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The Attempted Assassination of Franklin D. Roosevelt
The Attempted Assassination of Franklin D. Roosevelt
Published: 2008/11/19
Channel: WorldsAssassinations
Anton Cermak
Anton Cermak
Published: 2015/12/30
Channel: Audiopedia
Assassination Attempt on Chicago Mayor Cermak and President Roosevelt
Assassination Attempt on Chicago Mayor Cermak and President Roosevelt
Published: 2013/03/07
Channel: King Rose Archives
I Traveled to See My Uncle, Anton Cermak, The Hero Who Saved FDR
I Traveled to See My Uncle, Anton Cermak, The Hero Who Saved FDR's Life
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: The Clumsy Traveler
Starosta Chicaga o Antonínu Čermákovi
Starosta Chicaga o Antonínu Čermákovi
Published: 2013/05/04
Channel: ondrejbalatka
Strolling Through Chicago
Strolling Through Chicago's Bohemian National Cemetery - Anton Cermak
Published: 2010/07/20
Channel: Joshua D. Perry
Assassination Attempt on FDR - 1933 | Today In History | 15 Feb 17
Assassination Attempt on FDR - 1933 | Today In History | 15 Feb 17
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: British Movietone
Bohemian National Cemetery
Bohemian National Cemetery
Published: 2009/08/02
Channel: Michael Steele
BROTHER, GOT A STOCK FOR YOU, from
BROTHER, GOT A STOCK FOR YOU, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
'Hit 'Em Again He's Irish', from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story Of Anton Cermak And Chicago'
Published: 2016/06/15
Channel: Mike Greitzer
What Chicago Mayor Was Assassinated?
What Chicago Mayor Was Assassinated?
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Question Bag
"Rise and shine, campers!!"
"Rise and shine, campers!!"
Published: 2007/02/09
Channel: Richard Henzel
ANTON CEMETERY
ANTON CEMETERY
Published: 2013/10/13
Channel: doctorwho7thdoctor
Giuseppe Zangara
Giuseppe Zangara
Published: 2015/12/18
Channel: Audiopedia
'CHICAGO', from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Cermak Goes To Final Rest! (0)
Cermak Goes To Final Rest! (0)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
Anton Cermak Kerner invites you to Prague Days Chicago 2015
Anton Cermak Kerner invites you to Prague Days Chicago 2015
Published: 2015/05/16
Channel: Consulate General of the Czech Republic in Chicago
Jefferson, Cermak and Lumber in East Pilsen
Jefferson, Cermak and Lumber in East Pilsen
Published: 2009/09/19
Channel: YoChicago
I
I'M GLAD IT WAS ME, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/27
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Chicago Police Failed Hit On Frank Nitti
Chicago Police Failed Hit On Frank Nitti
Published: 2015/03/18
Channel: ChiTownView
RATA-TAT-TAT!, from
RATA-TAT-TAT!, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
CAPONE AND CERMAK, from
CAPONE AND CERMAK, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Former Chicago mayor Big Bill Thompson celebrates his 1931 Republican primary victory
Former Chicago mayor Big Bill Thompson celebrates his 1931 Republican primary victory
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: Chicago Reader
'PUSHCART TONY', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Attempted Assassination Of Mr Roosevelt (1933)
Attempted Assassination Of Mr Roosevelt (1933)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
BIG BILL THE BUILDER, from
BIG BILL THE BUILDER, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Take A Journey Through
Take A Journey Through 'PUSHCART TONY', The True Story Of Anton Cermak And Chicago!
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: Mike Greitzer
Bohemian National Cemetery - Chicago, Illinois 2016
Bohemian National Cemetery - Chicago, Illinois 2016
Published: 2016/01/24
Channel: PJ Adventures
WATCH OUT FOR THAT CERMAK!, from
WATCH OUT FOR THAT CERMAK!, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
'MELTING POT', from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
TEN PERCENT TONY, from
TEN PERCENT TONY, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
FISH NEVER CAUGHT, from
FISH NEVER CAUGHT, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
WORLD
WORLD'S FAIR, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/20
Channel: Mike Greitzer
KILLING A KING, from
KILLING A KING, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/27
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
HOOVERVILLE, from
HOOVERVILLE, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
CICERO, from
CICERO, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
THAT
THAT'S WHY WE'RE WET!, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
PROHIBITION!, from
PROHIBITION!, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
LADIES OF TEMPERANCE, from
LADIES OF TEMPERANCE, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
WIDE OPEN TOWN, from
WIDE OPEN TOWN, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/25
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
UNITED SOCIETIES, from
UNITED SOCIETIES, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
How to pronounce Anton Cermak (American English/US)  - PronounceNames.com
How to pronounce Anton Cermak (American English/US) - PronounceNames.com
Published: 2015/01/30
Channel: Pronounce Names
THE LEVEE, from
THE LEVEE, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story Of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: Mike Greitzer
PUSHCART TONY, from
PUSHCART TONY, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story Of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/18
Channel: Mike Greitzer
50,000 March For Cermak In Chicago Rites (0)
50,000 March For Cermak In Chicago Rites (0)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
The Untouchables S01E21 The Unhired Assassin: Part 2
The Untouchables S01E21 The Unhired Assassin: Part 2
Published: 2017/09/14
Channel: Richard Sanford
GUYS LIKE US (MEN LIKE YOU), from
GUYS LIKE US (MEN LIKE YOU), from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
'DEEP IN THE GROUND', from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story Of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/17
Channel: Mike Greitzer
BIG BILL AND LEN SMALL, from
BIG BILL AND LEN SMALL, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
GET OUT THE VOTE, from
GET OUT THE VOTE, from 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: 'Pushcart Tony', The True Story of Anton Cermak And Chicago
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Anton Cermak
Anton Cermak cph.3b27410.jpg
34th Mayor of Chicago
In office
April 7, 1931 – March 6, 1933
Preceded by William Hale Thompson
Succeeded by Frank J. Corr
President of the Cook County Board of Commissioners
In office
January, 1923 – March 23, 1931
Preceded by Daniel Ryan, Sr.
Succeeded by Emmett Whealan
Personal details
Born Antonín Josef Čermák
(1873-05-09)May 9, 1873
Kladno, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary
Died March 6, 1933(1933-03-06) (aged 59)
Miami, Florida, U.S.
Resting place Bohemian National Cemetery
(Chicago, Illinois)
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Mary Horejs (m. 1894–1928) (her death)[1]
Children 3

