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Apple Records
Apple Records' logos, featuring a Granny Smith apple
Parent company Apple Corps
Founded 1968; 50 years ago (1968)
Founder The Beatles
Distributor(s)
Genre
Country of origin United Kingdom
Official website www.applerecords.com

Apple Records is a record label founded by the Beatles in 1968, as a division of Apple Corps Ltd. It was initially intended as a creative outlet for the Beatles, both as a group and individually, plus a selection of other artists including Mary Hopkin, James Taylor, Badfinger, and Billy Preston. In practice, by the mid-1970s, the roster had become dominated with releases by the former Beatles as solo artists. Allen Klein managed the label from 1969 to 1973. It was then managed by Neil Aspinall on behalf of the four Beatles and their heirs. Aspinall retired in 2007, being replaced by Jeff Jones.

History[edit]

1967–69: Early years[edit]

Apple Corps Ltd was conceived by the Beatles by 1967, after the death of their manager Brian Epstein; the first project the band released after forming the company was their film Magical Mystery Tour, which was produced under the Apple Films division. Apple Records was officially founded by the group after their return from India in 1968, as another sub-division of Apple Corps, which was established as a small group of companies (Apple Retail, Apple Publishing, Apple Electronics and so on), as part of Epstein's plan to create a tax-effective business structure.[1]

At this time, the Beatles were contracted to EMI's Parlophone label in the United Kingdom, and to Capitol Records in the United States. In a new distribution deal, EMI and Capitol agreed to distribute Apple Records until 1975, while EMI retained ownership of the Beatles' recordings. Beatles recordings issued in the United Kingdom on the Apple label carried Parlophone catalogue numbers, while US issues carried Capitol catalogue numbers. Apple Records owns the rights to all of the Beatles' videos and movie clips, and the rights to recordings of other artists signed to the label. The first catalogue number, Apple 1, was a one-off pressing of Frank Sinatra singing "Maureen Is a Champ" (with lyrics by Sammy Cahn) to the melody of "The Lady Is a Tramp" for Ringo Starr's then wife Maureen. BeatlesandBeyond Radio presenter Pete Dicks reports that the title is actually "Lady is a Champ"; it was a surprise gift for Maureen's 21st birthday.

Initially, Apple Records and Apple Publishing signed a number of acts whom the Beatles personally discovered or supported, and in most cases, one or more of the Beatles would be involved in the recording sessions. Several notable artists were signed in the first year, including James Taylor, Mary Hopkin, Billy Preston, the Modern Jazz Quartet, the Iveys (who later became Badfinger), Doris Troy, and former Liverpool singer Jackie Lomax who recorded George Harrison's "Sour Milk Sea".[2]

1969–73: Klein era[edit]

In 1969, the Beatles were in need of financial and managerial direction, and John Lennon was approached by Allen Klein, manager of the Rolling Stones at the time.[3] Klein went on to manage Apple, by virtue of his three-to-one support from the Beatles, Paul McCartney being the only group member opposed to his involvement. McCartney had suggested his then new father-in-law Lee Eastman for the job.

After Klein took control of Apple, several sub-divisions, including Apple Electronics, were shut down, and some of Apple Records' artistic roster effectively dropped. New signings to the label were thereafter not so numerous, and tended to arrive through the individual actions of ex-Beatles, with the formal approval of the others (e.g., Elephant's Memory were recruited through Lennon, and Ravi Shankar through Harrison). McCartney had little input into Apple Records' roster after 1970. Klein managed Apple Corp. until March 1973, when his contract expired.

In May 1971, the Beatles' entire pre-Apple catalogue on the American Capitol label (the singles from "I Want to Hold Your Hand" to "Lady Madonna", and the albums from Meet the Beatles! to Magical Mystery Tour) was re-issued on the Apple label, although the album covers remained unchanged with the Capitol logos.

1973–2007: Aspinall era, Beatles reissues[edit]

After Klein's departure, Apple was managed by Neil Aspinall on behalf of the four Beatles and their heirs. Apple Records' distribution contract with EMI expired in 1976, when control of the Beatles' catalogue—including solo recordings to date by George Harrison, John Lennon and Ringo Starr—reverted to EMI (Paul McCartney had acquired ownership of his solo recordings when he re-signed with Capitol in 1975).[4]

The original UK versions of the Beatles' albums were released worldwide on compact disc in 1987 and 1988 on the Parlophone label. Previously, Abbey Road had been issued on CD by the EMI-Odeon label in Japan in the early 1980s. Although this was a legitimate release, it was not authorised by the Beatles, EMI or Apple Corps. Following the settlement of Apple's ten-year lawsuit against EMI in 1989, new projects began to move forward, including the Live at the BBC album and The Beatles Anthology series. It was after the Anthology project (spearheaded by Neil Aspinall) that the company resumed making significantly large profits again and began its revival.

