Play Video
1
Amphipoda.m4v
Amphipoda.m4v
::2011/01/31::
Play Video
2
Sideswimmer (Amphipoda) Observations: Crab Cove
Sideswimmer (Amphipoda) Observations: Crab Cove
::2010/06/04::
Play Video
3
Amphipod Courtship
Amphipod Courtship
::2010/01/06::
Play Video
4
Copulation of Talitridae(Amphipoda)
Copulation of Talitridae(Amphipoda)
::2009/07/22::
Play Video
5
Amphipoda, Chaetognatha and Copepoda
Amphipoda, Chaetognatha and Copepoda
::2013/11/26::
Play Video
6
Amphipoda Caprellidae (Gespenstkrebs)
Amphipoda Caprellidae (Gespenstkrebs)
::2009/12/01::
Play Video
7
Fly Fishing Entomology | Scuds (Amphipoda) & how they swim underwater
Fly Fishing Entomology | Scuds (Amphipoda) & how they swim underwater
::2009/08/24::
Play Video
8
Pseudocrangonyx (Amphipoda)part2
Pseudocrangonyx (Amphipoda)part2
::2008/11/22::
Play Video
9
Amphipoda
Amphipoda
::2013/11/26::
Play Video
10
Amphipoda 1
Amphipoda 1
::2013/11/26::
Play Video
11
Pseudocrangonyx (Amphipoda)
Pseudocrangonyx (Amphipoda)
::2009/11/01::
Play Video
12
Deep-sea Amphipoda [深海の端脚類]. MBE#03
Deep-sea Amphipoda [深海の端脚類]. MBE#03
::2012/02/10::
Play Video
13
Рачки-бокоплавы (Amphipoda Gammaridae), р. Енисей
Рачки-бокоплавы (Amphipoda Gammaridae), р. Енисей
::2013/04/11::
Play Video
14
amphipoda in sink
amphipoda in sink
::2008/11/08::
Play Video
15
В одесских катакомбах впервые найдены ракообразные (Amphipoda).
В одесских катакомбах впервые найдены ракообразные (Amphipoda).
::2014/04/16::
Play Video
16
Fly Fishing Entomology | Scuds (Amphipoda) Swimming Cont.
Fly Fishing Entomology | Scuds (Amphipoda) Swimming Cont.
::2009/08/24::
Play Video
17
intro to amphipoda in Valley Creek, Minnesota
intro to amphipoda in Valley Creek, Minnesota
::2010/12/03::
Play Video
18
amphipoda in bed
amphipoda in bed
::2008/11/08::
Play Video
19
FROM ENGLISH TO FRENCH = Amphipoda
FROM ENGLISH TO FRENCH = Amphipoda
::2011/10/12::
Play Video
20
FROM ENGLISH TO SPANISH = Amorphophallus
FROM ENGLISH TO SPANISH = Amorphophallus
::2011/10/13::
Play Video
21
Mysis - Schwebegarnelen
Mysis - Schwebegarnelen
::2011/01/08::
Play Video
22
Amphipod
Amphipod
::2010/04/26::
Play Video
23
Amphipod tubes
Amphipod tubes
::2010/09/07::
Play Video
24
Stormy night in Walden, Montgomery TX
Stormy night in Walden, Montgomery TX
::2014/04/04::
Play Video
25
2005 Ruckus
2005 Ruckus
::2012/10/18::
Play Video
26
Amphicar on Animal Planet
Amphicar on Animal Planet
::2011/01/15::
Play Video
27
69
69' Olds Dyno test
::2011/06/10::
Play Video
28
The Lake Drive
The Lake Drive
::2010/06/22::
Play Video
29
Amphipod Eating
Amphipod Eating
::2013/01/24::
Play Video
30
Udang Raksasa Di Kedalaman Laut Selandia Baru
Udang Raksasa Di Kedalaman Laut Selandia Baru
::2012/02/08::
Play Video
31
Flohkrebse in Zeitlupe
Flohkrebse in Zeitlupe
::2011/02/12::
Play Video
32
Demospongiae
Demospongiae
::2013/11/26::
Play Video
33
Flohkrebs - Gammaridea von der Nähe
Flohkrebs - Gammaridea von der Nähe
::2011/01/09::
Play Video
34
Deep Sea Amphipod
Deep Sea Amphipod
::2013/12/19::
Play Video
35
ヨコエビ 流れ藻は隠れ家
ヨコエビ 流れ藻は隠れ家
::2014/03/28::
Play Video
36
Pods
Pods
::2014/04/01::
Play Video
37
ヨコエビ
ヨコエビ
::2013/06/30::
Play Video
38
Car Crash Universal Studios
Car Crash Universal Studios
::2011/10/23::
Play Video
39
アマモとハマトビムシ
アマモとハマトビムシ
::2010/05/16::
Play Video
40
ヨコエビの交接??
ヨコエビの交接??
::2011/03/14::
Play Video
41
Vertical distribution of Gammarus in meromictic lake
Vertical distribution of Gammarus in meromictic lake
::2013/12/20::
Play Video
42
Athecata
Athecata
::2013/11/26::
Play Video
43
Copepod_Amphipod chemical interactions
Copepod_Amphipod chemical interactions
::2013/12/20::
Play Video
44
Florida Amphipods Arcitalitrus sylvaticus (Lawn Shrimp)
Florida Amphipods Arcitalitrus sylvaticus (Lawn Shrimp)
::2014/03/10::
Play Video
45
Talitridae
Talitridae
::2009/04/12::
Play Video
46
Бокоплав маленький
Бокоплав маленький
::2014/01/09::
Play Video
47
ヨコエビ-1
ヨコエビ-1
::2013/06/30::
Play Video
48
игра бокоплава Даига
игра бокоплава Даига
::2014/02/20::
Play Video
49
Chaetognatha with Nematoda
Chaetognatha with Nematoda
::2013/11/27::
Play Video
50
Gammaridea sp. 01 filmed by http://www.meerwasser-videothek.de
Gammaridea sp. 01 filmed by http://www.meerwasser-videothek.de
::2009/05/13::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Amphipoda
Temporal range: Eocene–Recent
Gammarus roeseli
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Superorder: Peracarida
Order: Amphipoda
Latreille, 1816 [1]
Suborders

