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Pistol Shrimp sonic weapon - Weird Nature - BBC wildlife
Pistol Shrimp sonic weapon - Weird Nature - BBC wildlife
Published: 2009/01/16
Channel: BBCWorldwide
Alpheidae - Altruist
Alpheidae - Altruist
Published: 2016/02/21
Channel: Alpheidae Band
Slow motion pistol shrimp attack hits 4000⁰C! - Slo Mo #14 - Earth Unplugged
Slow motion pistol shrimp attack hits 4000⁰C! - Slo Mo #14 - Earth Unplugged
Published: 2013/05/23
Channel: BBC Earth Unplugged
Randall
Randall's Shrimp Goby & Pistol Shrimp (Amblyeleotris Randalli and Alpheidae)
Published: 2012/12/30
Channel: Carlos R
Alpheidae Top # 6 Facts
Alpheidae Top # 6 Facts
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: Devang Nanavati
Alpheidae Bloodstock Promo Pears
Alpheidae Bloodstock Promo Pears
Published: 2016/04/10
Channel: Alpheidae Band
Amazing Pistol Shrimp Stun "Gun" | World
Amazing Pistol Shrimp Stun "Gun" | World's Deadliest
Published: 2013/04/11
Channel: Nat Geo WILD
LOUDEST POSSIBLE SOUND?? -- BOAT #7
LOUDEST POSSIBLE SOUND?? -- BOAT #7
Published: 2011/04/13
Channel: Vsauce2
Fastest animals on Earth in slow motion - Animal Camera - BBC
Fastest animals on Earth in slow motion - Animal Camera - BBC
Published: 2009/03/20
Channel: BBCWorldwide
Top 10 Unbelievable Facts About Animals
Top 10 Unbelievable Facts About Animals
Published: 2014/03/18
Channel: dzvero007
Alpheidae - Bloodstock promo
Alpheidae - Bloodstock promo
Published: 2016/04/19
Channel: Alpheidae Band
Pistol shrimp kill amphipod for goby at 0:12
Pistol shrimp kill amphipod for goby at 0:12
Published: 2014/12/16
Channel: Jay83Pee
Giant Smashing Mantis Shrimp VS Giant Crabs
Giant Smashing Mantis Shrimp VS Giant Crabs
Published: 2014/02/14
Channel: Mantisman™
Peygamber Devesi Karidesi
Peygamber Devesi Karidesi
Published: 2009/10/27
Channel: carbonik
Goat Simulator
Goat Simulator
Published: 2014/03/30
Channel: alpheidae
Alpheidae MF400
Alpheidae MF400
Published: 2016/06/15
Channel: Trackmix Studio
The I in All
The I in All
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: Various Artists - Topic
Wii U - Mario Kart 8 - Twisted Mansion
Wii U - Mario Kart 8 - Twisted Mansion
Published: 2014/07/27
Channel: alpheidae
Alpheidae: Retribution Live in Fibbers
Alpheidae: Retribution Live in Fibbers
Published: 2014/02/12
Channel: Alpheidae Band
Alpheidae (live at Fred Zeppelins, 05.06.2015)
Alpheidae (live at Fred Zeppelins, 05.06.2015)
Published: 2015/06/08
Channel: anonymous9th
Alpheidae: Ultima Thule
Alpheidae: Ultima Thule
Published: 2014/03/04
Channel: Alpheidae Band
Sally Jo
Sally Jo's baby pistol shrimp hatch
Published: 2011/01/21
Channel: garfcorals
Alpheidae live at Metal 2 the Masses Heat 6
Alpheidae live at Metal 2 the Masses Heat 6
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: Ben Cohn
ROG Qualifiers (   Alpheidae vs Pandora CSGO )
ROG Qualifiers ( Alpheidae vs Pandora CSGO )
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Ebenezer 'Roy'
ROG Qualifiers (   Alpheidae vs Pandora CSGO )
ROG Qualifiers ( Alpheidae vs Pandora CSGO )
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Ebenezer 'Roy'
ROG Qualifiers (   Alpheidae vs Pandora CSGO )
ROG Qualifiers ( Alpheidae vs Pandora CSGO )
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Ebenezer 'Roy'
Goat Simulator
Goat Simulator
Published: 2014/03/30
Channel: alpheidae
