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ARK SURVIVAL EVOLVED RAP By JT Machinima feat. Dan Bull - "Apex Predator"
ARK SURVIVAL EVOLVED RAP By JT Machinima feat. Dan Bull - "Apex Predator"
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: JT Machinima
Otep - Apex Predator
Otep - Apex Predator
Published: 2013/02/25
Channel: OtepVEVO
10 DEADLIEST Apex Predators
10 DEADLIEST Apex Predators
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: Top Lists
Otep - Apex Predator (Lyrics)
Otep - Apex Predator (Lyrics)
Published: 2013/02/06
Channel: Eris Vill
10 Dominant Apex Predators
10 Dominant Apex Predators
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: ScienceNET
Chronicle (4/5) Movie CLIP - I
Chronicle (4/5) Movie CLIP - I'm an Apex Predator (2012) HD
Published: 2015/10/12
Channel: Movieclips
Dying Light The Following Apex Predator Ultra GTX 980
Dying Light The Following Apex Predator Ultra GTX 980
Published: 2016/02/15
Channel: MrEdxwx
Gravity Ponds feat. Flowz | Apex Predators (produced by Al
Gravity Ponds feat. Flowz | Apex Predators (produced by Al'Tarba) OFFICIAL VIDEO
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: Black Teeth Red Gums
"Apex Predator" | Short Scary Stories
"Apex Predator" | Short Scary Stories
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: NaturesTemper
Cavalera Conspiracy - Apex Predator
Cavalera Conspiracy - Apex Predator
Published: 2015/05/08
Channel: SYNTHSLASHER
Ark Survival Evolved Song Cover - "Apex Predator" - JT Machinima (Piano Cover by Amosdoll)
Ark Survival Evolved Song Cover - "Apex Predator" - JT Machinima (Piano Cover by Amosdoll)
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: JT Machinima
Ark Survival Evolved Rap LYRIC VID By JT Machinima feat. Dan Bull - "Apex Predator"
Ark Survival Evolved Rap LYRIC VID By JT Machinima feat. Dan Bull - "Apex Predator"
Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: JT Machinima
Dying Light Apex Predator Rampage Ultra GTX Potato
Dying Light Apex Predator Rampage Ultra GTX Potato
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: MrEdxwx
Otep - Apex Predator (Audio)
Otep - Apex Predator (Audio)
Published: 2013/01/17
Channel: OtepVEVO
Why We Should Love Apex Predators
Why We Should Love Apex Predators
Published: 2016/06/03
Channel: Seeker
CAPITAL STEEZ - Apex (OFFICIAL VIDEO)
CAPITAL STEEZ - Apex (OFFICIAL VIDEO)
Published: 2013/04/08
Channel: PRO ERA
Napalm Death: Apex Predator - Easy Meat (2015) Full Album - Limited Edition (SZs)
Napalm Death: Apex Predator - Easy Meat (2015) Full Album - Limited Edition (SZs)
Published: 2016/01/10
Channel: Zsolt Sánta
Tucker Carlson The Apex Predator
Tucker Carlson The Apex Predator
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: Leftist Cuck
Dying Light The Following Apex Predator Killing Spree Ultra GTX 980
Dying Light The Following Apex Predator Killing Spree Ultra GTX 980
Published: 2016/04/28
Channel: MrEdxwx
Randy Orton - The Apex Predator  [Tribute 2013]ᴴᴰ
Randy Orton - The Apex Predator [Tribute 2013]ᴴᴰ
Published: 2013/05/08
Channel: WWEPERSEMPRE
Crooked I - Apex Predator
Crooked I - Apex Predator
Published: 2013/08/07
Channel: Bas van der Spoel
Nightcore - Apex Predator
Nightcore - Apex Predator
Published: 2015/09/23
Channel: Picture Anime
Otep "Apex Predator" @ Altar Bar, Pittsburgh
Otep "Apex Predator" @ Altar Bar, Pittsburgh
Published: 2013/04/03
Channel: David Johnson
"Apex Predators" | New York Giants 2016 playoffs
"Apex Predators" | New York Giants 2016 playoffs
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: nysports624
What Makes Komodo Dragons Apex Predators
What Makes Komodo Dragons Apex Predators
Published: 2016/06/18
Channel: Animal Planet
Moondragon - Apex Predator (feat. Meteor)
Moondragon - Apex Predator (feat. Meteor)
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: NewRetroWave
Dying Light Apex Predator VS Good Players Ultra Settings GTX Aloe Vera
Dying Light Apex Predator VS Good Players Ultra Settings GTX Aloe Vera
