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Top 5 Android 4.4 Kitkat Features!
Top 5 Android 4.4 Kitkat Features!
Published: 2013/11/01
Channel: Marques Brownlee
Android KITKAT 4.4 - Android Animation - Boat
Android KITKAT 4.4 - Android Animation - Boat
Published: 2013/12/04
Channel: KIT KAT
Android KITKAT 4.4 - Android Animation - Magic!
Android KITKAT 4.4 - Android Animation - Magic!
Published: 2013/10/29
Channel: KIT KAT
Android Lollipop vs Android KitKat
Android Lollipop vs Android KitKat
Published: 2014/11/15
Channel: ANDROIDPIT COM
Android 4.4 KitKat Hidden Features!
Android 4.4 KitKat Hidden Features!
Published: 2013/11/05
Channel: TechSmartt
Marshmallow 6.0 vs Lollipop 5.1.1 vs Kitkat 4.4.2 Performance Benchmarks+App opening Speed Test
Marshmallow 6.0 vs Lollipop 5.1.1 vs Kitkat 4.4.2 Performance Benchmarks+App opening Speed Test
Published: 2015/12/20
Channel: Tech Burner
Android 4.4 KitKat - Everything you need to know!
Android 4.4 KitKat - Everything you need to know!
Published: 2013/11/02
Channel: Android Authority
How to Upgrade / Install Android 4.4 KITKAT on Samsung Galaxy S2 Easily
How to Upgrade / Install Android 4.4 KITKAT on Samsung Galaxy S2 Easily
Published: 2014/03/05
Channel: Inam Ghafoor
Android 4.4 KitKat on any Android Phone!
Android 4.4 KitKat on any Android Phone!
Published: 2013/11/03
Channel: HowToMen
How To Install Android 4.4.4, 4.4.3, 4.4.2 KitKat On ANY Android Device!
How To Install Android 4.4.4, 4.4.3, 4.4.2 KitKat On ANY Android Device!
Published: 2014/01/29
Channel: XEETECHCARE
Android KITKAT 4.4 - Android Animation - Bigger Half
Android KITKAT 4.4 - Android Animation - Bigger Half
Published: 2013/11/06
Channel: KIT KAT
Android Lollipop не торт или почему я вернулся на KitKat?
Android Lollipop не торт или почему я вернулся на KitKat?
Published: 2015/02/17
Channel: MATRIX PARADISE
How to Install Android 4.4 KitKat ROM on Galaxy S2!
How to Install Android 4.4 KitKat ROM on Galaxy S2!
Published: 2013/11/16
Channel: galaxys2root
Знакомимся с Android 4.4 (KitKat)
Знакомимся с Android 4.4 (KitKat)
Published: 2013/11/01
Channel: Алексей Игнатьев
Полный обзор Android 4.4 KitKat
Полный обзор Android 4.4 KitKat
Published: 2013/11/12
Channel: Rozetked
Android 4.4 KitKat Review
Android 4.4 KitKat Review
Published: 2013/11/02
Channel: Tim Schofield
Android Lollipop vs Android KitKat - ¡Todas las novedades!
Android Lollipop vs Android KitKat - ¡Todas las novedades!
Published: 2014/11/11
Channel: ANDROIDPIT Español
Android 4.4: Kit Kat [Análise] - Baixaki
Android 4.4: Kit Kat [Análise] - Baixaki
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: TecMundo
Hard Reset Google Android One any kitkat 4.4.4 micromax,karbonn,spice Mobiles(forgot password)
Hard Reset Google Android One any kitkat 4.4.4 micromax,karbonn,spice Mobiles(forgot password)
Published: 2014/12/19
Channel: KICK TV2
Android KITKAT 4.4 - Android Animation - To give or not to give?
Android KITKAT 4.4 - Android Animation - To give or not to give?
Published: 2013/10/30
Channel: KIT KAT
Analisis Novedades Android 4.4 Kit Kat
Analisis Novedades Android 4.4 Kit Kat
Published: 2013/11/16
Channel: TuTecnoMundo - Toda la Tecnología
Android 4.4 KitKat Update für alle Geräte installieren! [deutsch]
Android 4.4 KitKat Update für alle Geräte installieren! [deutsch]
Published: 2014/01/06
Channel: OwnGalaxy
10 Tipps zu Android 4.4 Kitkat | deutsch / german
10 Tipps zu Android 4.4 Kitkat | deutsch / german
Published: 2013/12/05
Channel: PC-WELT
Android Lollipop 5.1 vs KitKat 4.4.4 - Performance Comparison (Nexus 5)
Android Lollipop 5.1 vs KitKat 4.4.4 - Performance Comparison (Nexus 5)
Published: 2015/03/16
Channel: Momento Tech
Android 4.4 KitKat features, tips & tricks
Android 4.4 KitKat features, tips & tricks
Published: 2013/11/07
Channel: TechRadar
Android Lollipop vs Android KitKat : les différences en 5 points !
Android Lollipop vs Android KitKat : les différences en 5 points !
Published: 2014/11/13
Channel: ANDROIDPIT France
Полный обзор Android 4.4 KitKat. Главная вкусняшка сезона
Полный обзор Android 4.4 KitKat. Главная вкусняшка сезона
Published: 2013/11/21
Channel: Droider.Ru
Trik main game rahasia android os kitkat
Trik main game rahasia android os kitkat
Published: 2017/06/12
Channel: Alfi Cedot
