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Alligatoah - Du bist schön (Official Video)
Alligatoah - Du bist schön (Official Video)
Published: 2016/02/11
Channel: Alligatoah
Alligatoah - Narben (Official Video)
Alligatoah - Narben (Official Video)
Published: 2013/09/19
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Alligator - Lewis Teague - 1980
Alligator - Lewis Teague - 1980
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Channel: Live Direct From Hell
Alligator vs Crocodile!
Alligator vs Crocodile!
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: Brave Wilderness
This giant alligator looks like a dinosaur
This giant alligator looks like a dinosaur
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Hurricane Harvey warning: Beware of alligators
Hurricane Harvey warning: Beware of alligators
Published: 2017/08/25
Channel: Fox Business
Python vs Alligator  01 -- Real Fight -- Python attacks Alligator
Python vs Alligator 01 -- Real Fight -- Python attacks Alligator
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Channel: ojatro
ALLIGATOR BITE!
ALLIGATOR BITE!
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Channel: Brave Wilderness
{GRAPHIC} How to Butcher a Massive Alligator
{GRAPHIC} How to Butcher a Massive Alligator
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Channel: deermeatfordinner
ALLIGATOR IN THE POOL! 🐊
ALLIGATOR IN THE POOL! 🐊
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Channel: the johnson fam
Alligators & Snakes Roaming Florida | MASSIVE Trees Uprooted Hurricane Irma Effect
Alligators & Snakes Roaming Florida | MASSIVE Trees Uprooted Hurricane Irma Effect
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: Amari Deraisx
ALLIGATOR BATH CHALLENGE!
ALLIGATOR BATH CHALLENGE!
Published: 2017/06/17
Channel: Guava Juice
Alligator vs shark
Alligator vs shark
Published: 2017/09/25
Channel: New Scientist
Girl Vs Alligator
Girl Vs Alligator
Published: 2013/03/28
Channel: Barcroft TV
Alligator 2: The Mutation (1991)
Alligator 2: The Mutation (1991)
Published: 2017/02/18
Channel: Tristian Comer
My Red Alligator - My Magic Pet Morphle Videos For Kids
My Red Alligator - My Magic Pet Morphle Videos For Kids
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Channel: Morphle TV
Man Dressed As T-Rex Teases 500LB Alligator
Man Dressed As T-Rex Teases 500LB Alligator
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: Caters Clips
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Woman on first ever alligator hunt bags monster gator
Published: 2017/09/25
Channel: Fox News
ALLIGATORS 💗 HOT DOGS! Wrestling & Feeding @ Gatorland Crocodiles (FUNnel Vision DISNEY Summer #11)
ALLIGATORS 💗 HOT DOGS! Wrestling & Feeding @ Gatorland Crocodiles (FUNnel Vision DISNEY Summer #11)
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Channel: FUNnel Vision
Alligator Bite DAMAGE!
Alligator Bite DAMAGE!
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: Brave Wilderness
Alligator leaps out the water to try to bite woman on zipline
Alligator leaps out the water to try to bite woman on zipline
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: World News & Analysis
Alligator Attempting To Eat A Turtle
Alligator Attempting To Eat A Turtle
Published: 2016/08/10
Channel: Tim Harrell
GIANT ALLIGATOR ON GOLF COURSE - real or fake?
GIANT ALLIGATOR ON GOLF COURSE - real or fake?
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Channel: billschannel
Realm of the Alligator || Full Documentary with subtitles
Realm of the Alligator || Full Documentary with subtitles
Published: 2016/02/10
Channel: Superb Documentaries
Un alligator très futé
Un alligator très futé
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: NatGeo Wild France
An Alligator’s Gourmet Lunch | America
An Alligator’s Gourmet Lunch | America's National Parks
Published: 2016/01/20
Channel: National Geographic
