Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Below Knee Amputation part 1
Below Knee Amputation part 1
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: Shirish Karki
Hand Amputation
Hand Amputation
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: swampcricket601
History of Amputation
History of Amputation
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Avery Thing
*WARNING GRAPHIC* | MY FINGER AMPUTATION!
*WARNING GRAPHIC* | MY FINGER AMPUTATION!
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Elle Tayla
Somalia - Amputation As Punishment Reintroduced
Somalia - Amputation As Punishment Reintroduced
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: AP Archive
A few hours post-amputation
A few hours post-amputation
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: Stumpalina
Toe Amputation By Dr. James Kent
Toe Amputation By Dr. James Kent
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: TYLER FOOT CLINIC
Transfemoral Amputation 1 - Total
Transfemoral Amputation 1 - Total
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: Husky Orthopaedics
Staple Removal Post Amputation
Staple Removal Post Amputation
Published: 2016/11/13
Channel: KarinaAmelia Amputee
Young Cancer Patient Has Amputation To Save Her Life
Young Cancer Patient Has Amputation To Save Her Life
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: CBS Denver
Partial Penectomy for penile cancer (Amputation of penis)
Partial Penectomy for penile cancer (Amputation of penis)
Published: 2017/09/20
Channel: Dr Vipin Goel
Below Knee Amputation (BKA) - Dr. Jade Hiramoto
Below Knee Amputation (BKA) - Dr. Jade Hiramoto
Published: 2017/12/01
Channel: GIBLIB
Amputation Photos Dont Watch If You Could Not Stand It
Amputation Photos Dont Watch If You Could Not Stand It
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: adhe tv
Man shows off his amputated foot
Man shows off his amputated foot
Published: 2012/02/19
Channel: Hasso Hassoni
MovieSurg - Above knee amputation
MovieSurg - Above knee amputation
Published: 2014/05/28
Channel: MovieSurg
Photos: Leg Amputation Accident Scene/ Hospital Pathology
Photos: Leg Amputation Accident Scene/ Hospital Pathology
Published: 2014/11/06
Channel: Crew9t
Lower Leg Amputation Surgery (Amputated Leg)
Lower Leg Amputation Surgery (Amputated Leg)
Published: 2009/09/28
Channel: Medical Legal Art
My Amputation 12/23/15
My Amputation 12/23/15
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: KarinaAmelia Amputee
Below Knee Amputation 2
Below Knee Amputation 2
Published: 2011/12/06
Channel: Mojo
#Amputation #MedEd #Unplugged By Dr.Tushar Mehta
#Amputation #MedEd #Unplugged By Dr.Tushar Mehta
Published: 2017/11/09
Channel: damsdelhi
Diabetic Foot Amputation
Diabetic Foot Amputation
Published: 2015/07/28
Channel: Monkey Medical
Civil War Amputation Reenactment With Pig Leg
Civil War Amputation Reenactment With Pig Leg
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: CoBobo100
ER Amputation of Gangrened Fingertip (Surgery)
ER Amputation of Gangrened Fingertip (Surgery)
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: DrER.tv
Amputation
Amputation
Published: 2014/04/28
Channel: maxineinde
La vie après une amputation des deux bras, le parcours de Louis Derungs - Mille et une vies
La vie après une amputation des deux bras, le parcours de Louis Derungs - Mille et une vies
Published: 2016/10/11
Channel: Mille et une vies - Officiel
4 Months After Leg Amputation I
4 Months After Leg Amputation I'm Back Home - It's OK to be Different VLOG 14
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: It's OK to be Different