The label was again newsworthy in 2006, as the long-running dispute between Apple Records' parent company and Apple Inc. went to the High Court (see Apple Corps v Apple Computer).

2007–present: Jones era, iTunes reissues[edit]

In 2007, longtime chief executive Neil Aspinall retired and was replaced by American music industry executive Jeff Jones.[5] The Beatles' catalog was remastered and re-issued in September 2009 and was made available on iTunes in November 2010.[6][7] When Universal Music Group acquired EMI and the Beatles' recorded music catalogue, Calderstone Productions was formed in 2012 to administer the Beatles' catalogue.

Design[edit]

German release of the Iveys' album Maybe Tomorrow

Standard Apple album and single labels displayed a bright green Granny Smith apple on the A-side, while the flipside displayed the cross section of the apple. The bright green apple returned for Beatles CDs releases in the 1990s, following initial CD releases on Parlophone.

On the US issue of the Beatles' Let It Be album, the Granny Smith apple was red. The reason was that in the United States that album, being the soundtrack to the movie of the same name, was, for contractual reasons, being manufactured and distributed by United Artists Records and not Capitol Records, so the red apple was used to mark the difference. The red apple also appeared on the back cover, and on the 2009 remastered edition back cover. Capitol's parent company EMI purchased United Artists Records in the late 1970s, and Capitol gained the American rights to the Let It Be soundtrack album (along with the American rights to another, earlier, United Artists Beatles movie soundtrack LP, 1964's A Hard Day's Night).

Aside from the red apple, other examples in which the apple has been altered include George Harrison's album All Things Must Pass triple album, on which the first two discs have orange apples while the third has a jar label reading Apple Jam; black and white apples on John Lennon's album John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band and Yoko Ono's album Yoko Ono/Plastic Ono Band; a blue apple on Ringo Starr's single "Back Off Boogaloo"; Harrison's album Extra Texture (Read All About It), on which the apple (in shrunken cartoon form) is eaten away at its core (this was intended to be a joke because it was released at a time when Apple Records was beginning to fold); and a red apple on Starr's compilation album Blast from Your Past. Other types of apples were also used: in 1971, for Lennon's Imagine and Ono's Fly, the apples respectively featured pictures of Lennon and Ono, as did the apples for Ono's 1973 Approximately Infinite Universe and the singles that were released from these three albums.

Zapple Records[edit]

The Zapple label of George Harrison's Electronic Sound LP (US issue)

Zapple Records, an Apple Records subsidiary run by Barry Miles, a friend of McCartney, was intended as an outlet for the release of spoken word and avant-garde records, as a budget label.[8] It was active only from 3 February 1969[9] until June 1969; two albums were released on the label, one by Lennon and Ono (Unfinished Music No. 2: Life with the Lions) and one by Harrison (Electronic Sound). An album of readings by Richard Brautigan was planned for release as Zapple 3, and acetate disc copies were cut, but, said Miles, "The Zapple label was folded by [Allen] Klein before the record could be released. The first two Zapple records did come out. We just didn't have [Brautigan's record] ready in time before Klein closed it down. None of the Beatles ever heard it."[10] Brautigan's record was eventually released as Listening to Richard Brautigan on Harvest Records, a subsidiary of Apple distributor EMI, in the US only.[10]

The first record that was done for Zapple was by poet Charles Olson.[11] According to Miles, a spoken word album by Lawrence Ferlinghetti, which had been recorded and edited, would have been Zapple 4, and a spoken word album by Michael McClure had also been recorded.[10] A planned Zapple release of a UK appearance by comedian Lenny Bruce was never completed. An early 1969 press release also named Pablo Casals as an expected guest on the label. American author Ken Kesey was given a tape recorder to record his impressions of London, but they were never released. Miles also had the intention of bringing world leaders to the label.[8] Zapple was shut down in June 1969 by Klein, apparently with the backing of Lennon.[12]

Artists who signed with Apple Records[edit]

Also released were the soundtracks to Come Together and El Topo (in the US), the onetime Philles Records compilation Phil Spector's Christmas Album and the multi-artist The Concert for Bangla Desh. Cassette and 8-track tape versions of Bangla Desh were marketed by Columbia Records after a deal that permitted the inclusion of Bob Dylan, a Columbia artist, on the album.

