my prayers." She was originally a Berber (from the Maghreb i.e. Northwest Africa). She was purchased and freed by Bibi Hamidah Khatun, wife of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, and like Bibi Hamidah was also a notable Islamic scholar.
The eighth Imam had reached the Imamate, after the death of his father, through Divine Command and the decree of his forefathers, and especially Imam Musa al-Kadhim, who would repeatedly tell his companions that his son Ali would be the Imam after him. As such, Makhzumi says one day Musa al-Kadhim summoned and gathered us and entitled him as "his executor and successor." 
Yazid ibn Salit has also related a similar narration from the seventh Imam when he met him on his way to Macca: "Ali, whose name is the same as the First and the forth Imam, is the Imam after me." However due to the extreme choking atmosphere and pressure prevailed in the period of Musa al-Kazim, he added, "What I said must remain (restricted) up to you and do not reproduce it to anybody unless you know he is one of our friends and companions." The same is narrated from Ali bin Yaqtin, from Imam Musa al-Kazim who has said "Ali is the best of my children and I have conferred on him my epithet" According to Wāqedī, even in his youth ALi al-Ridha would transmit Hadith from his father and his uncles and gave Fatwa in the mosque of Medina. Ali al-Ridha was not looked upon favorably by Hārūn Rashīd, and the people of Medina were disallowed from visiting Ali al-Ridha and learning from him. Harun attempted to kill him but was unsuccessful. According to Donaldson he was twenty or twenty-five years old when he succeeded his father as Imam in Medina, and it was about eighteen years later, when the Caliph Al-Ma'mun "undertook to ingratiate himself with the numerous Shiite parties by designating Ali ar-Ridha as his successor to the Caliphate."
After the death of Harun al-Rashid in 809, Harun's two sons began fighting for control of the Abbasid Empire. One son, Al-Amin, had an Arab mother and thus had the support of Arabs, while his half-brother Al-Ma'mun had a Persian mother and the support of Persia. After defeating his brother, al-Ma'mun summoned al-Ridha to khorasan. Firstly, Ma'mun offered al-ridha the caliphate. Al-ridha who knew the real reason of this offer politely refused it  and said:
“If this caliphate belongs to you, then it is not permissible for you to take off the garment in which Allah has clothed you and to give it to other than you. If the caliphate does not belong to you, then it is not permissible for you to give me that which does not belong to you.”
The Shiites of al-Ma'mun's era, who made a large population, regarded the Imams as their leaders who must be obeyed, as they believed in them as the real caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad. The continuation of such a situation was a big treat to the caliphate of al-Ma'mun which was far from the sacred status of their Imams. According to Tabatabaee in Shi'ite Islam, thus, al-Ma'mun summoned al-Ridha to khorasan and offered him the role of successor to prevent the descendants of the Prophet from rebelling against the government since they would be involved in the government themselves, and secondly, to cause the people to lose their spiritual belief and inner attachment to the Imams.
Al-Ma'mun even changed the black Abbāsid flags to green, the traditional color of shiites  Mohammad's flag and Ali's cloak. Al-Ma'mun meant to appease the shiite factions by these decisions. Moreover, he gave his daughter, Umm Habib, to al-rida and married another daughter, Umm al-Fadhl to al-rida's son. Al-Ma'mun ordered to mint coins with names of both Al-Ma'mun and Ali al-Rida.
Once Ali al-Ridha was summoned to Khurasan and reluctantly accepted the role of successor to al-Ma'mun that was forced on him,
 al-Ma'mun summoned his brother, Zayd, who had revolted and brought about a riot in Medina to his court in Khurasan. Al-Ma'mun kept him free as a regard and honor to Ali al-Ridha and overlooked his punishment.