Alligator Crushes Turtle [Warning: Graphic Footage]
Alligator Crushes Turtle [Warning: Graphic Footage]
Published: 2016/03/31
Channel: MaxAnimal
The World’s Most Pampered Alligator
The World’s Most Pampered Alligator
Published: 2017/03/03
Channel: Barcroft Animals
Guide Plays with Alligator in Swamp
Guide Plays with Alligator in Swamp
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: DailyPicksandFlicks
Shocking Video Shows Disney Employee Fighting Alligator Near Splash Mountain
Shocking Video Shows Disney Employee Fighting Alligator Near Splash Mountain
Published: 2016/06/17
Channel: Inside Edition
Searching for Giant Alligator Gar in Texas - ft. LakeForkGuy
Searching for Giant Alligator Gar in Texas - ft. LakeForkGuy
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: BlacktipH
Alligator Alley 2013 Full Movies
Alligator Alley 2013 Full Movies
Published: 2014/05/05
Channel: Stand Up!
Houston Man Comes Back To Flood-Hit Home, Finds 9-Foot Alligator Inside
Houston Man Comes Back To Flood-Hit Home, Finds 9-Foot Alligator Inside
Published: 2017/09/02
Channel: PTI News Corporation
Rat Feeding Time at Everglades Alligator Farm - Florida
Rat Feeding Time at Everglades Alligator Farm - Florida
Published: 2012/11/30
Channel: Blue1leader
Alligator Snapping Turtle vs Common Snapping Turtle
Alligator Snapping Turtle vs Common Snapping Turtle
Published: 2015/07/14
Channel: Brave Wilderness
Ninja Gator! Alligator climbs fence.
Ninja Gator! Alligator climbs fence.
Published: 2013/06/21
Channel: Florida To Maine Connection
Alligator recipe by the BBQ Pit Boys
Alligator recipe by the BBQ Pit Boys
Published: 2012/10/03
Channel: BBQ Pit Boys
Rarest White Alligator
Rarest White Alligator
Published: 2014/07/17
Channel: NextStop.TV
Python eats Alligator 02, Time Lapse Speed x6
Python eats Alligator 02, Time Lapse Speed x6
Published: 2011/12/14
Channel: ojatro
PRESCHOOLER ZIP-LINES OVER 1000 DANGEROUS ALLIGATORS! 🐊
PRESCHOOLER ZIP-LINES OVER 1000 DANGEROUS ALLIGATORS! 🐊
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: the johnson fam
Alligator Prank Gone Wrong
Alligator Prank Gone Wrong
Published: 2014/04/26
Channel: Jay Karl's Pranks
how to skin, de-bone and flesh out an alligator
how to skin, de-bone and flesh out an alligator
Published: 2013/04/16
Channel: deermeatfordinner
Cody Gribble
Cody Gribble's alligator encounter at Arnold Palmer Invitational
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: PGA TOUR
Man discovers Huge Alligator Hiding In Sewer Outside His Home
Man discovers Huge Alligator Hiding In Sewer Outside His Home
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: NowYouKnow
Alligator Eats a Huge Turtle!
Alligator Eats a Huge Turtle!
Published: 2014/08/28
Channel: Ben Brust
Filme Completo Dublado Alligator
Filme Completo Dublado Alligator
Published: 2012/12/26
Channel: Alex DarkMoviesBr
Horse Stomps On Alligator - Only in Florida
Horse Stomps On Alligator - Only in Florida
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: Storyful News
Alligator and crocodiles in Everglades National Park.
Alligator and crocodiles in Everglades National Park.
Published: 2013/04/15
Channel: Amelit54
ORIGINAL ALLIGATOR PRANK In River!!! (Public Prank 2014)
ORIGINAL ALLIGATOR PRANK In River!!! (Public Prank 2014)
Published: 2014/03/11
Channel: JOOGSQUAD PPJT
What Happens If an Alligator Bites an iPhone 7?
What Happens If an Alligator Bites an iPhone 7?
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: TechRax
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Alligators
Temporal range: Paleocene-Holocene, 37–0 Ma
Chinese+american alligators.png
An American alligator (top) and a Chinese alligator (bottom)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Crocodilia
Family: Alligatoridae
Subfamily: Alligatorinae
Genus: Alligator
Daudin, 1809
Type species
Alligator mississipiensis
Daudin, 1802 (originally Crocodylus)
Species

