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Americans Watching British TV: Bottom
Americans Watching British TV: Bottom
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: Matthew Thomas
American Bottom Bracket - Crank Conversion - Part 1 - BikemanforU DIY Repair
American Bottom Bracket - Crank Conversion - Part 1 - BikemanforU DIY Repair
Published: 2013/11/07
Channel: BikemanforU
How to TIGHTEN an AMERICAN BOTTOM BRACKET on a MONGOOSE BMX BIKE with 3-PIECE CRANKS
How to TIGHTEN an AMERICAN BOTTOM BRACKET on a MONGOOSE BMX BIKE with 3-PIECE CRANKS
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: newburghbmx
Amy Adams American Hustle Bottom Of The River
Amy Adams American Hustle Bottom Of The River
Published: 2014/04/27
Channel: DialogGetsInTheWay
7-Year-Old Survives Fall to Bottom of Well | Good Morning America | ABC News
7-Year-Old Survives Fall to Bottom of Well | Good Morning America | ABC News
Published: 2014/02/08
Channel: ABC News
se blue vs MONTGOMERY AMERICAN Bottom 4th District
se blue vs MONTGOMERY AMERICAN Bottom 4th District
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: Jay McDavid
How to install American bottom brackets to your BMX
How to install American bottom brackets to your BMX
Published: 2013/04/10
Channel: XAmazingProductionzX
ALL GOLDEN BUZZER AMERICA
ALL GOLDEN BUZZER AMERICA'S GOT TALENT 2017
Published: 2017/07/12
Channel: Len Ken
American Carrier NEW light weight bottom Dump
American Carrier NEW light weight bottom Dump
Published: 2010/12/16
Channel: AmericasTrailerCo
Truth:  The American Bottom Line
Truth: The American Bottom Line
Published: 2008/01/26
Channel: globalvillage1
Bottom Promo for the American DVD set
Bottom Promo for the American DVD set
Published: 2013/04/19
Channel: Rik Mayall - The Legend
American Bottom Bracket - Crank Conversion Part 2.1 - BikemanforU Repair
American Bottom Bracket - Crank Conversion Part 2.1 - BikemanforU Repair
Published: 2013/11/18
Channel: BikemanforU
Convert One Piece Crank To Three Piece Crankset/Bottom Bracket
Convert One Piece Crank To Three Piece Crankset/Bottom Bracket
Published: 2015/10/20
Channel: RJ The Bike Guy
American Bottom Bracket - Crank Conversion - Part 2 - BikemanforU Repair
American Bottom Bracket - Crank Conversion - Part 2 - BikemanforU Repair
Published: 2013/11/15
Channel: BikemanforU
American Bottom Bracket - Crank Conversion - Part 1.1 - BikemanforU
American Bottom Bracket - Crank Conversion - Part 1.1 - BikemanforU
Published: 2013/11/01
Channel: BikemanforU
American Bottom Bracket - Mid BBT - Part 3.1 - BikemanforU
American Bottom Bracket - Mid BBT - Part 3.1 - BikemanforU
Published: 2013/12/09
Channel: BikemanforU
[HD] American Idol 2013 - Amber and Candice saves BOTTOM 2 - april 25, 2013
[HD] American Idol 2013 - Amber and Candice saves BOTTOM 2 - april 25, 2013
Published: 2013/04/26
Channel: Idol Star
Day of Archaeology-American Bottom Field Station-Illinois State Archaeological Survey
Day of Archaeology-American Bottom Field Station-Illinois State Archaeological Survey
Published: 2014/07/21
Channel: Illinois State Archaeological Survey
Bike Repair - American to Euro Bottom Bracket - BikemanforU
Bike Repair - American to Euro Bottom Bracket - BikemanforU
Published: 2013/01/21
Channel: BikemanforU
How To Tighten a Loose BMX Bottom Bracket American Unsealed 1,2,3pc Cranks@ Harvester Bikes
How To Tighten a Loose BMX Bottom Bracket American Unsealed 1,2,3pc Cranks@ Harvester Bikes
Published: 2016/08/05
Channel: harvesterbmx
Mid Bottom Bracket Install - American BBT - BMX Or Cruiser - PT 3 - BikemanforU How-To
Mid Bottom Bracket Install - American BBT - BMX Or Cruiser - PT 3 - BikemanforU How-To
Published: 2013/12/05
Channel: BikemanforU
Ma Rainey
Ma Rainey's Black Bottom. Scene from August Wilson's Play | American Masters on PBS
Published: 2015/02/06
Channel: American Masters PBS
Robert Rohe, ISAS.  Examining prehistoric tattooing implements found in the American Bottom.
Robert Rohe, ISAS. Examining prehistoric tattooing implements found in the American Bottom.
Published: 2014/02/14
Channel: Prairie Research Institute
true HD Bottom 3s (from Top 13 ~ Top 7) American Idol 2011
true HD Bottom 3s (from Top 13 ~ Top 7) American Idol 2011
Published: 2011/04/23
Channel: Paul fromMN
There has been no income growth for the bottom half of Americans
There has been no income growth for the bottom half of Americans
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: Business Insider
American Strutter - Alabama Hardwood Bottom Turkey Hunt
American Strutter - Alabama Hardwood Bottom Turkey Hunt
Published: 2016/04/19
Channel: American Strutter
Minecraft MineVengers -  CAPTAIN AMERICA VISITS BIKINI BOTTOM w/ Scuba Steve!!