Wii U - Mario Kart 8 - (SNES) Donut Plains 3
Wii U - Mario Kart 8 - (SNES) Donut Plains 3
Published: 2014/07/28
Channel: alpheidae
New Beginning
New Beginning
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: Various Artists - Topic
How to Pronounce Alpheidae
How to Pronounce Alpheidae
Published: 2014/11/27
Channel: Emma Saying
5 animaux avec de vrais super pouvoirs
5 animaux avec de vrais super pouvoirs
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: HYGGE
Altruist
Altruist
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: Various Artists - Topic
2013-12-12 Alpheidae Potamalpheops 紫晶蝦
2013-12-12 Alpheidae Potamalpheops 紫晶蝦
Published: 2013/12/12
Channel: bonnykimo
Alpheidae - Bogner 212C
Alpheidae - Bogner 212C
Published: 2016/05/08
Channel: Trackmix Studio
New Beginning: Live @ Fibber Magees BloodStock M2TM SemiFinal Ireland
New Beginning: Live @ Fibber Magees BloodStock M2TM SemiFinal Ireland
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: Alpheidae Band
Pistol Shrimp
Pistol Shrimp
Published: 2014/05/28
Channel: citycatred
The Missing Piece (Drum Cam)
The Missing Piece (Drum Cam)
Published: 2016/10/08
Channel: Alpheidae Band
Altruist: Live @ Fibber Magees; Bloodstock M2TM Ireland SemiFinals
Altruist: Live @ Fibber Magees; Bloodstock M2TM Ireland SemiFinals
Published: 2014/04/28
Channel: Alpheidae Band
Gerçek Süper Güçlere Sahip 7 Az Bilinen Hayvan
Gerçek Süper Güçlere Sahip 7 Az Bilinen Hayvan
Published: 2014/06/21
Channel: Ruhi Çenet İnceliyor
City of Knives
City of Knives
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: Various Artists - Topic
Haunted Ocean: Live @ Fibber Magees; Bloodstock M2TM Ireland SemiFinals
Haunted Ocean: Live @ Fibber Magees; Bloodstock M2TM Ireland SemiFinals
Published: 2014/04/28
Channel: Alpheidae Band
Retribution: Live @ Fibber Magees BloodStock M2TM SemiFinal Ireland
Retribution: Live @ Fibber Magees BloodStock M2TM SemiFinal Ireland
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: Alpheidae Band
Lamb of God - Hourglass (BIMM Cover)
Lamb of God - Hourglass (BIMM Cover)
Published: 2014/05/15
Channel: CJordan
Podvodní mikrofony Ambient Recording Sonar Surround
Podvodní mikrofony Ambient Recording Sonar Surround
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: PanterCZ
Ultimathule: Live @ Fibber Magees BloodStock M2TM SemiFinal Ireland
Ultimathule: Live @ Fibber Magees BloodStock M2TM SemiFinal Ireland
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: Alpheidae Band
L
L'arme secrète de la crevette-pistolet : la cavitation
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: La Minute Scientifique
Avatar - Black Waltz (Cover) BIMM Dublin End of Term
Avatar - Black Waltz (Cover) BIMM Dublin End of Term
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: CJordan
Wii U - Mario Kart 8 - Rainbow Road
Wii U - Mario Kart 8 - Rainbow Road
Published: 2014/07/30
Channel: alpheidae
City of Knives: Live @ Fibber Magees; Bloodstock M2TM Ireland SemiFinals
City of Knives: Live @ Fibber Magees; Bloodstock M2TM Ireland SemiFinals
Published: 2014/04/28
Channel: Alpheidae Band
TMS_Profiles_V25
TMS_Profiles_V25
Published: 2017/05/31
Channel: Trackmix Studio
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Alpheidae
Alpheus distinguendus.jpg
Alpheus digitalis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Caridea
Superfamily: Alpheoidea
Family: Alpheidae
Rafinesque, 1815
Genera