An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae. The two living species are the American alligator (A. mississippiensis) and the Chinese alligator (A. sinensis). In addition, several extinct species of alligator are known from fossil remains. Alligators first appeared during the Paleocene epoch about 66 million years ago.[1]

The name "alligator" is probably an anglicized form of el lagarto, the Spanish term for "the lizard", which early Spanish explorers and settlers in Florida called the alligator. Later English spellings of the name included allagarta and alagarto.[2]

Description

An average adult American alligator's weight and length is 360 kg (790 lb) and 4.0 m (13.1 ft), but they sometimes grow to 4.4 m (14 ft) long and weigh over 450 kg (990 lb).[3] The largest ever recorded, found in Louisiana, measured 5.84 m (19.2 ft).[4] The Chinese alligator is smaller, rarely exceeding 2.1 m (6.9 ft) in length. In addition, it weighs considerably less, with males rarely over 45 kg (99 lb).

Adult alligators are black or dark olive-brown with white undersides, while juveniles have strongly contrasting white or yellow marks which fade with age.[5]

No average lifespan for an alligator has been measured.[6] In 1937, an adult specimen was brought to the Belgrade Zoo in Serbia from Germany. It is now at least 80 years old.[7] Although no valid records exist about its date of birth, this alligator, officially named Muja, is considered the oldest alligator living in captivity.[8]

Habitat

A. mississippiensis
Head
Eye

Alligators are native to only the United States and China.[9][10]

American alligators are found in the southeast United States: all of Florida and Louisiana; the southern parts of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi; coastal South and North Carolina; East Texas, the southeast corner of Oklahoma, and the southern tip of Arkansas. According to the 2005 Scholastic Book of World Records, Louisiana has the largest alligator population.[11] The majority of American alligators inhabit Florida and Louisiana, with over a million alligators in each state. Southern Florida is the only place where both alligators and crocodiles live side by side.[12][13]

American alligators live in freshwater environments, such as ponds, marshes, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and swamps, as well as in brackish environments.[14] When they construct alligator holes in the wetlands, they increase plant diversity and provide habitat for other animals during droughts.[15] They are, therefore, considered an important species for maintaining ecological diversity in wetlands.[16] Farther west, in Louisiana, heavy grazing by coypu and muskrat are causing severe damage to coastal wetlands. Large alligators feed extensively on coypu, and provide a vital ecological service by reducing coypu numbers.[17]

The Chinese alligator currently is found in only the Yangtze River valley and parts of adjacent provinces[10] and is extremely endangered, with only a few dozen believed to be left in the wild. Indeed, far more Chinese alligators live in zoos around the world than can be found in the wild. Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge in southern Louisiana has several in captivity in an attempt to preserve the species. Miami MetroZoo in Florida also has a breeding pair of Chinese alligators.

Behavior

Large male alligators are solitary territorial animals. Smaller alligators can often be found in large numbers close to each other. The largest of the species (both males and females) defend prime territory; smaller alligators have a higher tolerance for other alligators within a similar size class.

Alligators move on land by two forms of locomotion referred to as "sprawl" and "high walk". The sprawl is a forward movement with the belly making contact with the ground and is used to transition to "high walk" or to slither over wet substrate into water. The high walk is an up on four limbs forward motion used for overland travel with the belly well up from the ground.[18] Alligators have also been observed to rise up and balance on their hind legs and semi-step forward as part of a forward or upward lunge. However they can not walk on their hind legs for long distances.[19][20][21]

Although the alligator has a heavy body and a slow metabolism, it is capable of short bursts of speed, especially in very short lunges. Alligators' main prey are smaller animals they can kill and eat with a single bite. They may kill larger prey by grabbing it and dragging it into the water to drown. Alligators consume food that cannot be eaten in one bite by allowing it to rot, or by biting and then spinning or convulsing wildly until bite-sized chunks are torn off. This is referred to as a "death roll". Critical to the alligator's ability to initiate a death roll, the tail must flex to a significant angle relative to its body. An alligator with an immobilized tail cannot perform a death roll.[22]

Most of the muscle in an alligator's jaw evolved to bite and grip prey. The muscles that close the jaws are exceptionally powerful, but the muscles for opening their jaws are comparatively weak. As a result, an adult human can hold an alligator's jaws shut bare-handed. It is common today to use several wraps of duct tape to prevent an adult alligator from opening its jaws when being handled or transported.[23]

Alligators are generally timid towards humans and tend to walk or swim away if one approaches. This has led some people to the practice of approaching alligators and their nests in a manner that may provoke the animals into attacking. In Florida, feeding wild alligators at any time is illegal. If fed, the alligators will eventually lose their fear of humans and will learn to associate humans with food, thereby becoming both a greater danger to people, and at greater risk from them.[24]

Diet

The type of food eaten by alligators depends upon their age and size. When young, alligators eat fish, insects, snails, crustaceans, and worms. As they mature, progressively larger prey is taken, including larger fish such as gar, turtles, and various mammals, particularly coypu and muskrat,[14] as well as birds, deer, and other reptiles.[25][26] Their stomachs also often contain gizzard stones. They will even consume carrion if they are sufficiently hungry. In some cases, larger alligators are known to ambush dogs, Florida panthers and black bears, making them the apex predator throughout their distribution. In this role as a top predator, it may determine the abundance of prey species, including turtles and coypu.[27][28] As humans encroach into their habitat, attacks are few but not unknown. Alligators, unlike the large crocodiles, do not immediately regard a human upon encounter as prey, but may still attack in self-defense if provoked.