Anton Joseph "Tony" Cermak (Czech: Antonín Josef Čermák, pronounced [ˈantoɲiːn ˈjozɛf ˈtʃɛrmaːk]; May 9, 1873 – March 6, 1933) was an American politician who served as the 34th mayor of Chicago, Illinois from April 7, 1931 until his death on March 6, 1933 from complications of an assassination attempt nearly a month earlier.

Life[edit]

Cermak was born to a mining family in Kladno, Austria-Hungary (now in the Czech Republic).[2] He emigrated with his parents to the United States in 1874. Cermak grew up in the town of Braidwood, Illinois, southwest of Chicago, and later moved to Chicago. He began his political career as a precinct captain and in 1902 was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives. Seven years later, he would take his place as alderman of the 12th Ward. Cermak was elected president of the Cook County Board of Commissioners in 1922, chairman of the Cook County Democratic Party in 1928, and mayor of Chicago in 1931.[3] In 1928 he ran for the United States Senate and was defeated by Republican Otis F. Glenn, receiving 46% of the vote.

Mayor of Chicago (1931–1933)[edit]

His mayoral victory came in the wake of the Great Depression and the deep resentment many Chicagoans had of Prohibition and the increasing violence resulting from organized crime's control of Chicago, typified by the St. Valentine's Day Massacre.[citation needed]

The many ethnic groups such as Czechs, Poles, Ukrainians, Jews, Italians, and African Americans that began to settle in Chicago in the early 1900s were mostly detached from the political system, due in part to lack of organization which led to underrepresentation in the City Council. As an immigrant himself, Cermak recognized Chicago's relatively new immigrants as a significant population of disenfranchised voters and a large power base for Cermak and his local Democratic organization.[citation needed] Before Cermak, the Democratic party in Cook County was run by Irish Americans. As Cermak climbed the local political ladder, the resentment of the Party leadership grew. When the bosses rejected his bid to become the mayoral candidate, Cermak swore revenge. He formed his political army from the non-Irish elements, and even persuaded black politician William L. Dawson to switch from the Republican to the Democratic Party.[citation needed] Dawson later became U.S. Representative (from the 1st District) and soon the most powerful black politician in Illinois.[citation needed] Cermak's political and organizational skills helped create one of the most powerful political organizations of his day. With support from Franklin D. Roosevelt on the national level, Cermak gradually wooed members of Chicago's growing black community into the Democratic fold. Walter Wright, the superintendent of parks and aviation for the city of Chicago, also aided Cermak in stepping into office.[citation needed]

When Cermak challenged the incumbent "Big Bill" Thompson in the 1931 mayor's race, Thompson, representative of Chicago's existing power structure, responded with ethnic slurs:

I won't take a back seat to that Bohunk, Chairmock, Chermack or whatever his name is.
Tony, Tony, where's your pushcart at?
Can you picture a World's Fair mayor with a name like that?