See text

Alpheidae is a family of caridean snapping shrimp characterized by having asymmetrical claws, the larger of which is typically capable of producing a loud snapping sound. Other common names for animals in the group are pistol shrimp or alpheid shrimp.

The family is diverse and worldwide in distribution, consisting of about 1119[1] species within 38 or more genera.[2] The two most prominent genera are Alpheus and Synalpheus, with species numbering well over 250 and 100, respectively.[3][4] Most snapping shrimp dig burrows and are common inhabitants of coral reefs, submerged seagrass flats, and oyster reefs. While most genera and species are found in tropical and temperate coastal and marine waters, Betaeus inhabits cold seas and Potamalpheops is found only in freshwater caves.

When in colonies, the snapping shrimp can interfere with sonar and underwater communication.[5][6][7] The shrimp are a major source of noise in the ocean.[5]

Description[edit]

The snapping shrimp grows to only 3–5 cm (1.2–2.0 in) long. It is distinctive for its remarkably disproportionate large claw, larger than half the shrimp's body. The claw can be on either arm of the body, and unlike most shrimp claws does not have typical pincers at the end. Rather, it has a pistol-like feature made of two parts. A joint allows the "hammer" part to move backward into a right-angled position. When released, it snaps into the other part of the claw, emitting an enormously powerful wave of bubbles capable of stunning larger fish and breaking small glass jars.[8]

Ecology[edit]

Alpheus randalli with a goby of the genus Amblyeleotris

Some pistol shrimp species share burrows with goby fishes in a symbiotic relationship. The burrow is built and tended by the pistol shrimp, and the goby provides protection by watching out for danger. When both are out of the burrow, the shrimp maintains contact with the goby using its antennae. The goby, having the better vision, alerts the shrimp of danger using a characteristic tail movement, and then both retreat into the safety of the shared burrow.[9] So far this association has been observed in species that inhabit coral reef habitats.

Eusocial behavior has been discovered in the genus Synalpheus. The species Synalpheus regalis lives inside sponges in colonies that can number over 300 members.[10] All of them are the offspring of a single large female, the queen, and possibly a single male. The offspring are divided into workers who care for the young and predominantly male soldiers who protect the colony with their huge claws.[10]

Pistol shrimp have also been noted for their ability to reverse claws. When the snapping claw is lost the missing limb will regenerate into a smaller claw and the original smaller appendage will grow into a new snapping claw. Laboratory research has shown that severing the nerve of the snapping claw induces the conversion of the smaller limb into a second snapping claw. This phenomenon of claw symmetry in snapping shrimp has only been documented once in nature.[11]

Snapping effect[edit]

The snapping shrimp competes with much larger animals such as the sperm whale and beluga whale for the title of loudest animal in the sea. The animal snaps a specialized claw shut to create a cavitation bubble that generates acoustic pressures of up to 80 kPa at a distance of 4 cm from the claw. As it extends out from the claw, the bubble reaches speeds of 100 km/h (62 mph) and releases a sound reaching 218 decibels.[12] The pressure is strong enough to kill small fish.[13] It corresponds to a zero to peak pressure level of 218 decibels relative to one micropascal (dB re 1 μPa), equivalent to a zero to peak source level of 190 dB re 1 μPa at the standard reference distance of 1 m. Au and Banks measured peak to peak source levels between 185 and 190 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m, depending on the size of the claw.[14] Similar values are reported by Ferguson and Cleary.[15] The duration of the click is less than 1 millisecond.