Reproduction

Different stages of alligator life-cycle
Alligator eggs and young
Alligator juveniles
Alligators of various ages

Alligators generally mature at a length of 6 ft (1.8 m). The mating season is in late spring. In April and May, alligators form so-called "bellowing choruses". Large groups of animals bellow together for a few minutes a few times a day, usually one to three hours after sunrise. The bellows of male American alligators are accompanied by powerful blasts of infrasound.[29] Another form of male display is a loud head-slap.[30] In 2010, on spring nights alligators were found to gather in large numbers for group courtship, the so-called "alligator dances".[31]

In summer, the female builds a nest of vegetation where the decomposition of the vegetation provides the heat needed to incubate the eggs. The sex of the offspring is determined by the temperature in the nest and is fixed within seven to 21 days of the start of incubation. Incubation temperatures of 86 °F (30 °C) or lower produce a clutch of females; those of 93 °F (34 °C) or higher produce entirely males. Nests constructed on leaves are hotter than those constructed on wet marsh, so the former tend to produce males and the latter, females. The baby alligator's egg tooth helps it get out of its egg during hatching time. The natural sex ratio at hatching is five females to one male. Females hatched from eggs incubated at 86 °F (30 °C) weigh significantly more than males hatched from eggs incubated at 93 °F (34 °C).[32] The mother defends the nest from predators and assists the hatchlings to water. She will provide protection to the young for about a year if they remain in the area. Adult alligators regularly cannibalize younger individuals, though estimates of the rate of cannibalism vary widely.[33][34] In the past, immediately following the outlawing of alligator hunting, populations rebounded quickly due to the suppressed number of adults preying upon juveniles, increasing survival among the young alligators.[citation needed]

Anatomy

A rare albino alligator swimming

Alligators, much like birds, have been shown to exhibit unidirectional movement of air through their lungs.[35] Most other amniotes are believed to exhibit bidirectional, or tidal breathing. For a tidal breathing animal, such as a mammal, air flows into and out of the lungs through branching bronchi which terminate in small dead-end chambers called alveoli. As the alveoli represent dead-ends to flow, the inspired air must move back out the same way it came in. In contrast, air in alligator lungs makes a circuit, moving in only one direction through the parabronchi. The air first enters the outer branch, moves through the parabronchi, and exits the lung through the inner branch. Oxygen exchange takes place in extensive vasculature around the parabronchi.[36]

Alligators have muscular, flat tails that propel them while swimming.

The two kinds of white alligators are albino and leucistic. These alligators are practically impossible to find in the wild. They could survive only in captivity and are few in number.[37][38] The Aquarium of the Americas in New Orleans has leucistic alligators found in a Louisiana swamp in 1987.[38]

Human uses

Alligators are raised commercially for their meat and their skin, which is used for bags and shoes. They also provide economic benefits through the ecotourism industry. Visitors may take swamp tours, in which alligators are a feature. Their most important economic benefit to humans may be the control of coypu and muskrats.[39]

Alligator meat is also consumed by humans.[40][41] In 2010, the Archbishop of New Orleans ruled that for purposes of Catholic church discipline in relation to abstention from meat, the flesh of the alligator is characterised as fish.[42]

