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[S1E7] Paleo File - Appalachiosaurus
[S1E7] Paleo File - Appalachiosaurus
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: The Expeditioner's Discovery Guild
Tribute to Appalachiosaurus
Tribute to Appalachiosaurus
Published: 2009/04/23
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Appalachiosaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Appalachiosaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/02
Channel: Wiz Science™
Megalosaurus Bucklandii VS Appalachiosaurus Montgomeriensis
Megalosaurus Bucklandii VS Appalachiosaurus Montgomeriensis
Published: 2011/06/19
Channel: TheJurassicStudios
Appalachiosaurus Tribute
Appalachiosaurus Tribute
Published: 2014/06/08
Channel: LegitEliminator
Appalachiosaurus in Unity
Appalachiosaurus in Unity
Published: 2015/12/26
Channel: Siaka Dibba
ARK: Ragnarok #2 - Unsere kleine Farm, Equus zähmen & der Appalachiosaurus! | LP Ark Deutsch
ARK: Ragnarok #2 - Unsere kleine Farm, Equus zähmen & der Appalachiosaurus! | LP Ark Deutsch
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: Tilorious
Videos de dinosaurios para niños libros de dinosaurios BARYONYX, APPALACHIOSAURUS ToysForKidsHD
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Published: 2016/02/06
Channel: Toys for Kids HD
New Carnivore Dinosaur Guide UpDated (Read description for who the dinos are)
New Carnivore Dinosaur Guide UpDated (Read description for who the dinos are)
Published: 2012/04/28
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
Tyrannosauroid Tribute
Tyrannosauroid Tribute
Published: 2012/04/06
Channel: CKprimeval07
appalachiosaurus attack
appalachiosaurus attack
Published: 2013/06/17
Channel: shane duncan
appalachiosaurus roar
appalachiosaurus roar
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Channel: shane duncan
appalachiosaurus idle
appalachiosaurus idle
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Channel: shane duncan
Appalachiosaurus
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Upcoming Additional Creatures1
Upcoming Additional Creatures1
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Channel: Shadlos
Appalachiosaurus part1
Appalachiosaurus part1
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Channel: Cosmicguy 26489
Appalachiosaurus vs Marshosaurus
Appalachiosaurus vs Marshosaurus
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: Sebastian Reyna Rivas
DaPA - Pre-Apha Gameplay
DaPA - Pre-Apha Gameplay
Published: 2017/01/22
Channel: Arcupion Art
BRS3 Appalachiosaurus Vs Nasutoceratops
BRS3 Appalachiosaurus Vs Nasutoceratops
Published: 2017/04/02
Channel: Sebastian Reyna Rivas
Pivot Art: Appalachiosaurus vs Angatuerama.wmv
Pivot Art: Appalachiosaurus vs Angatuerama.wmv
Published: 2012/05/31
Channel: Gigacerato458
Sound effects appalachiosaurus
Sound effects appalachiosaurus
Published: 2016/03/11
Channel: Cj Magruder
appalachiosaurus tribe
appalachiosaurus tribe
Published: 2009/04/17
Channel: Blake Jordan
Prehistoric Facts Special #82: Appalachiosaurus & Deinocheirus
Prehistoric Facts Special #82: Appalachiosaurus & Deinocheirus
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: Christopher Grall
Tribute to Xiongguanlong
Tribute to Xiongguanlong
Published: 2009/09/23
Channel: Rapator2
Appalachiosaurus part 2
Appalachiosaurus part 2
Published: 2015/09/23
Channel: Cosmicguy 26489
OBM - Dinosaur - Appalachiosaurus
OBM - Dinosaur - Appalachiosaurus
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: Our Best Moments
Tyrannosaurus Rex VS Giganotosaurus - War Of The Super Families
Tyrannosaurus Rex VS Giganotosaurus - War Of The Super Families