Published: 2016/08/28
Channel: MrEdxwx
Apex Predator | Creepypasta German / Deutsch
Apex Predator | Creepypasta German / Deutsch
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: Madame Yavi
Dying Light - Zombie Invasion - Fake Apex Predator Exposed
Dying Light - Zombie Invasion - Fake Apex Predator Exposed
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: SpiderGamez
Dying Light Apex Predator Rampage VS 4 Players Ultra GTX Cookie
Dying Light Apex Predator Rampage VS 4 Players Ultra GTX Cookie
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: MrEdxwx
Faeria - Apex Predator mirror match (Highlight)
Faeria - Apex Predator mirror match (Highlight)
Published: 2017/03/09
Channel: Luuu 90
Privacy - Apex Predator [Lobster Theremin]
Privacy - Apex Predator [Lobster Theremin]
Published: 2015/11/05
Channel: Moskalus
NAPALM DEATH - Apex Predator - Easy Meat (Track by Track)
NAPALM DEATH - Apex Predator - Easy Meat (Track by Track)
Published: 2015/02/25
Channel: Century Media Records
Dying Light Apex Predator Rampage & Fun Ultra GTX Cookie
Dying Light Apex Predator Rampage & Fun Ultra GTX Cookie
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: MrEdxwx
Dying Light Apex Predator Kill Montage Ultra Settings GTX Aloe Vera
Dying Light Apex Predator Kill Montage Ultra Settings GTX Aloe Vera
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: MrEdxwx
Apex Predator
Apex Predator's Remi Warren Races a Wolf
Published: 2015/04/24
Channel: Apex Predator with Remi Warren
Dying Light Undisputed Apex Predator
Dying Light Undisputed Apex Predator
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: MrEdxwx
DYING LIGHT NIGHT HUNTER GAMEPLAY APEX PREDATOR vs 4 ULTIMATE SURVIVORS
DYING LIGHT NIGHT HUNTER GAMEPLAY APEX PREDATOR vs 4 ULTIMATE SURVIVORS
Published: 2015/09/17
Channel: Blazeee Bit
Chronicle [Speedpaint] Apex predator
Chronicle [Speedpaint] Apex predator
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: Glamist
Renegades React to... JT Machinima feat. Dan Bull - Ark: Survival Evolved Rap "Apex Predator"
Renegades React to... JT Machinima feat. Dan Bull - Ark: Survival Evolved Rap "Apex Predator"
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: Renegades React
Napalm Death - Apex Predator - Easy Meat
Napalm Death - Apex Predator - Easy Meat
Published: 2015/06/17
Channel: Elessar Elanessë
Otep - Apex Predator (subtitulos español)
Otep - Apex Predator (subtitulos español)
Published: 2013/03/26
Channel: kyliemabelss
Dying Light Apex Predator Rampage & Fun
Dying Light Apex Predator Rampage & Fun
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: MrEdxwx
Dying Light - Ultimate Survivor VS Apex Predator - BE THE ZOMBIE 1V1 - SpiderGamez Exposed Response
Dying Light - Ultimate Survivor VS Apex Predator - BE THE ZOMBIE 1V1 - SpiderGamez Exposed Response
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: SpiderGamez
《Nightcore》- Apex Predator (JT Machinima)
《Nightcore》- Apex Predator (JT Machinima)
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: Nihgtcore JustForFun
Dying Light PVP - I AM APEX PREDATOR 1v3 Ultimate Survivors In The Following (PRE GAME KILL MONTAGE)
Dying Light PVP - I AM APEX PREDATOR 1v3 Ultimate Survivors In The Following (PRE GAME KILL MONTAGE)
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: SpiderGamez
The Apex Predator Shredfest Challenge
The Apex Predator Shredfest Challenge
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: Chris Krueger TSC
Napalm Death - Apex Predator -- Easy Meat ALBUM REVIEW
Napalm Death - Apex Predator -- Easy Meat ALBUM REVIEW
Published: 2015/01/22
Channel: theneedledrop
Gennady Golovkin Reign of The Apex Predator
Gennady Golovkin Reign of The Apex Predator
Published: 2014/07/11
Channel: Rusalka Afterglow
Dying Light Night Hunter - Visceral DL [Apex Predator]
Dying Light Night Hunter - Visceral DL [Apex Predator]
Published: 2015/05/04
Channel: DxVisceral
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The lion is Africa's apex land predator.