How to update from Android KitKat to Lollipop
How to update from Android KitKat to Lollipop
Published: 2015/02/07
Channel: Magic Monk
INSTALL KODI 17 KRYPTON ON ANDROID 4.4.2 / 4.4.4 KITKAT Android TV Box MXQ, MX3, MX Pro & Many More
INSTALL KODI 17 KRYPTON ON ANDROID 4.4.2 / 4.4.4 KITKAT Android TV Box MXQ, MX3, MX Pro & Many More
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: Naresh Lal
Android 4.4 Kit Kat Overview:  Tips and  Tricks
Android 4.4 Kit Kat Overview: Tips and Tricks
Published: 2013/11/01
Channel: Droid Life
Android KITKAT 4.4 - The future of confectionery
Android KITKAT 4.4 - The future of confectionery
Published: 2013/09/03
Channel: KIT KAT
Instalar o Android 4.4.0 kitkat
Instalar o Android 4.4.0 kitkat
Published: 2014/03/04
Channel: Estevam Tadim
Install Android 4.4 Kitkat on PC or Virtualbox
Install Android 4.4 Kitkat on PC or Virtualbox
Published: 2014/03/03
Channel: TechStorenut
Android Lollipop 5.0 vs KitKat 4.4.4 - Performance Comparison (Nexus 5)
Android Lollipop 5.0 vs KitKat 4.4.4 - Performance Comparison (Nexus 5)
Published: 2014/11/16
Channel: Momento Tech
Best Kitkat Marshmallow Android HD Games 2016
Best Kitkat Marshmallow Android HD Games 2016
Published: 2015/03/14
Channel: BillyTechGaming
Cambiar almacenamiento en android kitkat 4.4 [Root]
Cambiar almacenamiento en android kitkat 4.4 [Root]
Published: 2016/02/22
Channel: Matius
Comment installer Android KitKat 4.4.2 ou Jelly Bean 4.3 sur le Galaxy S4
Comment installer Android KitKat 4.4.2 ou Jelly Bean 4.3 sur le Galaxy S4
Published: 2014/01/25
Channel: Jojol
Android Kitkat 4.4.2 en Motorola Xoom
Android Kitkat 4.4.2 en Motorola Xoom
Published: 2014/01/21
Channel: PasionMovil
Como Instalar Android Kitkat 4.4.4 no Moto X2 - Downgrade
Como Instalar Android Kitkat 4.4.4 no Moto X2 - Downgrade
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Wesley Moura
How to Upgrade from Any Android Device KitKat to Marshmallow By Goofy Hacker
How to Upgrade from Any Android Device KitKat to Marshmallow By Goofy Hacker
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: Goofy Hacker
Hard Reset no Motorola Moto G com Android 4.4 KitKat #UTICell
Hard Reset no Motorola Moto G com Android 4.4 KitKat #UTICell
Published: 2014/09/09
Channel: UTI Cell
How to upgrade Android KitKat to lollipop  100%working in [urdu/hindi]
How to upgrade Android KitKat to lollipop 100%working in [urdu/hindi]
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: HBL07 Technical Guru
Como Atualizar Manualmente Razr D1 pra Android 4.4 Kit Kat Rápido e Fácil + Análise
Como Atualizar Manualmente Razr D1 pra Android 4.4 Kit Kat Rápido e Fácil + Análise
Published: 2014/10/28
Channel: Mega Tec Phone
How to upgrade Android KitKat to lollipop 100%working in [urdu/hindi] by everythinglearn
How to upgrade Android KitKat to lollipop 100%working in [urdu/hindi] by everythinglearn
Published: 2016/04/11
Channel: Everything Learn
How to Install Android 4.4 KitKat On PC with Windows (Dual boot)
How to Install Android 4.4 KitKat On PC with Windows (Dual boot)
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: Techposts Guides
ANDROID LOLLIPOP VS ANDROID KITKAT COMPLETO ANÁLISIS EN ESPAÑOL
ANDROID LOLLIPOP VS ANDROID KITKAT COMPLETO ANÁLISIS EN ESPAÑOL
Published: 2015/03/31
Channel: MY CELL
KODI 17 KRYPTON ON ANDROID KITKAT 4.4.2 - Quick Look At Mygicas KRYPTON Port Running On KITKAT
KODI 17 KRYPTON ON ANDROID KITKAT 4.4.2 - Quick Look At Mygicas KRYPTON Port Running On KITKAT
Published: 2017/04/22
Channel: MXQ PROJECT
Install Android 4.4 KitKat On PC [2015]
Install Android 4.4 KitKat On PC [2015]
Published: 2014/02/27
Channel: Videoorchard
HARD RESET MOTO G (2° Geração) Android Kitkat 4.4.4
HARD RESET MOTO G (2° Geração) Android Kitkat 4.4.4
Published: 2014/11/18
Channel: Coisas de Nerd TV
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Android KitKat
A version of the Android operating system
Android KitKat logo.svg
Nexus 5 (Android 4.4.2) Screenshot.jpg
Android 4.4.2 KitKat running on a Nexus 5
Developer Google
Released to
manufacturing
October 31, 2013; 4 years ago (2013-10-31)
Latest release 4.4.4 (KTU84Q) / July 7, 2014; 3 years ago (2014-07-07)
Preceded by Android 4.3.1 "Jelly Bean"
Succeeded by Android 5.x "Lollipop"
Official website Official website
Support status
Unsupported[1]