Newts Can Regenerate Limbs After Amputation— HHMI BioInteractive Video
Newts Can Regenerate Limbs After Amputation— HHMI BioInteractive Video
Published: 2014/12/17
Channel: biointeractive
Toe Amputation
Toe Amputation
Published: 2014/10/07
Channel: Jonathan Stanley
Phantom Pain Amputation - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Phantom Pain Amputation - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2014/08/20
Channel: nabil ebraheim
Transmetatarsal Amputation - Skin/Flaps
Transmetatarsal Amputation - Skin/Flaps
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: Husky Orthopaedics
Jackson Stone
Jackson Stone's Brave Decision To Amputate his foot
Published: 2013/03/01
Channel: Jeremy Stone
Chilling Real 911 Call- Amputated Leg
Chilling Real 911 Call- Amputated Leg
Published: 2012/10/04
Channel: Crew9t
I got another finger Amputated + Fingers Update *Warning Graphic*
I got another finger Amputated + Fingers Update *Warning Graphic*
Published: 2016/11/23
Channel: Elle Tayla
Upper Limb Amputation Patient Education Video
Upper Limb Amputation Patient Education Video
Published: 2014/05/13
Channel: Mayo Clinic
Below Knee Amputation
Below Knee Amputation
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Presentation Group Orlando
Amputation day
Amputation day
Published: 2018/02/16
Channel: Antony Without an H
Marine Veteran Kirstie Ennis: Life After A Leg Amputation | Cosmopolitan
Marine Veteran Kirstie Ennis: Life After A Leg Amputation | Cosmopolitan
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: Cosmopolitan.com
Einschnitte - Amputation
Einschnitte - Amputation
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: Einschnitte ARM
Dad
Dad's finger amputation
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: sharinandamber
3d Medical Visualization - Fingers Amputation (Part II)
3d Medical Visualization - Fingers Amputation (Part II)
Published: 2010/07/30
Channel: Sefora Camazano
Amputation
Amputation
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: ProCPR
Fingertip Amputation Treated with Cyanoacrylate Tissue Adhesive
Fingertip Amputation Treated with Cyanoacrylate Tissue Adhesive
Published: 2015/05/05
Channel: Larry Mellick
Crazy staff infection that leads to arm amputation!!
Crazy staff infection that leads to arm amputation!!
Published: 2012/07/21
Channel: EJ
[Atout Santé #14] L
[Atout Santé #14] L'après-amputation
Published: 2016/05/06
Channel: Atout Santé
Diabetic Ulcerations and Amputations
Diabetic Ulcerations and Amputations
Published: 2014/07/23
Channel: Neuhaus Foot and Ankle, PC
My Amputated Fingers + Prosthetics **WARNING GRAPHIC**
My Amputated Fingers + Prosthetics **WARNING GRAPHIC**
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: Elle Tayla
Guy Gets
Guy Gets 'Please Cut Here' Tattoo For His Amputation
Published: 2014/07/10
Channel: 1OneMinuteNews
Close Up of My Residual Limb 7 Months After Amputation
Close Up of My Residual Limb 7 Months After Amputation
Published: 2011/02/05
Channel: Crew9t
This Ballerina
This Ballerina's Amputation Didn't Throw Her Off Balance
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: POPSUGAR Entertainment
Medical Videos Full Below Knee Amputation Surgery
Medical Videos Full Below Knee Amputation Surgery
Published: 2014/04/14
Channel: Medical Videos
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Amputation
J. McKnight.jpg
J. McKnight, who lost his limbs in a railway accident in 1865, was the second recorded survivor of a simultaneous triple amputation.
Classification and external resources
Specialty emergency medicine
ICD-10 T14.7
MeSH D000673

Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery. As a surgical measure, it is used to control pain or a disease process in the affected limb, such as malignancy or gangrene. In some cases, it is carried out on individuals as a preventative surgery for such problems. A special case is that of congenital amputation, a congenital disorder, where fetal limbs have been cut off by constrictive bands. In some countries, amputation of the hands, feet or other body parts is or was used as a form of punishment for people who committed crimes. Amputation has also been used as a tactic in war and acts of terrorism; it may also occur as a war injury. In some cultures and religions, minor amputations or mutilations are considered a ritual accomplishment.

In the US, the majority of new amputations occur due to complications of the vascular system (the blood vessels), especially from diabetes. Between 1988 and 1996, there were an average of 133,735 hospital discharges for amputation per year in the US.[1]

Types[edit]

Leg[edit]

A diagram showing an above the knee amputation

Lower limb, or leg, amputations can be divided into two broad categories - minor amputations and major amputations, Minor amputations generally refers to the amputation of digits. Major amputations are commonly referred to as below-knee amputation, above-knee amputation and so forth. To avoid ambiguity the correct terminology for major amputations is described in ISO 8549-2:1989,[2] these being:

  • partial foot amputation - amputation of the lower limb distal to the ankle joint.
  • ankle disarticulation - amputation of the lower limb at the ankle joint.
  • trans-tibial amputation - amputation of the lower limb between the knee joint and the ankle joint, commonly referred to as a below-knee amputation.
  • knee disarticulation - amputation of the lower limb at the knee joint.
  • trans-femoral amputation - amputation of the lower limb between the hip joint and the knee joint, commonly referred to an above-knee amputation.
  • hip disarticulation - amputation of the lower limb at the hip joint.
  • trans-pelvic disarticulation- amputation of the whole lower limb together with all or part of the pelvis.This is also known as a hemipelvectomy or hindquarter amputation.

Common partial foot amputations include Chopart, Lisfranc and ray amputations, Common forms of ankle disarticulations include Syme,[3] Pyrogoff and Boyd. A less commonly occurring major amputation is the Van Ness rotation/rotationplasty (foot being turned around and reattached to allow the ankle joint to be used as a knee).

Arm[edit]

The 18th century guide to amputations

The correct terminology for arm, or upper-limb amputations is also described in ISO 8549-2:1989,[2] these being:

  • partial hand amputation
  • wrist disarticulation
  • trans-radial amputation, commonly referred to as below-elbow or forearm amputation
  • elbow disarticulation
  • trans-humeral amputation, commonly referred to as above-elbow amputation
  • shoulder disarticulation
  • forequarter amputation

A variant of the trans-radial amputation is the Krukenberg procedure in which the radius and ulna are used to create a stump capable of a pincer action.

Other[edit]

  • Face:
    • amputation of the ears
    • amputation of the nose (rhinotomy)
    • amputation of the tongue (glossectomy).
    • amputation of the eyes (enucleation). Many of these facial disfigurings were and still are done in some parts of the world as punishment for some crimes, and as individual shame and population terror practices.
    • amputation of the teeth. Removal of teeth, mainly incisors, is or was practiced by some cultures for ritual purposes (for instance in the Iberomaurusian culture of Neolithic North Africa).
  • Breasts:
  • Genitals:

Hemicorporectomy, or amputation at the waist, and decapitation, or amputation at the neck, are the most radical amputations.

Genital modification and mutilation may involve amputating tissue, although not necessarily as a result of injury or disease.

Self-amputation[edit]

In some rare cases when a person has become trapped in a deserted place, with no means of communication or hope of rescue, the victim has amputated his or her own limb.

Body integrity identity disorder is a psychological condition in which an individual feels compelled to remove one or more of their body parts, usually a limb. In some cases, that individual may take drastic measures to remove the offending appendages, either by causing irreparable damage to the limb so that medical intervention cannot save the limb, or by causing the limb to be severed.

Causes[edit]

Circulatory disorders[edit]

  • Diabetic foot infection or gangrene (the most frequent reason for infection-related amputations)
  • Sepsis with peripheral necrosis

Neoplasm[edit]

Transfemoral amputation due to liposarcoma

Trauma[edit]

Three fingers from a soldier's right hand were traumatically amputated during World War I.
  • Severe limb injuries in which the limb cannot be saved or efforts to save the limb fail.
  • Traumatic amputation (an unexpected amputation that occurs at the scene of an accident, where the limb is partially or entirely severed as a direct result of the accident, for example, a finger that is severed from the blade of a table saw)
  • Amputation in utero (Amniotic band)

Deformities[edit]

Infection[edit]

Athletic performance[edit]

Legal punishment [edit]

Surgery[edit]

Method[edit]

Curved knives such as this one were used, in the past, for some kinds of amputations.