Artists who had considerable success in the pop and rock world after their initial sessions at Apple Records include Badfinger (originally known as the Iveys), James Taylor, Mary Hopkin, Hot Chocolate, Yoko Ono and Billy Preston.

Artists who auditioned to appear on the label, but did not make it, include:

  • McGough and McGear (the latter of whom who was McCartney's brother), whose self-titled album was due to be released on Apple; it was instead released on Parlophone, to which both were signed as members of The Scaffold.
  • Grapefruit, whose single "Dear Delilah" was issued on RCA Records with Apple publishing credit.
  • Focal Point, a Liverpool band who were going to be managed by Brian Epstein before he died, were signed to Apple after chasing McCartney around Hyde Park. John Lennon and Brian Epstein signed them to Apple; they were the first band signed. Their single "Sycamore Sid" was issued on Deram Records with credit to Apple Publishing on the label.
  • Fire (a band with future Strawbs member Dave Lambert on guitar) released two singles in 1968: "Father's Name Was Dad", produced by Tony Clarke, and "Round the Gum Tree", on Decca with Apple publishing credits.
  • Delaney and Bonnie's Accept No Substitute album was originally meant to be released on Apple in 1969; it was first released commercially on Elektra Records the same year. In England, copies of the LP were pressed before Apple realized the band were already contracted to Elektra. No album covers were ever printed; the disc is now a high-value Apple collectible.
  • Mortimer were a folk-based three-piece, notable for a recording of the Beatles' "Two of Us". It was planned for release as an Apple single in 1969 (before the Beatles' version was issued) under the title "On Our Way Home", but the release was cancelled.
  • Raven were offered a contract to record with Apple after Harrison received a tape from the band's manager Marty Angelo. Harrison was unable to be their producer, but sent Apple A&R chief Peter Asher to New York City to discuss Asher filling the role. This is documented in the book The Longest Cocktail Party and in Angelo's autobiography Once Life Matters: A New Beginning. The band turned down Asher's offer, and instead signed with Columbia Records in 1969.
  • Slow Dog (later known as Wheels) were a Cambridge-based rock band fronted by Scottish singer/guitarist Dave Kelly. They were the winners of the Apple Records-sponsored national talent contest early 1969, organised by Asher prior to his departure for the US. The winner of the talent contest was promised a record contract with Apple Records, but owing to Asher's departure, the band only recorded demo tracks. However, on recommendation from Mal Evans, Warner Bros. Records in London signed Slow Dog to a record contract, officially changing their name to Wheels.
  • See also Zapple Records section for cancelled releases.

Discography[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gould 2008, pp. 470–473
  2. ^ "George Harrison produces Jackie Lomax's Sour Milk Sea". Retrieved 2017-04-09. 
  3. ^ Lennon 2006, p. 323
  4. ^ Kronemeyer, David (15 May 2009). "Deconstructing Pop Culture: The Beatles' Contract History with Capitol Records". MuseWire. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  5. ^ Kozinn, Allan, "Magical Mystery Tour Ends for Apple Corps Executive", New York Times, 12 April 2007, passim. (link)
  6. ^ Christman, Ed (9 Septembe 2009). "The Beatles: Here, There And Everywhere Except iTunes". billboard.com. Billboard Music. Retrieved 7 May 2018.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. ^ Bruno, Antony (16 November 2010). "Beatles Catalog Finally Coming to iTunes, Apple Announces". billboard.com. Billboard Music. Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  8. ^ a b Blaney, John (2005). John Lennon: Listen to This Book (illustrated ed.). [S.l.]: Paper Jukebox. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-9544528-1-0. 
  9. ^ Blaney, John (2005). John Lennon: Listen to This Book (illustrated ed.). [S.l.]: Paper Jukebox. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-9544528-1-0. 
  10. ^ a b c Barry Miles, as quoted by Richie Unterberger in the sleevenotes to the eventual non-Apple release of Listening to Richard Brautigan.
  11. ^ Blaney, John (2005). John Lennon: Listen to This Book (illustrated ed.). [S.l.]: Paper Jukebox. pp. 13, 15. ISBN 978-0-9544528-1-0. 
  12. ^ The Archive Hour, BBC Radio 4, 12 June 2004

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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