Minecraft MineVengers - CAPTAIN AMERICA VISITS BIKINI BOTTOM w/ Scuba Steve!!
Published: 2015/09/15
Channel: Little RoPo & The MineVengers
DRONE FOOTAGE:  WW2 American fighter aircraft lifted from the bottom of Kerch Strait
DRONE FOOTAGE: WW2 American fighter aircraft lifted from the bottom of Kerch Strait
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: RT
APPLE BOTTOM JEANS | OFFICIAL VIDEO | DJ SANJ FT AVTAR RAI | AMERICAN DESI
APPLE BOTTOM JEANS | OFFICIAL VIDEO | DJ SANJ FT AVTAR RAI | AMERICAN DESI
Published: 2012/10/13
Channel: Moviebox Record Label
America
America's Got Talent 2016 Finals Resullts The Bottom 5 S11E23
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: Anthony Ying
How to Remove & Install Bottom Bracket Bearings American BB (Mid BB)
How to Remove & Install Bottom Bracket Bearings American BB (Mid BB)
Published: 2015/09/28
Channel: BikersFix
Bottom Fill Beer Machine at The Great American Ball Park
Bottom Fill Beer Machine at The Great American Ball Park
Published: 2011/04/08
Channel: Levi Binegar
Casey Abrams & Jack Black - Fat Bottom Girls - American Idol 2011 Finale Performance (HQ)
Casey Abrams & Jack Black - Fat Bottom Girls - American Idol 2011 Finale Performance (HQ)
Published: 2011/05/26
Channel: AmericanIdol2011TV
[InnerPartySystem] American Trash (Bottom Of The Barrel Mix)
[InnerPartySystem] American Trash (Bottom Of The Barrel Mix)
Published: 2012/04/16
Channel: perebble
Opening a Bottom Outlet Valve on an American Railcar Leasing DOT 117 Tank Car
Opening a Bottom Outlet Valve on an American Railcar Leasing DOT 117 Tank Car
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: Jeff Eliason
Froggy Bottom Limited Guitars - The North American Guitar London UK
Froggy Bottom Limited Guitars - The North American Guitar London UK
Published: 2016/08/05
Channel: The North American Guitar
American Ripper: Figuring Out What
American Ripper: Figuring Out What's At The Bottom Of The River | Tuesdays 10/9c | History
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: HISTORY
Talking Guitar - Froggy Bottom Guitars - With Stuart Ryan - The North American Guitar
Talking Guitar - Froggy Bottom Guitars - With Stuart Ryan - The North American Guitar
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: The North American Guitar
Upgrade: Odyssey Calibur 3pc. Cranks ( mid/American 19mm/22mm bottom bracket explained & review)
Upgrade: Odyssey Calibur 3pc. Cranks ( mid/American 19mm/22mm bottom bracket explained & review)
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: Stacked bmx
How to install mid, spanish, american, non-threaded Bottom Brackets
How to install mid, spanish, american, non-threaded Bottom Brackets
Published: 2013/01/21
Channel: RAMPEDFILMS
American Man - Rocky Bottom (couch sessions)
American Man - Rocky Bottom (couch sessions)
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: Rocky Bottom
American Idol 2011 Top 7 Results Show - Bottom 3 - Jacob Lusk & Stefano Langone - 04/21/11
American Idol 2011 Top 7 Results Show - Bottom 3 - Jacob Lusk & Stefano Langone - 04/21/11
Published: 2011/04/22
Channel: AmericanIdol10top12
American idol result ...bottom 3!
American idol result ...bottom 3!
Published: 2012/04/13
Channel: odille valin parenas
American Strutter Hardwood Bottom Turkey Hunt
American Strutter Hardwood Bottom Turkey Hunt
Published: 2016/04/04
Channel: American Strutter
America
America's Got Talent 2015 S10E26 Finale Bottom 5 Including Comments
Published: 2015/09/17
Channel: Anthony Ying
Mariners vs Yankees 1995 ALDS Game 5 Bottom of the 11th
Mariners vs Yankees 1995 ALDS Game 5 Bottom of the 11th
Published: 2013/07/23
Channel: Jared Miller
Froggy Bottom M Limited Quilted Sapele / German Spruce - The North American Guitar London UK
Froggy Bottom M Limited Quilted Sapele / German Spruce - The North American Guitar London UK
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: The North American Guitar
Casey Abrams with Jack Black, Fat Bottom Girls, American Idol Finale, Season 10
Casey Abrams with Jack Black, Fat Bottom Girls, American Idol Finale, Season 10
Published: 2011/05/26
Channel: Karen Martin
Froggy Bottom G Limited Maple / Adirondack - The North American Guitar London UK
Froggy Bottom G Limited Maple / Adirondack - The North American Guitar London UK
Published: 2016/03/16
Channel: The North American Guitar
Baseball Choke from the Bottom - American Top Team Miramar
Baseball Choke from the Bottom - American Top Team Miramar
Published: 2016/04/17
Channel: American Top Team Miramar Jiu Jitsu & MMA
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The region is bordered by tall bluffs such as this one, rising near Dupo, Illinois. This waterfall is called Falling Springs.

