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ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA - Trailer
ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA - Trailer
Published: 2017/03/03
Channel: Grenouilles Productions
Schmucktanne/Affenbaum (Araucaria araucana) durch Samen leicht vermehren
Schmucktanne/Affenbaum (Araucaria araucana) durch Samen leicht vermehren
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: Pflanzen Vermehrung
Araucaria araucana 2008 / Andentanne / monkey puzzle tree
Araucaria araucana 2008 / Andentanne / monkey puzzle tree
Published: 2014/12/22
Channel: Koniferen und Ericaceae
Araucaria Araucana Plant in Greenhouse - Monkey Puzzle Seedlings - Maymun Çıkmaz
Araucaria Araucana Plant in Greenhouse - Monkey Puzzle Seedlings - Maymun Çıkmaz
Published: 2013/02/11
Channel: trapezus6161
How to grow the Monkey Puzzle Tree from seed - Araucaria araucana
How to grow the Monkey Puzzle Tree from seed - Araucaria araucana
Published: 2015/05/03
Channel: Desert Plants of Avalon
ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA | Trailer
ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA | Trailer
Published: 2017/08/14
Channel: ACAMPADOC Festival Internacional de Cine Documental
Chilei araukária - Araucaria araucana
Chilei araukária - Araucaria araucana
Published: 2017/06/18
Channel: Megyeri Szabolcs kertész
My Monkey Puzzle Tree - Seedlings Update - Araucaria Araucana
My Monkey Puzzle Tree - Seedlings Update - Araucaria Araucana
Published: 2017/05/12
Channel: Desert Plants of Avalon
Araucaria araucana
Araucaria araucana
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: ikiel24
Reproducción y cuidados del pino araucaria por estacas
Reproducción y cuidados del pino araucaria por estacas
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: Info Garden
Los tres gigantes del bosque chileno - AL SUR DEL MUNDO / 1992/1993 - CANAL 13C CHILE
Los tres gigantes del bosque chileno - AL SUR DEL MUNDO / 1992/1993 - CANAL 13C CHILE
Published: 2012/03/09
Channel: TomahawkNoticias
Araucaria - The Trackers
Araucaria - The Trackers
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: The Trackers
Chilenische Schmucktanne Araucaria araucana 100 110 cm hoch
Chilenische Schmucktanne Araucaria araucana 100 110 cm hoch
Published: 2016/07/12
Channel: Yong Britton
La Araucaria, Gigante del bosque chileno
La Araucaria, Gigante del bosque chileno
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Victor Rivera
Čilska aravkarija (Araucaria araucana), Strunjan, Slovenija
Čilska aravkarija (Araucaria araucana), Strunjan, Slovenija
Published: 2015/03/06
Channel: Ervin M
Tree ID: Monkey Puzzle - Araucaria araucana - Monkey Tail Tree, Chilean Pine, Chili Pine
Tree ID: Monkey Puzzle - Araucaria araucana - Monkey Tail Tree, Chilean Pine, Chili Pine
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Trees woods & forest gardens - agroforestry arboriculture (from: LTS Group)
Potting on my Monkey Puzzle Tree Seedlings - Araucaria araucana
Potting on my Monkey Puzzle Tree Seedlings - Araucaria araucana
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Desert Plants of Avalon
Araucaria araucana
Araucaria araucana
Published: 2015/02/19
Channel: Hoya, s.r.o.
Chopping down a Araucaria araucana, Monkey puzzle tree.
Chopping down a Araucaria araucana, Monkey puzzle tree.
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Jasseper Y-camp
Monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana)
Monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana)
Published: 2015/05/06
Channel: theoverengineer
Araucaria araucana - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Araucaria araucana - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: Wiz Science™
Monkey Puzzle Tree / Araucaria araucana
Monkey Puzzle Tree / Araucaria araucana
Published: 2016/02/03
Channel: Doug's Plant World
Monkey Puzzle Tree / Araucaria araucana - Another Video
Monkey Puzzle Tree / Araucaria araucana - Another Video
Published: 2017/01/22
Channel: Doug's Plant World
En Temuco expertos analizaron alcances de infección en especies de araucaria araucana | UFROVISIÓN
En Temuco expertos analizaron alcances de infección en especies de araucaria araucana | UFROVISIÓN
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: UfroMedios
Araucaria araucana
Araucaria araucana
Published: 2014/03/16
Channel: myplantshop.eu
Araucaria araucana anciana en Nahuelbuta 01
Araucaria araucana anciana en Nahuelbuta 01
Published: 2006/10/30
Channel: chilebosque
Monkey Puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana) seedling.
Monkey Puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana) seedling.
Published: 2015/02/22
Channel: AHandful OfSeeds
Seminario “Avances en la determinación del daño sanitario de la Araucaria Araucana”
Seminario “Avances en la determinación del daño sanitario de la Araucaria Araucana”
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Teledos Noticias UATV
PODA Y REDUCCION DE ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA video 1.
PODA Y REDUCCION DE ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA video 1.
Published: 2012/08/13
Channel: JUAN PAEZ
La araucaria o pehuén (Araucaria araucana).
La araucaria o pehuén (Araucaria araucana).
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: el kuko
Ecoplant 17   Araucarias y lengas   20 12 2012
Ecoplant 17 Araucarias y lengas 20 12 2012
Published: 2012/12/20
Channel: SMAndes Patagonia
Különleges növények a kertben: Araucaria araucana - Chilei Araukária
Különleges növények a kertben: Araucaria araucana - Chilei Araukária
Published: 2015/02/25
Channel: Megyeri Szabolcs kertész
Encuentran hongo que provocaría la muerte de especies de araucaria araucana | UFROVISIÓN
Encuentran hongo que provocaría la muerte de especies de araucaria araucana | UFROVISIÓN
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: UfroMedios
Oda a la Araucaria Araucana – Pablo Neruda
Oda a la Araucaria Araucana – Pablo Neruda
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: luis yerley ortiz galera
Araucaria araucana.mp4
Araucaria araucana.mp4
Published: 2012/06/01
Channel: Jorge Vidal
araucaria araucana-blatočet čilský
araucaria araucana-blatočet čilský
Published: 2013/06/30
Channel: romanek9
Araucaria Araucana   Amán Urim Elim
Araucaria Araucana Amán Urim Elim
Published: 2008/10/16
Channel: merkabahcanal
CHILE / "PIEDRA DEL AGUILA"
CHILE / "PIEDRA DEL AGUILA"
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: GOEMOTIONS
Araucarias en peligro | Ideas globales
Araucarias en peligro | Ideas globales
Published: 2014/02/12
Channel: DW (Español)
«Pehuen o Araucaria -2014-»
«Pehuen o Araucaria -2014-»
Published: 2014/12/26
Channel: Gonbal
Araucaria Araucana Arboretum de Tervuren
Araucaria Araucana Arboretum de Tervuren
Published: 2015/08/08
Channel: Arboretum Tervuren
Araucaria araucana será incluida en proceso de reclasificación de flora y fauna | UFROVISIÓN
Araucaria araucana será incluida en proceso de reclasificación de flora y fauna | UFROVISIÓN
Published: 2017/09/22
Channel: UfroMedios
Araucaria araucana anciana en Nahuelbuta 02
Araucaria araucana anciana en Nahuelbuta 02
Published: 2006/10/30
Channel: chilebosque
Araucaria
Araucaria
Published: 2010/01/14
Channel: digalapintana
Resin and Monkey Puzzle Trees (Araucaria  araucana)
Resin and Monkey Puzzle Trees (Araucaria araucana)
Published: 2016/09/11
Channel: Roger Griffith
Protección de la Araucaria en Chile - Director Ejecutivo de CONAF
Protección de la Araucaria en Chile - Director Ejecutivo de CONAF
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: conaf minagri
Piñones, Araucarias
Piñones, Araucarias
Published: 2013/04/10
Channel: Grafitel TV
Araucaria Araucana
Araucaria Araucana
Published: 2016/03/26
Channel: Monkey Puzzle Trio - Topic
Araucaria araucana @ Ostiglia IT
Araucaria araucana @ Ostiglia IT
Published: 2017/08/31
Channel: Ata Cedra
PODA Y REDUCCION DE ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA EN  BUENOS AIRES 4258-1271 video 6.
PODA Y REDUCCION DE ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA EN BUENOS AIRES 4258-1271 video 6.
Published: 2012/08/16
Channel: JUAN PAEZ
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Araucaria araucana
IMG 6492 monkey puzzle.JPG
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Araucariaceae
Genus: Araucaria
Section: A. sect. Araucaria
Species: A. araucana
Binomial name
Araucaria araucana
(Molina) K. Koch