One day, when Ali al-Ridha was delivering a speech in a grand assembly, he heard Zayd praising himself before the people, saying I am so and so. Ali al-Ridha asked him saying:
"O Zayd, have you trusted upon the words of the grocers of Kufa and are conveying them to the people? What kind of things are you talking about? The sons of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah Zahra are worthy and outstanding only when they obey the command of Allah, and keep themselves away from sin and blunder. You think you are like Musa al-Kadhim, Ali ibn Husayn, and other Imams? Whereas, they took pains and bore hardships on the way to Allah and prayed to Allah day and night. Do you think you will gain without pain? Be aware, that if a person out of us the Ahl al-Bayt performs a good deed, he gets twice the reward. Because not only he performed good deeds like others but also that he has maintained the honor of Muhammad. If he practices something bad and does a sin, he has performed two sins. One is that he performed a bad act like the rest of the people and the other one is that he has negated the honor of Muhammad. O brother! The one who obeys Allah is from us the Ahl al-Bayt and the one who is a sinner is not ours. Allah said about the son of Noah who cut the spiritual bondage with his father, "He is not out of your lineage; if he was out of your lineage, I would have (saved) and granted him salvation."
Al-Ma'mun was interested in working on various sciences translated into Arabic. Thus he arranged debates between the Imam and Muslim scholars and the leaders of religion sects who came in his presence. One of the discussions was on Divine Unity with Sulaiman al-Mervi; an scholar from Khorasan, another discussion with Ali ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Jahm was devoted to the sinlessness of the Prophets, which led to another debate on the same subject which Ma'mun took a great part in it himself. Many of these debates are recorded in the collections of Shiite hadiths, like Oyoun Akhbar Al-Ridha. The following is an example of these debates which took place between the Imam and an unbeliever(Zindīq).
(the Imam) said to him (Zindīq), "Dost thou see that if the correct view is your view then are we not equal? All that we have prayed, fasted, given of the alms and declared of our convictions will not harm us if the correct view is our view then have not you perished and we gained salvation?" the Man said. "Then let me know, how is He and where is He?" Abu-l-Hasan(the Imam)answered, "surely the opinion thou hast adopted is mistaken. He determined the 'where', and He was, when there was no 'where'; and He fashioned the 'how', and He was, when there was no 'how'. So He is not known through 'howness' or 'whereness'" The man said, "So then surely He is nothing if He cannot be perceived by any of the senses." Abu-l-Hasan said, "when our senses fail to perceive Him, we know for certain that He is our Lord …" The man said, "Then tell me, when was He?" Abu-l-Hasan said, "Tell when He was not, and then I will tell you when He was..." The man said, "Then why has He veiled Himself (from men)?" Abu-l-Hasan replied, "Surely the veil is upon creatures because of the abundance of their sins. As for Him, no secret is hidden from Him during the day or the night…"
Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah (The Golden Treatise) is a treatise on medical cures and the maintenance of good health which is said to have been written in accordance with the demand of [[al-Ma'mun|Ma'mun. It is regarded as the most precious Islamic literature in the science of medicine, and was entitled "the golden treatise" as Ma'mun had ordered it to be written in gold ink. It has been explained in this treatise that one's health is threatened when his blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm are unbalanced; and that nutrition and traditional medicine may be used to cure imbalances. It is among his sayings that " Do you think that you are a small body, while the greatest world has folded itself in you."
Al-Sahifat al-Ridha (The Scripture of Imam al-Ridha) also known as The Musnad Imam al-Ridha. is a collection of Hadiths or traditions attributed to Ali al-Ridha which is transmitted by Abdallah ibn Aḥmad ibn Amer from his father Aḥmad, who said to have heard it from Ali al-Ridha in 194/809-10 at Medina. It contains hadiths on various topics like the invocation of Allah, urging observation of five time daily prayers and the prayer for the dead, excellence of the Ahl al-bayt, the excellence of the believer and good manners, strengthening the bonds of kinship, warning against cheating and backbiting and tattling, and discussing each member of Ahl al-bayt.