Cermak replied, "He doesn't like my name... it's true I didn't come over on the Mayflower, but I came over as soon as I could." It was a sentiment to which ethnic Chicagoans could relate and Thompson's slur largely backfired.[4] The flamboyant Thompson's reputation as a buffoon, the voters' disgust with the corruption of his machine, and his inability or unwillingness to clean up organized crime in Chicago, were cited as major factors in Cermak capturing 58% of the vote in the mayoral election on April 6, 1931. Cermak's victory finished Thompson as a political power and largely ended the Republican Party's power in Chicago; indeed, all the mayors of Chicago since 1931 have been members of the Democratic Party. For nearly his entire administration, Cermak had to deal with a major tax revolt. From 1931 to 1933, the Association of Real Estate Taxpayers mounted a "tax strike." At its height, ARET, which was headed by John M. Pratt and James E. Bistor, had over thirty thousand members. Much to Cermak's dismay, it successfully slowed down the collection of real estate taxes through litigation and promoting refusal to pay. In the meantime, the city found it difficult to pay teachers and maintain services. Cermak was obliged to meet President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt to 'mend fences' and get money to fund essential city services.

Death[edit]

While shaking hands with President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt at Bayfront Park in Miami, Florida, on February 15, 1933, Cermak was shot[5] in the lung and mortally wounded when Giuseppe Zangara, who at the time was believed to have been engaged in an attempt to assassinate Roosevelt, hit Cermak instead. At the critical moment, Lilian Cross, a woman standing near Zangara, hit Zangara's arm with her purse and spoiled his aim.[6] In addition to Cermak, Zangara hit four other people, one of whom, Mabel Gill, also died of her injuries.[6] Zangara told the police that he hated rich and powerful people, but not Roosevelt personally.[7] Once at the hospital, Cermak reportedly uttered the line that is engraved on his tomb. Speaking to FDR, Cermak allegedly said: "I'm glad it was me instead of you." The Chicago Tribune reported the quote without attributing it to a witness, and most scholars doubt it was ever said.[8]

Later, rumors circulated that Cermak, not Roosevelt, had been the intended target, as his promise to clean up Chicago's rampant lawlessness posed a threat to Al Capone and the Chicago organized crime syndicate.[5][9] According to Roosevelt biographer Jean Edward Smith, there is no proof for this theory.[10] One of the first people to suggest the organized crime theory was reporter Walter Winchell, who happened to be in Miami the evening of the shooting.[11][12] Long-time Chicago newsman Len O'Connor offers a different view of the events surrounding the mayor's assassination. He has written that aldermen "Paddy" Bauler and Charlie Weber informed him that relations between Cermak and FDR were strained because Cermak fought FDR's nomination at the Democratic convention in Chicago.[13] Author Ronald Humble offers another view as to why Cermak was killed. In his book Frank Nitti: The True Story of Chicago's Notorious Enforcer, Humble contends that Cermak was as corrupt as Thompson and that the Chicago Outfit hired Zangara to kill Cermak in retaliation for Cermak's attempt to murder Frank Nitti.

Monument to Anton Čermák in the town in which he was born.

Cermak died at Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami[14] on March 6, partly because of his wounds. On March 30, however, his personal physician, Dr. Karl A. Meyer, said that the primary cause of Cermak's death was ulcerative colitis, commenting, "The mayor would have recovered from the bullet wound had it not been for the complication of colitis. The autopsy disclosed the wound had healed ... the other complications were not directly due to the bullet wound." [15]

Cermak was interred in a mausoleum at Bohemian National Cemetery in Chicago. The mayor's death was followed by a struggle for succession to his party chairmanship and to the mayor's office.[16] A plaque honoring Cermak still lies at the site of the assassination in Miami's Bayfront Park. It is inscribed with Cermak's alleged words to FDR after he was shot, "I'm glad it was me instead of you." Following Cermak's death, 22nd Street, a major east-west artery that traversed Chicago's West Side and the close-in suburbs of Cicero and Berwyn, areas with a significant Czech population, was renamed Cermak Road. Zangara was electrocuted in Florida's electric chair on March 20, 1933, for he could not be charged with murder until Cermak died. In 1943, a Liberty ship, the SS A. J. Cermak was named in Cermak's honor. It was scrapped in 1964.