Published: 2009/05/29
Channel: Dylan Loveday
MEGALANIA TAMING!:: ARK: Ragnarok Evolved :: Ep 6
MEGALANIA TAMING!:: ARK: Ragnarok Evolved :: Ep 6
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: xBCrafted
Masilophosaurus Vs Acrocanthosaurus
Masilophosaurus Vs Acrocanthosaurus
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Sebastian Reyna Rivas
Be No Monkey
Be No Monkey
Published: 2006/12/24
Channel: Tyrannotitan
Prehistoric Facts #82
Prehistoric Facts #82
Published: 2016/11/12
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ARK: Eternal #13 - Ein Fat Orge zähmen & Thylacoleo gegen die Laophis Crotaloides! | LP Ark Deutsch
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: Tilorious
ARK: Eternal #10 - Jurassic Ark, Lightning Dragon, Megalosaurus & ein Greif zähmen! | LP Ark Deutsch
ARK: Eternal #10 - Jurassic Ark, Lightning Dragon, Megalosaurus & ein Greif zähmen! | LP Ark Deutsch
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Channel: Tilorious
ARK: Eternal #11 - Tek Titanosaurus & Tek Dragon sind aufgetaucht 😱! | LP Ark Deutsch
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Published: 2017/04/03
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ARK: Eternal #3 - PURLOVIA zähmen & der ALPHA DIRE BEAR FAIL! | LP Ark Deutsch
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Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: Tilorious
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Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: Cloud
ARK: Eternal #2 - Ein ALPHA GIGANTOPITHECUS dreht durch & High LVL T-REX zähmen! | LP Ark Deutsch
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Published: 2017/03/13
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ARK: Extinction Core #12 - RATHALOS zähmen & Gerry
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Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: Tilorious
Pastor Chui: A Statistical Baraminological Analysis of Tyrannosauriodia Yielding the First Dino Hol
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Published: 2014/12/03
Channel: Christopher Chui
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Published: 2017/02/25
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Published: 2017/02/06
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Published: 2017/02/03
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ARK: Extinction Core #17 - TEK TIER BUSCH MENSCH & TEK APEX REX! | LP Ark Deutsch
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Published: 2017/03/03
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Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: Tilorious
ARK: Annunaki Genesis - APEX REX, APEX SPINO UND MYTH QUETZAL! (Season1/Folge26)
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Published: 2017/06/22
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ARK: Eternal #33 - Tausende Electrophorus, tödlicher Jaws & schockende FAILS! | LP Ark Deutsch
ARK: Eternal #33 - Tausende Electrophorus, tödlicher Jaws & schockende FAILS! | LP Ark Deutsch
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Tilorious
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Published: 2017/06/21
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Appalachiosaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 77 Ma
Appalachiosaurus.jpg
Reconstructed skeleton
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Superfamily: Tyrannosauroidea
Genus: Appalachiosaurus
Carr et al., 2005
Species: A. montgomeriensis
Binomial name
Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis
Carr et al., 2005