An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or apical predator, is a predator residing at the top of a food chain upon which no other creatures prey.[n 1][1][2] Apex predators are usually defined in terms of trophic dynamics, meaning that apex-predator species occupy the highest trophic level or levels and play a crucial role in maintaining the health of their ecosystems. One study of marine food webs defined apex predators as greater than trophic level four.[3] The apex predator concept is commonly applied in wildlife management, conservation and ecotourism.

Food chains are often far shorter on land, with their apices usually limited to the third trophic level – for example, giant constrictor snakes, crocodilians, hyenas, wolves or big cats preying mostly upon large herbivores. Apex predators do not need to be hypercarnivores.

Ecological roles[edit]

Apex predators affect prey species' population dynamics. Where two competing species are in an ecologically unstable relationship, apex predators tend to create stability if they prey upon both. Inter-predator relationships are also affected by apex status. Non-native fish, for example, have been known to devastate formerly dominant predators. One lake manipulation study found that when the non-native smallmouth bass was removed, lake trout, the suppressed native apex predator, diversified its prey selection and increased its trophic level.[4]

Effects on wider ecosystem characteristics such as plant ecology have been debated, but there is evidence of a significant impact by apex predators. When introduced to subarctic islands, for example, Arctic foxes' predation of seabirds has been shown to turn grassland into tundra.[5] Such wide-ranging effects on lower levels of an ecosystem are termed trophic cascades. The removal of top-level predators, often – and, especially, recently – through human agency, can radically cause or disrupt trophic cascades.[6][7]

A now commonly cited example of the effect of apex predators on an ecosystem is the dramatic changes in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem recorded after the gray wolf was reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park in 1995. Elk, the wolves' primary prey, became less abundant and changed their behavior, freeing riparian zones from constant grazing and allowing willows, aspens and cottonwoods to flourish, creating habitats for beaver, moose and scores of other species.[8] In addition to their effect on prey species, the wolves' presence also affected one of the park's vulnerable species, the grizzly bear: emerging from hibernation, having fasted for months, the bears chose to scavenge wolf kills,[9][10]:56 especially during the autumn as they prepared to hibernate once again.[10]:90 The grizzly bear gives birth during hibernation, so the increased food supply is expected to produce an increase in the numbers of cubs observed.[11] Dozens of other species, including eagles, ravens, magpies, coyotes and black bears have also been documented as scavenging from wolf kills within the park.[12]

Keystone species, a concept first described by zoologist Robert Paine to explain the relationship between the starfish species Pisaster ochraceus and mussel species Mytilus californianus, are apex predators within functional groups.[13]

In humans[edit]

The status of homo sapiens as an apex predator has a complexity subject to various analyses for years.[quantify] The highly varied environments that human beings have lived in (and continue to live in) coupled with the similarly highly varied behaviors of human cultures towards animals make generalizations particularly difficult; though as omnivores that far and away consume more plant matter than meat, humans have the organized ability to drive other species into extinction as well as threatened status vastly unlike any other animal. The topic has been explored in publications such as the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences[14][15] and Scientific American,[16] with disputed results.

Humans range from complete herbivores to nearly-complete carnivores, so the status of humans even as predators is often suspect even if armed humans are extremely dangerous to any animal. When hunting with firearms, dogs, falcons, or such tools as spears, snares, clubs, or fishing gear, humans are at least local superpredators along with their dogs and falcons. Whether the uniquely-human practice of animal husbandry of creatures subsequently to be butchered for meat or harvested for eggs constitutes predation is also a subject of dispute.

Humans have extreme ranges that put them in areas in which animals capable of preying upon them, typically wolves, bears, hyenas, big cats, crocodilians, sharks, and giant snakes, are resident. Many areas are free of any large predators other than humans and dogs, and in such areas humans and dogs are by default the top predators.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Zoologists generally define predation as the non-parasitical or non-bacterial killing and consumption of organisms.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "predator". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  2. ^ "apex predator". PBS. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  3. ^ Essington, Timothy E.; Beaudreau, Anne H.; Wiedenmann, John (December 2005). "Fishing through marine food webs" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (9): 3171–3175. PMC 1413903Freely accessible. PMID 16481614. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510964103. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  4. ^ Lepak, Jesse M.; Kraft, Clifford E., Weidel, Brian C. (March 2006). "Rapid food web recovery in response to removal of an introduced apex predator" Archived September 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. (PDF). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63 (3): 569–575. ISSN 0706-652X. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
  5. ^ Croll, D. A.; Maron, J. L.; et al. (March 2005). "Introduced predators transform subarctic islands from grassland to tundra". Science. 307 (5717): 1959–1961. PMID 15790855. doi:10.1126/science.1108485. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  6. ^ Egan, Logan Zane; Téllez, Jesús Javier (June 2005). "Effects of preferential primary consumer fishing on lower trophic level herbivores in the Line Islands" (PDF). Stanford at Sea. Stanford University. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  7. ^ Pace, M. L.; Cole, J. J.; et al. (December 1999). "Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems". Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 14 (12): 483–488. PMID 10542455. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01723-1. 
  8. ^ Bystroff, Chris, "The wolves of Yellowstone" (2006-04-17), p. 2. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
  9. ^ Levy, Sharon (November 2002). "Top Dogs". Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  10. ^ a b Wilmers, Christopher C. (2004). "The gray wolf – scavenger complex in Yellowstone National Park" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  11. ^ Robbins, Jim (May–June 1998). "Weaving a new web: wolves change an ecosystem". Smithsonian Zoogoer. Smithsonian Institution. 27 (3). Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  12. ^ Wilmers, Christopher C.; Getz, Wayne M. (April 2005). "Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone". PLoS Biology 3 (4): e92. doi10.1371/journal.pbio.0030092. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
  13. ^ Davic, Robert D (2003). "Linking keystone species and functional groups: a new operational definition of the keystone species concept". Conservation Ecology 7 (1): r11. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
  14. ^ Eating up the world’s food web and the human trophic level
  15. ^ Humans are apex predators
  16. ^ Are Humans Apex Predators or Genome Conservers?
  17. ^ "Saltwater Crocodile." National Geographic. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
  18. ^ Whiting, Frances. "Terri fights to halt croc eggs harvest." Australia Zoo. 2007-06-11. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
  19. ^ "Orcinus orca – Orca (Killer Whale)". Marinebio.org. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 

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