Traditional division[2]

Revised division (2013)[1]

Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies. Amphipods range in size from 1 to 340 millimetres (0.039 to 13 in) and are mostly detritivores or scavengers. There are more than 9,500 amphipod species so far described. They are mostly marine animals, but are found in almost all aquatic environments. Some 1900 species live in freshwater, and the order also includes terrestrial animals and sandhoppers such as Talitrus saltator.

Etymology and names[edit]

The name Amphipoda comes, via the New Latin amphipoda, from the Greek roots ἀμφί ("different") and πούς ("foot"), in reference to two kinds of legs that amphipods possess. This contrasts with the related Isopoda, which have a single kind of thoracic leg.[3] Particularly among anglers, amphipods are known as freshwater shrimp, scuds or sideswimmers.[4][5]

Description[edit]

Anatomy[edit]

Diagram of the anatomy of the gammaridean amphipod Leucothoe incisa

The body of an amphipod is divided into 13 segments, which can be grouped into a head, a thorax and an abdomen.[4]

The head is fused to the thorax, and bears two pairs of antennae and one pair of sessile compound eyes.[6] It also carries the mouthparts, but these are mostly concealed.[7]

The thorax and abdomen are usually quite distinct and bear different kinds of legs; they are typically laterally compressed, and there is no carapace.[6] The thorax bears eight pairs of uniramous appendages, the first of which are used as accessory mouthparts; the next four pairs are directed forwards, and the last three pairs are directed backwards.[6] Gills are present on the thoracic segments, and there is an open circulatory system with a heart, using haemocyanin to carry oxygen in the haemolymph to the tissues. The uptake and excretion of salts is controlled by special glands on the antennae.[4]

The abdomen is divided into two parts: the pleosome which bears swimming legs; and the urosome, which comprises a telson and three pairs of uropods which do not form a tail fan as they do in animals such as true shrimp.[6]

Size[edit]

Amphipods are typically less than 10 millimetres (0.39 in) long, but the largest recorded living amphipods were 28 centimetres (11 in) long, and were photographed at a depth of 5,300 metres (17,400 ft) in the Pacific Ocean.[8] Samples from the Atlantic Ocean with a reconstructed length of 34 centimetres (13 in) have been assigned to the same species, Alicella gigantea.[9] The smallest known amphipods are less than 1 millimetre (0.04 in) long.[10] The size of amphipods is limited by the availability of dissolved oxygen, such that the amphipods in Lake Titicaca at an altitude of 3,800 metres (12,500 ft) can only grow up to 22 millimetres (0.87 in), compared to lengths of 90 millimetres (3.5 in) in Lake Baikal at 455 metres (1,500 ft).[11]

Reproduction and life cycle[edit]

Mature females bear a marsupium, or brood pouch, which holds her eggs while they are fertilised,[4] and until the young are ready to hatch.[6] As a female ages, she produces more eggs in each brood. Mortality is around 25%–50% for the eggs.[4] There are no larval stages; the eggs hatch directly into a juvenile form, and sexual maturity is generally reached after 6 moults.[4] Some species have been known to eat their own exuviae after moulting.[4]

Diversity and classification[edit]