Android "KitKat" is a codename for the Android mobile operating system. Unveiled on September 3, 2013, KitKat focused primarily on optimizing the operating system for improved performance on entry-level devices with limited resources.

As of February 2018, statistics issued by Google indicate that 12.0% of all Android devices accessing Google Play run KitKat.[2]

History[edit]

Android 4.4 "KitKat" was officially announced on September 3, 2013. The release was internally codenamed "Key Lime Pie"; John Lagerling, director of Android global partnerships, and his team, decided to drop the name, arguing that "very few people actually know the taste of a key lime pie". Aiming for a codename that was "fun and unexpected", his team pursued the possibility of naming the release "KitKat" instead. Lagerling phoned a representative of Nestlé, who owns the Kit Kat brand and produces the confectionery (outside the United States, where it is produced by The Hershey Company under license), and quickly reached a preliminary deal for a promotional collaboration between the two companies, later finalized in a meeting at Mobile World Congress in February 2013. The partnership was not revealed publicly, or even to other Google employees and Android developers (who otherwise continued to internally refer to the OS as "KLP"), until its official announcement in September.[3][4]

As part of the promotional efforts, Kit Kat bars in the shape of the Android robot logo were produced, while Hershey ran a contest in the United States with prizes of Nexus 7 tablets and Google Play Store credit.[4][5]

The Nexus 5, developed by LG Electronics, was unveiled on September 30, 2013, as the launch device for KitKat.[6]

Up to October 2017, Android 4.4 was still supported with security patches by Google for the source code.[7][8][8][9]

Development[edit]

Continuing on from the focus on improving visual performance and responsiveness on Android 4.1 "Jelly Bean", the main objective of Android 4.4 was to optimize the platform for better performance on low-end devices, without compromising its overall capabilities and functionality. The initiative was codenamed "Project Svelte", which Android head of engineering Dave Burke joked was a weight loss plan after Jelly Bean's "Project Butter" added "weight" to the OS.[10] To simulate lower-spec devices, Android developers used Nexus 4 devices underclocked to run at a reduced CPU speed with only a single core active, 512 MB memory, and at 960×540 display resolution—specifications meant to represent a common low-end Android device.[10]

A development tool known as ProcStats was developed in order to analyze the memory usage of apps over time, especially those that run background services. This data was used to optimize and decouple Google apps and services found to be inefficient, thus helping to reduce the overall memory usage of Android. Additionally, 4.4 was designed to be more aggressive in managing memory, helping to guard against apps wasting too much memory.[10][11]

Features[edit]

User experience[edit]