The American Bottom is the flood plain of the Mississippi River in the Metro-East region of Southern Illinois, extending from Alton, Illinois, south to the Kaskaskia River. It is also sometimes called "American Bottoms". The area is about 175 square miles (450 km2), mostly protected from flooding in the 21st century by a levee and drainage canal system. Immediately across the river from St. Louis, Missouri are industrial and urban areas, but many swamps and the major Horseshoe Lake are reminders of the Bottoms' riparian nature. This plain served as the center for the pre-Columbian Cahokia Mounds civilization, and later the French settlement of Illinois Country. Deforestation of the river banks in the 19th century to fuel steamboats had dramatic environmental effects in this region. The Mississippi River between St. Louis and the confluence with the Ohio River became wider and more shallow, as unstable banks collapsed into the water.[1] This resulted in more severe flooding and lateral changes of the major channel, causing the destruction of several French colonial towns, such Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and St. Philippe, Illinois.

The southern portion of the American Bottoms is primarily agricultural, planted chiefly in corn, wheat, and soybean. The American Bottom is part of the Mississippi Flyway used by migrating birds and has the greatest concentration of bird species in Illinois. The flood plain is bounded on the east by a nearly continuous, 200–300 foot high, 80-mile (130 km) long bluff of limestone and dolomite, above which begins the great prairie that covers most of the state. The Mississippi River bounds the Bottom on its west; the river abuts the bluffline on the Missouri side. Portions of St. Clair, Madison, Monroe, and Randolph counties are in the American Bottom. Its maximum width is about 9 miles (14 km) in the north, and it is about 2–3 miles in width throughout most of its southern extent.

History[edit]

(See Cahokia)

Indigenous people[edit]

Map of the villages of the American Bottom as they appeared in the late 18th century

Before European settlement, the area was home to indigenous peoples for many centuries. The peak civilization was created by peoples of the Mississippian culture, known as the Mound Builders. With the cultivation of maize, they were able to create food surpluses and build concentrated settlements in the centuries after 600 CE. The Cahokia Mounds Site, which was built as the center attracted a rapid increase in population after 1000 CE, is a six-square mile complex of large, man-made, earthen mounds rising from the flood plain. In 1982 it was designated by UNESCO as one of only eight World Heritage Sites in the United States.

The most prominent structure is Monks Mound, rising ten stories high at the center of the complex and fronting on a 40-acre (160,000 m2) Grand Plaza. Monks Mound is the largest Pre-Columbian earthwork in the Americas, and the complex is the largest earthwork north of Mexico. The engineering of the mounds showed that their builders had an expert knowledge of the varying soils and their capacities. Cahokia was a complex, planned, and designed urban center with a residential population, farming, and artisan production of refined crafts and goods. With its location at the confluence of three major rivers, it was the center of a regional trading network reaching to the Great Lakes and the Gulf Coast. With a population estimated at 30,000 at its peak, Cahokia was the largest city north of modern-day Mexico. Perhaps due to ecological reasons of deforestation and overhunting by the population, the city went into decline after 1300 and was abandoned before 1400. No city in the territorial United States surpassed this population until after 1800, when Philadelphia exceeded it.

Archaeological investigation has determined that the various types of mounds were arranged in a planned construction that reflected the cosmology of the Mississippians. The smaller ridge-top and conical mounds were used for ritual burials, some for elites and some for apparent sacrifices. The larger platform mounds were used for temples and homes of the elite. Archaeologists have found remains of a 2-mile (3.2 km) long, defensive wooden stockade that enclosed the central precinct and was rebuilt several times. They also discovered two major solar calendars, now known as Woodhenge, as the works were constructed of cedar, considered a sacred wood. The area surrounding the mounds had numerous borrow pits from which soil was taken to build the mounds and to fill and level the Grand Plaza and other plazas.