Amphipods are sometimes difficult to identify, due to their typically small size, subtle differences in structures, such as mouthparts or limbs, and the fact that they sometimes require dissection to identify those differences. As a result, ecological studies and environmental surveys often lump all amphipods together.[12] Carolus Linnaeus described two species of amphipods in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae, which is defined as the starting point for zoological nomenclature. His descriptions (such as that for Gammarus pulex: "Cancer macrourus articularis, manibus adactylis, cauda attenuata spinis bifidis"[13]) were, however, "very poor", and could apply to "nearly every species of amphipod".[14]

Over 9,500 species of amphipods are currently recognized.[15] Traditionally they were placed in the four suborders Gammaridea (which contained the majority of taxa, including all the freshwater and terrestrial species[7]), Caprellidea, Hyperiidea, and Ingolfiellidea (with only 40 species in 2 families,[16]).

The classification of the Amphipoda is however being rearranged to better reflect their phylogeny, the relationships within the suborder Gammaridea having suffered from the most confusion. A new classification has been developed in the works of Lowry & Myers, where a new large suborder Senticaudata wa split off from the Gammaridea in 2013.[17][18] That taxon, which also encompasses the previous Caprellidea, now comprises over half of the known amphipod species.[15]

The classification given below, from the rank of suborder down to superfamily, however still represents the traditional division as given in Martin & Davis (2001),[19] except that superfamilies are recognised here within the Gammaridea.

Gammaridea
Caprellidea
Hyperiidea
Ingolfiellidea

Fossil record[edit]

Amphipods are thought to have originated in the Lower Carboniferous. Despite the group's age, however, the fossil record of the order Amphipoda is meagre, comprising specimens of 12 species dating back – with one exception – only as far as the Upper Eocene, where they have been found in Baltic amber.[20] In 2013, the fossil record of Amphipoda was extended back 170 million years, with the description by Mark McMenamin and colleagues of Rosagammarus minichiellus from the Triassic of Nevada.[21]

Ecology[edit]

Talitrus saltator is an abundant animal of sandy beaches around Europe.

Amphipods are found in almost all aquatic environments, from fresh water to water with twice the salinity of sea water.[4] They are almost always an important component of aquatic ecosystems.[12] Most species in the suborder Gammaridea are epibenthic, although they are often collected in plankton samples. Members of the Hyperiidea are all planktonic and marine.[6] Many are symbionts of gelatinous animals, including salps, medusae, siphonophores, colonial radiolarians and ctenophores, and most hyperiids are associated with gelatinous animals during some part of their life cycle.[22] Some 1,900 species, or 20% of the total amphipod diversity, live in fresh water or other non-marine waters. Notably rich endemic amphipod faunas are found in the ancient lakes Baikal and waters of the Caspian Sea basin.[23]

The landhoppers of the family Talitridae (which also includes semi-terrestrial and marine animals) are terrestrial, living in damp environments such as leaf litter.[24] Landhoppers have a wide distribution in areas that were formerly part of Gondwanaland, but have colonised parts of Europe and North America in recent times.

Around 750 species in 160 genera and 30 families are troglobitic, and are found in almost all suitable habitats, but with their centres of diversity in the Mediterranean Basin, southeastern North America and the Caribbean.[25]

Compared to other crustacean groups, such as the Isopoda, Rhizocephala or Copepoda, relatively few amphipods are parasitic on other animals. The most notable example of parasitic amphipods are the whale lice (family Cyamidae); unlike other amphipods, these are dorso-ventrally flattened, and have large, strong claws, with which they attach themselves to baleen whales. They are the only parasitic crustaceans which cannot swim during any part of their life cycle.[26]

Most amphipods are detritivores or scavengers,[4] with some being grazers of algae, omnivores or predators[6] on small insects and crustaceans.[4] Food is grasped with the front two pairs of legs which are armed with large claws.[4] The incidence of cannibalism and intraguild predation is relatively high in some species,[27] although adults may decrease cannibalistic behaviour directed at juveniles when they are likely to encounter their own offspring.[28]

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Amphipoda at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Amphipoda at Wikispecies