Image gallery of extant species

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fossilworks: Alligatoridae". 
  2. ^ Morgan, G. S., Richard, F., & Crombie, R. I. (1993). The Cuban crocodile, Crocodylus rhombifer, from late quaternary fossil deposits on Grand Cayman. Caribbean Journal of Science, 29(3-4), 153-164. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-03-29. Retrieved 2014-03-28. 
  3. ^ "American Alligator and our National Parks". eparks.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-01. 
  4. ^ "Alligator mississippiensis". alligatorfur.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-05-01. 
  5. ^ "Crocodilian Species – American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)". crocodilian.com. 
  6. ^ Kaku, Michio (March 2011). Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny And Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100. Doubleday. pp. 150, 151. ISBN 978-0-385-53080-4. 
  7. ^ "Oldest alligator in the world". b92.net. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  8. ^ "The oldest alligator living in captivity". shekoos.wordpress.com. 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
  9. ^ Crocodile Specialist Group. 1996. Alligator mississippiensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996. Downloaded on 27 August 2016.
  10. ^ a b Crocodile Specialist Group. 1996. Alligator sinensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996. Downloaded on 27 August 2016.
  11. ^ 2005 Scholastic Book of World Records
  12. ^ "Trappers catch crocodile in Lake Tarpon," Tampa Bay Times, July 12, 2013
  13. ^ "Species Profile: American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) – SREL Herpetology". uga.edu. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  14. ^ a b Dundee, H. A., and D. A. Rossman. 1989. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
  15. ^ Craighead, F. C., Sr. (1968). The role of the alligator in shaping plant communities and maintaining wildlife in the southern Everglades. The Florida Naturalist, 41, 2–7, 69–74.
  16. ^ Keddy, P.A. 2010. Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 497 p. Chapter 4.
  17. ^ Keddy, P.A., L. Gough, J.A. Nyman, T. McFalls, J. Carter and J. Siegrist. 2009. Alligator hunters, pelt traders, and runaway consumption of Gulf coast marshes: A trophic cascade perspective on coastal wetland losses. p. 115-133 in B.R. Silliman, E.D. Grosholz, and M.D. Bertness (eds.) Human Impacts on Salt Marshes. A Global Perspective. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA
  18. ^ Reilly & Elias, Locomotion In Alligator Mississippiensis: Kinematic Effects Of Speed And Posture and Their Relevance To The Sprawling-to-Erect Paradigm The Journal of Experimental Biology 201, 2559–2574 (1998)
  19. ^ zooguy2 Alligator Leap Retrieved March 19, 2015
  20. ^ Answers to Some Nagging Questions The Washington Post, Kids Post Thursday, January 17, 2008, Retrieved March 19, 2015
  21. ^ Alligator Attacks White Ibis Chick & Jumps Vertically at Pinckney Island Karen Marts Video, retrieved Nov 29, 2015
  22. ^ Fish, Frank E.; Bostic, Sandra A.; Nicastro, Anthony J.; Beneski, John T. (2007). "Death roll of the alligator: mechanics of twist feeding in water" (PDF). The Journal of Experimental Biology. 210 (16): 2811–2818. PMID 17690228. doi:10.1242/jeb.004267. 
  23. ^ Crocodilian Captive Care FAQ: How to properly handle/transport crocodilians etc.
  24. ^ Living with Alligators
  25. ^ Wolfe, J. L., D. K. Bradshaw, and R. H. Chabreck. 1987. Alligator feeding habits: New data and a review. Northeast Gulf Science 9: 1–8.
  26. ^ Gabrey, S. W. 2005. Impacts of the coypu removal program on the diet of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in south Louisiana. Report to Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, New Orleans.
  27. ^ Bondavalli, C., and R. E. Ulanowicz. 1998. Unexpected effects of predators upon their prey: The case of the American alligator. Ecosystems 2: 49–63.
  28. ^ Keddy, P.A., L. Gough, J.A. Nyman, T. McFalls, J. Carter and J. Siegrist. 2009. Alligator hunters, pelt traders, and runaway consumption of Gulf coast marshes: A trophic cascade perspective on coastal wetland losses. p. 115-133 in B.R. Silliman, E.D. Grosholz, and M.D. Bertness (eds.) Human Impacts on Salt Marshes. A Global Perspective. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
  29. ^ "Can Animals Predict Disaster? - Listening to Infrasound | Nature". PBS. 2004-12-26. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  30. ^ Garrick, L. D.; Lang, J. W. (1977). "Social Displays of the American Alligator". American Zoologist. 17: 225–239. 
  31. ^ Dinets, V. (2010). "Nocturnal behavior of the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) in the wild during the mating season" (PDF). Herpetological Bulletin. 111: 4–11. 
  32. ^ Mark W. J. Ferguson; Ted Joanen (1982). "Temperature of egg incubation determines sex in Alligator mississippiensis". Nature. 296 (5860): 850–853. PMID 7070524. doi:10.1038/296850a0. 
  33. ^ http://www.jstor.org/stable/3892690?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
  34. ^ http://www.hljournals.org/doi/abs/10.1655/HERPETOLOGICA-D-10-00040.1?code=herl-site
  35. ^ Farmer, C. G.; Sanders, K. (January 2010). "Unidirectional Airflow in the Lungs of Alligators". Science. 327 (5963): 338–340. PMID 20075253. doi:10.1126/science.1180219. 
  36. ^ Science News; February 13, 2010; Page 11
  37. ^ "White albino alligators". softpedia.com. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  38. ^ a b "Mississippi River Gallery". 
  39. ^ Keddy, P. A., Gough, L., Nyman, J. A., McFalls, T., Carter, J., and Siegnist, J. (2009a). Alligator hunters, pelt traders, and runaway consumption of Gulf coast marshes: a trophic cascade perspective on coastal wetland losses. In Human Impacts on Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective, eds. B. R. Silliman, E. D. Grosholz, and M. D. Bertness, pp. 115–33. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  40. ^ "IFIS Dictionary of Food Science and Technology". google.com. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  41. ^ "Marine and Freshwater Products Handbook". google.com. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  42. ^ The Tablet, 22 March 2014 page 15

External links

The dictionary definition of alligator at Wiktionary

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