The snap can also produce sonoluminescence from the collapsing cavitation bubble. As it collapses, the cavitation bubble reaches temperatures of over 5,000 K (4,700 °C).[16] In comparison, the surface temperature of the sun is estimated to be around 5,800 K (5,500 °C). The light is of lower intensity than the light produced by typical sonoluminescence and is not visible to the naked eye. It is most likely a by-product of the shock wave with no biological significance. However, it was the first known instance of an animal producing light by this effect. It has subsequently been discovered that another group of crustaceans, the mantis shrimp, contains species whose club-like forelimbs can strike so quickly and with such force as to induce sonoluminescent cavitation bubbles upon impact.[17]

The snapping is used for hunting (hence the alternative name "pistol shrimp"), as well as for communication. When hunting, the shrimp usually lies in an obscured spot, such as a burrow. The shrimp then extends its antennae outwards to determine if any fish are passing by. Once it feels movement, the shrimp inches out of its hiding place, pulls back its claw, and releases a "shot" which stuns the prey; the shrimp then pulls it to the burrow and feeds.

Genera[edit]

More than 620 species are currently recognised in the family Alpheidae, distributed among 45 genera. The largest of these are Alpheus, with 283 species, and Synalpheus, with 146 species.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ WoRMS
  2. ^ A. Anker; S. T. Ahyong; P. Y. Noel; A. R. Palmer (2006). "Morphological phylogeny of alpheid shrimps: parallel preadaptation and the origin of a key morphological innovation, the snapping claw". Evolution. 60 (12): 2507–2528. PMID 17263113. doi:10.1554/05-486.1. 
  3. ^ W. Kim; L. G. Abele (1988). "The snapping shrimp genus Alpheus from the Eastern Pacific (Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae)" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 454: 1–119. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.454. 
  4. ^ Fenner A. Chace, Jr. (1988). "The Caridean Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) of the Albatross Philippine Expedition, 1907–1910, Part 5: Family Alpheidae" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 466: 1–99. 
  5. ^ a b "Shrimp, bubble and pop". BBC News. September 21, 2000. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  6. ^ Kenneth Chang (September 26, 2000). "Sleuths solve case of bubble mistaken for a snapping shrimp". New York Times. p. 5. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Sea creatures trouble sonar operators – new enzyme". New York Times. February 2, 1947. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  8. ^ Maurice Burton; Robert Burton (1970). The International Wildlife Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Marshall Cavendish. p. 2366. 
  9. ^ I. Karplus (1987). "The association between gobiid fishes and burrowing alpheid shrimps". Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. 25: 507–562. 
  10. ^ a b J. E. Duffy (1996). "Eusociality in a coral-reef shrimp". Nature. 381 (6582): 512–514. doi:10.1038/381512a0. 
  11. ^ M. R. McClure (1996). "Symmetry of large claws in snapping shrimp in nature (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae)". Crustaceana. 69 (7): 920–921. doi:10.1163/156854096X00321. 
  12. ^ David Derbyshire (November 13, 2008). "Deadly pistol shrimp that stuns prey with sound as loud as Concorde found in UK waters". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved June 13, 2010. 
  13. ^ M. Versluis; B. Schmitz; A von der Heydt; D. Lohse (2000). "How snapping shrimp snap: through cavitating bubbles". Science. 289 (5487): 2114–2117. PMID 11000111. doi:10.1126/science.289.5487.2114. 
  14. ^ W. W. L. Au; K. Banks (1998). "The acoustics of the snapping shrimp Synalpheus parneomeris in Kaneohe Bay". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 103 (1): 41–47. doi:10.1121/1.423234. 
  15. ^ B. G. Ferguson; J. L. Cleary (2001). "In situ source level and source position estimates of biological transient signals produced by snapping shrimp in an underwater environment". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 109 (6): 3031–3037. PMID 11425145. doi:10.1121/1.1339823. 
  16. ^ D. Lohse; B. Schmitz; M. Versluis (2001). "Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles". Nature. 413 (6855): 477–478. PMID 11586346. doi:10.1038/35097152. 
  17. ^ S. N. Patek; R. L. Caldwell (2005). "Extreme impact and cavitation forces of a biological hammer: strike forces of the peacock mantis shrimp". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 208 (19): 3655–3664. PMID 16169943. doi:10.1242/jeb.01831. 
  18. ^ Sammy De Grave; N. Dean Pentcheff; Shane T. Ahyong; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06. 

External links[edit]

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