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Amphipoda in Lowry J. (2013) World Amphipoda Database. marinespecies.org. read 15.2.2014
  2. ^ "Amphipoda". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  3. ^ "Amphipoda". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sam Wade, Tracy Corbin & Linda-Marie McDowell (2004). "Class Crustacea" (PDF). Critter Catalogue. A guide to the aquatic invertebrates of South Australian inland waters. Waterwatch South Australia. ISBN 1-876562-67-6. 
  5. ^ Brian Chan. "Freshwater shrimp (scuds, sideswimmers) – Class: Crustacea, Order: Amphipoda". Fly Fishers' Republic. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Order Amphipoda". Guide to the marine zooplankton of south eastern Australia. Tasmanian Aquaculture & Fisheries Institute. 2008. 
  7. ^ a b John R. Holsinger. "What are amphipods?". Old Dominion University. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  8. ^ J. Laurens Barnard, Darl E. Bowers & Eugene C. Haderlie (1980). "Amphipoda: The Amphipods and Allies". In Robert H. Morris, Robert Hugh Morris, Donald Putnam Abbott & Eugene Clinton Haderlie. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford University Press. pp. 559–566. ISBN 0-8047-1045-7. 
  9. ^ J. Laurens Barnard & Camilla L. Ingram (1986). "The supergiant amphipod Alicella gigantea Chevreux from the North Pacific Gyre". Journal of Crustacean Biology 6 (4): 825–839. doi:10.2307/1548395. JSTOR 1548395. 
  10. ^ T. Wolff (1969). "The fauna of Rennell and Bellona, Solomon Islands". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 255 (800): 321–343. doi:10.1098/rstb.1969.0014. JSTOR 2416857. 
  11. ^ L. S. Peck & G. Chapelle (2003). "Reduced oxygen at high altitude limits maximum size". Proceedings of the Royal Society B 270: S166–S167. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2003.0054. 
  12. ^ a b J. K. Lowry & R. T. Springthorpe. "Introduction". Amphipoda: Families. Australian Museum. Retrieved April 5, 2010. 
  13. ^ Carl Linnaeus (1758). Systema Naturae (10th ed.). 
  14. ^ S. Pinkster (1970). "Redescription of Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus, 1758) based on neotype material (Amphipoda)". Crustaceana 18 (2): 177–186. doi:10.1163/156854070X00798. JSTOR 20101677. 
  15. ^ a b Introduction World Amphipoda Database (read 15 February 2014)
  16. ^ R. Vonk & F. R. Schram (2003). "Ingolfiellidea (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Amphipoda): a phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis". Contributions to Zoology 72 (1): 39–72. 
  17. ^ J. K. Lowry & A. A. Myers (2013). "A phylogeny and classification of the Senticaudata subord. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda)" (PDF). Zootaxa 3610 (1): 1–80. 
  18. ^ Tammy Horton (2013). "Senticaudata". In J. Lowry. World Amphipoda database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  19. ^ Joel W. Martin & George E. Davis (2001). An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. p. 132. 
  20. ^ E. L. Bousfield & G. O. Poinar, Jr. (1994). "A new terrestrial amphipod from tertiary amber deposits of Chiapas province, Southern Mexico". Historical Biology 7 (2): 105–114. doi:10.1080/10292389409380448. 
  21. ^ Mark A. S. McMenamin, Lesly P. Zapata & Meghan C. Hussey (2013). "A Triassic giant amphipod from Nevada, USA". Journal of Crustacean Biology 33 (6): 751 – 759. doi:10.1163/1937240X-00002192. 
  22. ^ G. R. Harbison, D. C. Biggs & L. P. Madin (1977). "The associations of Amphipoda Hyperiidea with gelatinous zooplankton. II. Associations with Cnidaria, Cteuophora and Radiolaria". Deep-Sea Research 24 (5): 465–488. doi:10.1016/0146-6291(77)90484-2. 
  23. ^ R. Väinölä, J. D. S. Witt, M. Grabowski, J. H. Bradbury, K. Jazdzewski & B. Sket (2008). "Global diversity of amphipods (Amphipoda, Crustacea) in freshwater" (PDF). Hydrobiologia 595 (1): 241–255. doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9020-6. 
  24. ^ M. A. Minor & A. W. Robertson (March 5, 2010). "Amphipoda". Guide to New Zealand Soil Invertebrates. Massey University. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  25. ^ Horton H. Hobbs, III (2003). "Crustacea" (PDF). In John Gunn. Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science. Routledge. pp. 254–257. ISBN 978-1-57958-399-6. 
  26. ^ Tim Goater (May 4, 1996). "Parasitic Amphipoda". Interactive Parasitology. Vancouver Island University. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  27. ^ Jaimie T. A. Dick (1995). "The cannibalistic behaviour of two Gammarus species (Crustacea: Amphipoda)". Journal of Zoology 236 (4): 697–706. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1995.tb02740.x. 
  28. ^ Susan E. Lewis, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Erin K. Lagerstrom & Hazel C. Clarke (2010). "Avoidance of filial cannibalism in the amphipod Gammarus pulex". Ethology 116 (2): 138–146. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2009.01726.x. 
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License

Mashpedia enables any individual or company to promote their own Youtube-hosted videos or Youtube Channels, offering a simple and effective plan to get them in front of our engaged audience.

Want to learn more? Please contact us at: hello@mashpedia.com

Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014