The first step is ligating the supplying artery and vein, to prevent hemorrhage (bleeding). The muscles are transected, and finally, the bone is sawed through with an oscillating saw. Sharp and rough edges of the bone(s) are filed down, skin and muscle flaps are then transposed over the stump, occasionally with the insertion of elements to attach a prosthesis.

Distal stabilisation of muscles is recommended. This allows effective muscle contraction which reduces atrophy, allows functional use of the stump and maintains soft tissue coverage of the remnant bone. The preferred stabilisation technique is myodesis where the muscle is attached to the bone or its periostium. In joint disarticulation amputations tenodesis may be used where the muscle tendon is attached to the bone. Muscles should be attached under similar tension to normal physiological conditions.[8]

Post-operative management[edit]

The use of rigid removable dressings (RRD's) in trans-tibial (below knee) amputations, rather than soft bandaging has been shown to improve healing time, reduce edema, prevent knee flexion contractures and reduce complications, including further amputation, from external trauma such as falls onto the stump[9] and should be considered standard practice.

Post-operative management, in addition to wound healing, should consider maintenance of limb strength, joint range, edema management, preservation of the intact limb (if applicable) and stump desensitisation.

Trauma[edit]

Traumatic amputation is the partial or total avulsion of a part of a body during a serious accident, like traffic, labor, or combat.[10][11][12]

Traumatic amputation of a human limb, either partial or total, creates the immediate danger of death from blood loss.[13]

Orthopedic surgeons often assess the severity of different injuries using the Mangled Extremity Severity Score. Given different clinical and situational factors, they can predict the likelihood of amputation. This is especially useful for emergency physicians to quickly evaluate patients and decide on consultations.[14]

Causes[edit]

Private Lewis Francis was wounded July 21, 1861, at the First Battle of Bull Run by a bayonet to the knee.

Traumatic amputation is uncommon in humans (1 per 20,804 population per year). Loss of limb usually happens immediately during the accident, but sometimes a few days later after medical complications. Statistically the most common causes of traumatic amputations are:[11]

  • Traffic accidents (cars, motorcycles, bicycles, trains, etc.)
  • Labor accidents (equipment, instruments, cylinders, chainsaws, press machines, meat machines, wood machines, etc.)
  • Agricultural accidents, with machines and mower equipment
  • Electric shock hazards
  • Firearms, bladed weapons, explosives
  • Violent rupture of ship rope or industry wire rope
  • Ring traction (ring amputation, de-gloving injuries)
  • Building doors and car doors
  • Gas cylinder explosions[15]
  • Other rare accidents[11]

Treatment[edit]

The development of the science of microsurgery over last 40 years has provided several treatment options for a traumatic amputation, depending on the patient's specific trauma and clinical situation:

  • 1st choice: Surgical amputation - break - prosthesis
  • 2nd choice: Surgical amputation - transplantation of other tissue - plastic reconstruction.
  • 3rd choice: Replantation - reconnection - revascularisation of amputated limb, by microscope (after 1969)
  • 4th choice: Transplantation of cadaveric hand (after 2000),[11][16]

Epidemiology[edit]

  • In the United States in 1999, there were 14,420 non-fatal traumatic amputations according to the American Statistical Association. Of these, 4,435 occurred as a result of traffic and transportation accidents and 9,985 were due to labor accidents. Of all traumatic amputations, the distribution percentage is 30.75% for traffic accidents and 69.24% for labor accidents.[17]
  • The population of the United States in 1999 was about 300,000,000, so the conclusion is that there is one amputation per 20,804 persons per year. In the group of labor amputations, 53% occurred in laborers and technicians, 30% in production and service workers, 16% in silviculture and fishery workers.[17]
  • A study found that in 2010, 22.8% of patients undergoing amputation of a lower extremity in the United States were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days.[18]

Prevention[edit]

Amputations are usually traumatic experiences. They can reduce the quality of life for patients in addition to being expensive. In the USA, a typical prosthetic limb costs in the range of $10,000–15,000 according to the American Diabetic Association.[citation needed] In some populations, preventing amputations is a critical task.