The overall interface of KitKat further downplays the "Holo" interface appearance introduced on 4.0, replacing remaining instances of blue accenting with greys and white (such as the status bar icons). Apps may trigger a translucent status and navigation bar appearance, or trigger a full screen mode ("Immersive mode") to hide them entirely. The launcher also received a refreshed appearance, with the implementation of the translucent navigation bars, and the replacement of the black backdrop in the application drawer with a translucent backdrop.[12][13] Additionally, action overflow menu buttons in apps are always visible, even on devices with the deprecated "Menu" navigation key.[14] In the Settings menu, users can now specify a default Home (launcher) and text messaging app.[15]

On stock devices, the Messaging and Movie Studio apps were removed; the former was replaced by Google Hangouts, which supported SMS. The AOSP Gallery app was also deprecated in favor of Google+ Photos.[12] In certain apps, a new "Documents" file picker is available.[16]

Platform[edit]

A new runtime environment known as the Android Runtime (ART), intended to replace the Dalvik virtual machine, was introduced as a technology preview in KitKat.[17] ART is a cross-platform runtime which supports the x86, ARM, and MIPS architectures in both 32-bit and 64-bit environments. Unlike Dalvik, which uses just-in-time compilation (JIT), ART compiles apps upon installation, which are then run exclusively from the compiled version from then on. This technique removes the processing overhead associated with the JIT process, improving system performance.[18]

Devices with 512 MB of RAM or less report themselves as "low RAM" devices. Using an API, apps may detect low RAM devices and modify their functionality accordingly. KitKat also supports zram.[11][13] WebView components were updated to utilize a version of the Google Chrome rendering engine.[19] A new Storage Access Framework API allows apps to retrieve files in a consistent manner; as part of the framework, a new system file picker allows users to access files from various sources (including those exposed by apps, such as online storage services).[16]

A public API was introduced for developing and managing text messaging clients[20] Sensor batching, step detection and counter APIs were also added.[13] KitKat supports "host card emulation" for near-field communications, which allows apps to emulate a smart card for activities such as mobile payments.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://source.android.com/security/bulletin/2017-11-01
  2. ^ "Dashboards | Android Developers". developer.android.com. Retrieved 2018-02-08. 
  3. ^ "Android 4.4 KitKat: What's the point of co-branding?". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Kelion, Leo (September 3, 2013). "Android KitKat announced". BBC News. Retrieved September 3, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Kit Kat contest up and running, win one of a 1000 Google Nexus 7 (2013) slates being given away". PhoneArena. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  6. ^ "Google Unveils Nexus 5 With Android 4.4 KitKat". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis Media. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  7. ^ "Android Security Bulletin—October 2017". Android Open Source Project. 
  8. ^ a b "Security updates and resources". Android.com. Android Open Source Project. Retrieved 10 September 2017. When a security vulnerability in AOSP is fixed in an Android Security Bulletin, we'll notify Android partners of issue details and provide patches. The Android security team currently provides patches for Android versions 4.4 (KitKat) and above. This list of backport-supported versions changes with each new Android release. 
  9. ^ "Android Security Bulletin - April 2017". Android.com. Android Open Source Project. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c "How Google Shrank Android For Version 4.4 KitKat". ReadWrite. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  11. ^ a b "Android 4.4 KitKat to run "comfortably" on 512MB RAM devices, here's how". PhoneArena. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  12. ^ a b Amadeo, Ron (16 June 2014). "The history of Android: The endless iterations of Google's mobile OS". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 6 July 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c Molen, Brad (November 5, 2013). "Nexus 5 review". Engadget. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Android menu button now on by default on all device with KitKat". PhoneArena. December 9, 2013. Retrieved February 9, 2014. 
  15. ^ "How to remove Hangouts and more Android 4.4 KitKat apps". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  16. ^ a b Ho, Joshua. "Examining MicroSD changes in Android 4.4". Anandtech. Retrieved March 28, 2014. 
  17. ^ "'ART' experiment in Android KitKat improves battery life and speeds up apps". Engadget. Retrieved June 26, 2014. 
  18. ^ Andrei Frumusanu (July 1, 2014). "A Closer Look at Android RunTime (ART) in Android L". AnandTech. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  19. ^ "KitKat's WebView is powered by Chromium, enabling Android app developers to use new HTML5 and CSS features". The Next Web. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  20. ^ "Getting Your SMS Apps Ready for KitKat". Android Developers Blog. Retrieved October 14, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Google gets around the carriers with Host Card Emulation for NFC payments". NFCWorld.com. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
Preceded by
Android 4.3.1
Android 4.4
2013
Succeeded by
Android 5.0

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