Descendants[edit]

Cermak's son-in-law, Otto Kerner Jr., served as the 33rd Governor of Illinois, and as a federal circuit judge. His grandson, Frank J. Jirka, Jr., who was with him in Miami when he was assassinated, later became a highly decorated UDT naval officer. He was awarded the Silver Star and Purple Heart for his actions during the Battle of Iwo Jima; the wounds he suffered led to the amputation of both legs below the knee. After WWII, he became a physician, and in 1983 president of the American Medical Association. Cermak's great niece, Kajon Cermak, is a broadcaster for a Southern California radio station.[17] His daughter Lillian was married to Richey V. Graham who served in the Illinois General Assembly.[18]

In popular culture[edit]

  • A hastily produced movie about Cermak, The Man Who Dared, was released within months of his death.
  • There was a made-for-TV movie, The Gun of Zangara, about Cermak's assassination. It was originally a two-part episode of The Untouchables, where it had the title "The Unhired Assassin." Cermak has a major role in the story as an honest man and was played by Robert Middleton.
  • Cermak is mentioned in Stephen Sondheim's play Assassins during the song "How I Saved Roosevelt."
  • Cermak and his rise to the mayoralty has also been mentioned in Jeffrey Archer's novel Kane and Abel.
  • Part of the episode "Objects in Motion" of the television series Babylon 5 is based on the circumstances of Cermak's death.[19]
  • Cermak is referenced by Kelsey Grammer's Chicago mayor Tom Kane in several episodes of the Starz TV series Boss.
  • In "Red Team III," the seventh episode in the second season of HBO's The Newsroom, Will McAvoy (Jeff Daniels) references Anton Cermak.
  • The history-based crime novel True Detective, the first in Max Allan Collins' Nathan Heller series, includes a fictionalized account of the Cermak slaying.
  • In the first episode of the second season of the Netflix cartoon sitcom "F is for Family", the fictional school of Anton Cermak Tech is mentioned during a broadcast.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ NNDB - Anton Cermak
  2. ^ Johnston, Rosie (18 June 2008). "Antonín Čermák: from Czech miner to Chicago mayor". Radio Praha. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  3. ^ Hirsch, Arnold R. "Democratic Party." Encyclopedia of Chicago.
  4. ^ Wendt, Lloyd (1979). Chicago Tribune. Chicago: Rand McNally. ISBN 0-528-81826-0. 
  5. ^ a b "Freedom of Information Act : Franklin D. Roosevelt (assassination attempt)". Retrieved 2008-08-04. [dead link]
  6. ^ a b Smith, page 297.
  7. ^ Smith, pages 297–298.
  8. ^ Benzkofer, Stephen (February 10, 2013). "'Tell Chicago I'll pull through': In 1933, a bullet meant for FDR hit Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak instead". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 22, 2016. 
  9. ^ Gumbel, Andrew: Steal This Vote. Nation Books, 2005. ISBN 1-56025-676-1, page 157.
  10. ^ Smith, Jean Edward, FDR (2007), Random House, ISBN 978-1-4000-6121-1, page 715n.
  11. ^ Ridings, J. (2010). Chicago to Springfield: Crime and Politics in the 1920s. Arcadia. p. 19. ISBN 9780738583730. Retrieved 18 May 2013. 
  12. ^ Alter, Jonathan (2007). The Defining Moment: FDR's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope. Simon and Schuster. p. 367. ISBN 9780743246019. Retrieved 18 May 2013. 
  13. ^ O'Connor, Len: Clout: Mayor Daley and His City McGraw-Hill/Contemporary, 1984 ISBN 0-8092-5424-7
  14. ^ "Kerner-Cermak family of Illinois". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2013-05-22. 
  15. ^ Reveals Colitis Fatal to Cermak", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 31, 1933, p1
  16. ^ Chicago Tribune - Assassination of Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak - March 1933
  17. ^ Levy, Rachel; Kendall, Peter & Benzkofer, Stephan (7 May 2013). "School in Prague to be named after Mayor Cermak". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  18. ^ 'Illinois Blue Book 1929-1930,' Biographical Sketch of Richey V. Graham, pg. 224
  19. ^ Babylon 5 Magazine #4
  • Beito, David T. Taxpayers in Revolt: Tax Resistance during the Great Depression. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
  • Gottfried, Alex. Boss Cermak of Chicago: A Study of Political Leadership. Seattle: University of Chicago Press, 1962.

External links[edit]

Media related to Anton Cermak at Wikimedia Commons

Political offices
Preceded by
Daniel Ryan
Cook County Board President
1922–1931
Succeeded by
Emmett Whealan
Preceded by
William Hale Thompson
Mayor of Chicago
1931–1933
Succeeded by
Frank J. Corr

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