Uyun al Akhbar ar Reda is a book in which is gathered together everything that has been related about Imam from debates on religious questions and the sayings which have been recorded from him, to the explanations of the reason his name was chosen, and traditions concerning his death and the miracles which have occurred at his tomb. It is collected by Ibn Babawayh known as Al-Shaykh al-Saduq. 17-18 Chittick
Feqh al-Reżā (al-Rida's Jurisprudence) Also called al-Fiqh al-Radawi, is also attributed to Imam al-Ridha. It was not known till the 10th/16th century when it was judged to be authentic by Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, though most of Imami scholars doubted this.
It has been commonly held that Maruf Karkhi who was converted to Islam through Ali al-Ridha is one of the foremost figures in the golden chain of most Sufi orders. He was a devoted student of Ali ar-Ridha and is an important figure for Sufism and Shi'ism. According to Corbin, although at the end of the Safavid period a Ni'mat Allahi Sufi from India named Ma'sum been sent by his spiritual master, Shaykh Shah 'Ali Rida Dakhani, to Iran and settled with his family at Shiraz, to restore the Ni'mat Allahi order in Iran, however the Sufi order while owes its name to Shah Ni'mat Allah Wali, [a] goes back originally to the Eighth Shiite Imam, the Imam 'Ali Rida through Ma'ruf al-Karkhi.
Al-Ma'mun thought he would solve the problems of Shiite revolts by naming al-ridha as his successor. After finally being able to persuade al-Rida to accept this position, al-Ma'mun realized his mistake, for Shiism began to gain even more popularity. Moreover, Arab party in Baghdad were furious when they heard that al-Ma'mun not only appointed the imam as his successor, but sent out commands that the Abbasid'd black flag should be changed to green in honor of the Imam. They were afraid that the empire would be taken from them. They got together, therefore, to depose Ma'mun and gave allegiance to Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi, who was the uncle of Ma'mun. when Ma'mun heard this Imam advised him to solve the problem by dismissing him from his position but he did not heed and decided to return to Baghdad and assert his rights. However, when they reached the town of Sarakhs, his vizier was assassinated and in a couple of days, when they reached Tus, the Imam sickened and died in a few days, according to the most accounts in September 818. Al-Ma'mun asked some of the Imam's relatives to examine his body in order to see that he had died a natural death. Then he ordered that he be buried next to the tomb of his own father, Harun al-Rashid, and showed extreme sorrow in the funeral ritual and stayed for three days at the place. Most of the sources, however, charge him with having poisoned al-Ridha. According to Madelung The unexpected death of both the vizier and the successor, "whose presence would have made any reconciliation with the powerful ʿAbbasid opposition in Baghdad virtually impossible, must indeed arouse strong suspicion that Ma'mūn had had a hand in the deaths."
Today the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad occupies a total area of 598,657 m2 (6,443,890 sq ft) – the shrine area occupies 267,079m2 while the seven courtyards surrounding it cover an area of 331,578 m2. Thus making it the largest mosque in the world, having an area larger than Masjid al-Haram and Masjid al-Nabawi (which have areas of 356,800 m2 and 400,500 m2 respectively).
The courtyards also contain a total of 14 minarets, and 3 fountains. From the courtyards, external hallways named after scholars lead to the inner areas of the mosque. They are referred to as Bast (Sanctuary), since they were meant to be a safeguard for the shrine areas.
The Bast hallways lead towards a total of 21 internal halls (Riwaq) surrounding the burial chamber of Ali al-Ridha. Adjacent to the burial chamber is also a mosque dating back to the 10th century known as, Bala-e-Sar mosque.
of the Ahl al-Bayt
Clan of the Banu QuraishBorn: 11th Dhul Qi'dah 148 AH ≈ 29th December 765 CE Died: 17th Safar 203 AH ≈ 23rd August 818 CE
|Shia Islam titles|
|8th Imam of Twelver Shi'a Islam