Methods in preventing amputation, limb-sparing techniques, depend on the problems that might cause amputations to be necessary. Chronic infections, often caused by diabetes or decubitus ulcers in bedridden patients, are common causes of infections that lead to gangrene, which would then necessitate amputation.

There are two key challenges: first, many patients have impaired circulation in their extremities, and second, they have difficulty curing infections in limbs with poor vasculation (blood circulation).

Crush injuries where there is extensive tissue damage and poor circulation also benefit from hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). The high level of oxygenation and revascularization speed up recovery times and prevent infections.

A study found that the patented method called Circulator Boot achieved significant results in prevention of amputation in patients with diabetes and arterioscleorosis.[19][20] Another study found it also effective for healing limb ulcers caused by peripheral vascular disease.[21] The boot checks the heart rhythm and compresses the limb between heartbeats; the compression helps cure the wounds in the walls of veins and arteries, and helps to push the blood back to the heart.[22]

For victims of trauma, advances in microsurgery in the 1970s have made replantations of severed body parts possible.

The establishment of laws, rules, and guidelines, and employment of modern equipment help protect people from traumatic amputations.[13]

Prognosis[edit]

The individual may experience psychological trauma and emotional discomfort. The stump will remain an area of reduced mechanical stability. Limb loss can present significant or even drastic practical limitations.

A large proportion of amputees (50–80%) experience the phenomenon of phantom limbs;[23] they feel body parts that are no longer there. These limbs can itch, ache, burn, feel tense, dry or wet, locked in or trapped or they can feel as if they are moving. Some scientists believe it has to do with a kind of neural map that the brain has of the body, which sends information to the rest of the brain about limbs regardless of their existence. Phantom sensations and phantom pain may also occur after the removal of body parts other than the limbs, e.g. after amputation of the breast, extraction of a tooth (phantom tooth pain) or removal of an eye (phantom eye syndrome).

A similar phenomenon is unexplained sensation in a body part unrelated to the amputated limb. It has been hypothesized that the portion of the brain responsible for processing stimulation from amputated limbs, being deprived of input, expands into the surrounding brain, (Phantoms in the Brain: V.S. Ramachandran and Sandra Blakeslee) such that an individual who has had an arm amputated will experience unexplained pressure or movement on his face or head[citation needed].

In many cases, the phantom limb aids in adaptation to a prosthesis, as it permits the person to experience proprioception of the prosthetic limb. To support improved resistance or usability, comfort or healing, some type of stump socks may be worn instead of or as part of wearing a prosthesis.

Another side effect can be heterotopic ossification, especially when a bone injury is combined with a head injury. The brain signals the bone to grow instead of scar tissue to form, and nodules and other growth can interfere with prosthetics and sometimes require further operations. This type of injury has been especially common among soldiers wounded by improvised explosive devices in the Iraq War.[24]

Due to technologic advances in prosthetics, many amputees live active lives with little restriction. Organizations such as the Challenged Athletes Foundation have been developed to give amputees the opportunity to be involved in athletics and adaptive sports such as Amputee Soccer.

History[edit]

The word amputation is derived from the Latin amputare, "to cut away", from ambi- ("about", "around") and putare ("to prune"). The English word "amputation" was first applied to surgery in the 17th century, possibly first in Peter Lowe's A discourse of the Whole Art of Chirurgerie (published in either 1597 or 1612); his work was derived from 16th-century French texts and early English writers also used the words "extirpation" (16th-century French texts tended to use extirper), "disarticulation", and "dismemberment" (from the Old French desmembrer and a more common term before the 17th century for limb loss or removal), or simply "cutting", but by the end of the 17th century "amputation" had come to dominate as the accepted medical term.[citation needed]