Appalachiosaurus (/ˌæpəˌliˈsɔːrəs/ ap-ə-LAY-chee-o-SAWR-əs; "Appalachian lizard") is a genus of tyrannosauroid theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period of eastern North America. Like almost all theropods, it was a bipedal predator. Only a juvenile skeleton has been found, representing an animal over 7 meters (23 ft) long and weighing over 600 kilograms (1300 lb), which indicates an adult would have been even larger. It is the most completely known theropod from the eastern part of North America.

Fossils of Appalachiosaurus were found in central Alabama, from the Demopolis Chalk Formation. This formation dates to the middle of the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous, or around 77 million years ago.[1]

Discovery and naming[edit]

The type specimen was found by Auburn University geologist David King in eastern North America in July 1982.[2] This dinosaur was named after the region of the eastern United States known as Appalachia, which also gave its name to the ancient island continent on which Appalachiosaurus lived. Both are named after the Appalachian Mountains. The generic name also includes the Greek word sauros ("lizard"), the most common suffix used in dinosaur names. There is one known species, A. montgomeriensis, which is named after Montgomery County in the U.S. state of Alabama. Both genus and species were named in 2005 by paleontologists Thomas Carr, Thomas Williamson, and David Schwimmer.

Description[edit]

Restoration

Appalachiosaurus is so far known from only partial remains, including parts of the skull and mandible (lower jaw), as well as several vertebrae, parts of the pelvis, and most of both hindlimbs. These remains are housed at the McWane Science Center in Birmingham, Alabama. There are several open sutures between bones of the skull, indicating that the animal was not an adult. Several elements are crushed, but the specimen is still informative and shows many unique characteristics, or apomorphies. Several of these apomorphies have been identified in the skull, and the claws of the feet show an unusual protrusion on the end closest to the body. A row of six low crests lines the top of the snout, similar to the Asian Alioramus, although most tyrannosaur species exhibit ornamentation to varying degrees on top of the snout. Appalachiosaurus is significantly different and more derived than another early tyrannosaur from eastern North America, Dryptosaurus.

Skeleton cast with large, three fingered forelimbs, which this dinosaur was previously thought to have

The forelimbs of Appalachiosaurus are poorly known. Large tyrannosaurids are characterized by proportionally small forelimbs and hands with two functional digits each; except some reports of a humerus ascribed to Appalachiosaurus, no forelimb material are known.[3] Early reconstructions gave it long arms with three fingers, but they are now thought to have been much shorter, with only two fingers. Museum mounts have been corrected accordingly.[4]

Classification[edit]

The only known specimen Appalachiosaurus was complete enough to be included in phylogenetic analyses using cladistics. The first was performed before the animal had even been named, and found Appalachiosaurus to be a member of the albertosaurine subfamily of Tyrannosauridae, which also includes Albertosaurus and Gorgosaurus.[5] The original description also included a cladistic analysis, finding A. montgomeriensis to be a basal tyrannosauroid outside of Tyrannosauridae.[1] However, Asian tyrannosaurs like Alioramus, and Alectrosaurus were excluded, as was Eotyrannus from England. Earlier tyrannosaurs such as Dilong and Guanlong had not been described at the time this analysis was performed. These exclusions may have a significant effect on the phylogeny.

Below is a cladogram published in 2013 by Loewen et al..[6]



Dilong paradoxus




Eotyrannus lengi




Bagaraatan ostromi




Raptorex kriegsteini




Dryptosaurus aquilunguis





Alectrosaurus olseni



Xiongguanlong baimoensis





Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis





Alioramus altai



Alioramus remotus




Tyrannosauridae










Possible pathology[edit]

Two vertebrae of the tail were found to be fused together, possibly a result of new bone growth following some sort of injury.

In culture[edit]

The McWane Science Center (Birmingham, Alabama) exhibits a reconstructed skeleton of Appalachiosaurus.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Carr, T.D.; Williamson, T.E.; Schwimmer, D.R. (2005). "A new genus and species of tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous (middle Campanian) Demopolis Formation of Alabama". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25 (1): 119–143. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0119:ANGASO]2.0.CO;2. 
  2. ^ http://www.australianmuseum.net.au/page/Appalachiosaurus-montgomeriensis/
  3. ^ Jovanelly, T.J.; Lane, L. (2012). "Comparison of the Functional Morphology of Appalachiosaurus and Albertosaurus" (PDF). The Open Geology Journal. 6: 65–71. doi:10.2174/1874262901206010065. 
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-02-28. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  5. ^ Holtz, T.R. (2004). "Tyrannosauroidea." In: Weishampel, D.A., Dodson, P., & Osmolska, H. (Eds.). The Dinosauria (2nd Edition). Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 111–136.
  6. ^ Loewen, M.A.; Irmis, R.B.; Sertich, J.J.W.; Currie, P. J.; Sampson, S. D. (2013). Evans, David C, ed. "Tyrant Dinosaur Evolution Tracks the Rise and Fall of Late Cretaceous Oceans". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e79420. PMC 3819173Freely accessible. PMID 24223179. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079420. 

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