French settlement[edit]

After Cahokia was abandoned, there were few indigenous inhabitants in the area in the 17th century at the time of first French exploration.[2] The French made the earliest European settlement in this region of the Mississippi River Valley. They encountered Illiniwek clans called Cahokia, after whom they named the earthwork complex, and Kaskaskia, after whom the French named a river and town. The French villages included Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Prairie du Rocher, St. Philippe, and Prairie du Pont. Examples of 18th-century French Colonial architecture survive here, including the old Cahokia courthouse and Holy Family Catholic Church, both made with the distinctive vertical-log construction known as poteaux-sur-solle.

Americans[edit]

Fields in the Bottom in far southern Monroe County

American settlers began arriving near the end of the American Revolution after the Illinois Country was ceded by Great Britain to the new United States. In the early years, American single men came to the country, and there was little government and much anarchy. As Americans arrived, many residents of French descent moved west of the Mississippi River to St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve, Missouri. Within several years, the former French colonial towns had become mostly American in population, and English dominated as the language.

The Goshen Settlement was an early American settlement at the edge of the Bottom. The settlers continued to use the rich alluvial floodplain mostly for agriculture until the late 19th century. Brooklyn, Illinois was founded by 1839 as a freedom village by free people of color and fugitive slaves, led by "Mother" Priscilla Baltimore. It was the first town incorporated by African Americans under a state legal system.[3]

The rivers were used as transportation routes for trading and travel. The introduction of steamboats to the Mississippi and other major rivers led to deforestation of the river banks in the 19th century. The steamboats consumed much wood for fuel, leading to dramatic environmental effects along the Mississippi River between St. Louis and the confluence with the Ohio River. With so many trees taken down, the banks became unstable, collapsing into the river due to the powerful current. In this area, the Mississippi became wider and more shallow, which resulted in more severe flooding and lateral changes of the major channel. Several French colonial towns in the 19th century, such as Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and St. Philippe, Illinois, were flooded and destroyed.[1] Kaskaskia was rebuilt but, after the channel of the Mississippi shifted, it was cut off from the mainland of Illinois and is connected to Missouri land.

The area of the Bottom directly across from Saint Louis became highly industrialized. Industrialists located many "smokestack" industries here, such as steel mills, chemical plants, and oil refineries, because they ran on Illinois coal. In addition, the people who built the first bridge from St. Louis across the Mississippi River to Illinois imposed a tax on heavy traffic. Rather than pay it, developers simply located their industries in East St. Louis.

In the early 20th century, dramatic growth in industrial jobs in the American Bottom attracted many European immigrants and African-American migrants. The latter left the rural South in the Great Migration to work in factories and gain better lives for their children. Eastern European immigrants founded the first Bulgarian Orthodox Church in the United States in Madison, Illinois. Today, East Saint Louis is predominantly African-American in ethnicity. Following industrial restructuring, other immigrant descendants moved to other areas when following jobs and housing. Heavy industry is still prominent in the area, although total employment in these industries continues to decline after restructuring and industry changes.

1993 flooding of Kaskaskia, looking south.

Like the Mississippians, Americans made massive changes in the floodplain; their development has reduced its ability to absorb floods. The destruction of wetlands and paving over of areas along all the major rivers has increased the severity of flooding over the decades, despite attempted engineering solutions for flood control, which in turn have exacerbated flooding. During the Great Flood of 1993, major portions of the southern Bottom were flooded; 47,000 acres (190 km²) of land below Columbia, Illinois was inundated, destroying the town of Valmeyer. The waters came within five feet of overtopping the East Saint Louis levee. If they had run over, they would have flooded 71,000 acres (290 km²) and destroyed this urban industrial area. More than nine feet of floodwater covered the town of Kaskaskia in 1993 after it overtopped the levee; only the spire of the Catholic church and roof of a nearby shrine rose far above the waters.

Major cities in American Bottom[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b F. Terry Norris, "Where Did the Villages Go? Steamboats, Deforestation, and Archaeological Loss in the Mississippi Valley", in Common Fields: An Environmental History of St. Louis, Andrew Hurley, ed., St. Louis, MO: Missouri Historical Society Press, 1997, pp. 73-89
  2. ^ Biloine Whiting Young and Melvin L. Fowler, Cahokia: The Great Native American Metropolis, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000, p.315
  3. ^ Cha-Jua, Sundiata Keita (2000). America's First Black Town: Brooklyn, Illinois, 1830-1915, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2002, p.85.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°24′N 90°18′W / 38.4°N 90.3°W / 38.4; -90.3

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