Notable cases[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Amputee Coalition Factsheet". Amputee-coalition.org. 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  2. ^ a b "ISO 8549-2:1989(en) Prosthetics and orthotics — vocabulary — Part 2: Terms relating to external limb prostheses and wearers of these prostheses". www.iso.org. Retrieved January 27, 2018. 
  3. ^ Pinzur, M.S.; Stuck, RM; Sage, R; Hunt, N; Rabinovich, Z (September 2003). "Syme ankle disarticulation in patients with diabetes". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 85–A (9): 1667–1672. PMID 12954823. 
  4. ^ https://www.healthline.com/health/diabetes/diabetes-amputation#overview1
  5. ^ https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/frostbite/basics/treatment/con-20034608
  6. ^ RTE: Aussie Rules star has finger removed Archived August 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Australian Rugby Union (2006-10-17). "Tawake undergoes surgery to remove finger". SportsAustralia.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  8. ^ Smith, D.G. (2004). "Chapter 2. General principles of amputation surgery.". Atlas of Amputations and Limb Deficiencies: Surgical, Prosthetic and Rehabilitation Principles. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. pp. 21–30. ISBN 0892033134. 
  9. ^ Reichmann, James; Stevens, Phillip (2017). "Removable Rigid Dressings for Postoperative Management of Transtibial Amputations: A Review of Published Evidence". Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Elsevier. online ahead of print. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2017.10.002 – via Elsevier Science Direct. 
  10. ^ Current Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment: "Amputations", editions Lange, USA, 2009
  11. ^ a b c d Harry Gouvas: "Accidents and Massive Disasters", editions of Greek Red Cross, 2000
  12. ^ Neil Watson: "Hand Injuries and Infections" Cower Medical Publishing, London, New York, 1996, ISBN 0-906923-80-8
  13. ^ a b Harry Gouvas: "Accidents and massive Disasters", Editions of Greek Red Cross, 2000
  14. ^ Johansen K, Daines M, Howey T, Helfet D, Hansen ST Jr (1990). "Objective criteria accurately predict amputation following lower extremity trauma". J Trauma. 30 (5): 568–72; discussion 572–3. doi:10.1097/00005373-199005000-00007. PMID 2342140. 
  15. ^ "Scuba Tanks as Lethal Weapons". undercurrent.org. Retrieved 29 August 2015. 
  16. ^ Neil Watson: "Hand Injuries and Infections"Cower Medical Publishing,ISBN 0-906923-80-8
  17. ^ a b American Statistical Association: Amputations in USA, 2000
  18. ^ Weiss AJ, Elixhauser A, Steiner C. Readmissions to U.S. Hospitals by Procedure, 2010. HCUP Statistical Brief #154. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. April 2013. [1]
  19. ^ Richard S. Dillon (May 1997). "Fifteen Years of Experience in Treating 2177 Episodes of Foot and Leg Lessions with the Circulator Boot". Angiology. 48 (5 (part 2)): S17–S34. doi:10.1177/000331979704800503. Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. 
  20. ^ Richard S. Dillon; Yai, H; Maruhashi, J (May 1997). "FPatient Assessment and Examples of a Method of Treatment. Use of the Circulator Boot in Peripherical Vascular Disease". Angiology. 48 (5 (part 2)): S35–S58. doi:10.1177/000331979704800504. PMID 9158380. Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. 
  21. ^ Vella A, Carlson LA, Blier B, Felty C, Kuiper JD, Rooke TW (2000). "Circulator boot therapy alters the natural history of ischemic limb ulceration". Vasc. Med. 5 (1): 21–25. doi:10.1191/135886300671427847. PMID 10737152. 
  22. ^ Circulator Boot at Mayo Clinic 1:08–1:32
  23. ^ Heidi Schultz (January 2005). "The Science of Things". National Geographic Magazine. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. 
  24. ^ Ryan, Joan (March 25, 2006). "War without end / Damaged soldiers start their agonizing recoveries". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Miller, Brian Craig. Empty Sleeves: Amputation in the Civil War South (University of Georgia Press, 2015). xviii, 257 pp.

External links[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license