Araucaria araucana (commonly called the monkey puzzle tree, monkey tail tree, Chilean pine, or pehuén) is an evergreen tree growing to 1–1.5 m (3–5 ft) in diameter and 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height. It is native to central and southern Chile, western Argentina and South East Brazil.[1] Araucaria araucana is the hardiest species in the conifer genus Araucaria. Because of the longevity of this species, it is described as a living fossil. It is also the national tree of Chile. Its conservation status was changed to Endangered by the IUCN in 2013 due to the dwindling population.[2]

Description[edit]

The leaves of the Araucaria araucana

The leaves are thick, tough, and scale-like, triangular, 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) long, 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) broad at the base, and with sharp edges and tips. According to Lusk, The leaves have an average lifespan of 24 years[3] and so cover most of the tree except for the older branches.

It is usually dioecious, with the male and female cones on separate trees, though occasional individuals bear cones of both sexes. The male (pollen) cones are oblong and cucumber-shaped, 4 cm (1.6 in) long at first, expanding to 8–12 cm (3.1–4.7 in) long by 5–6 cm (2.0–2.4 in) broad at pollen release. It is wind pollinated. The female (seed) cones, which mature in autumn about 18 months after pollination, are globose, large, 12–20 cm (4.7–7.9 in) in diameter, and hold about 200 seeds. The cones disintegrate at maturity to release the 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) long nut-like seeds.

Habitat[edit]

Distribution map of A. araucana in central Chile

Its native habitat is the lower slopes of the Chilean and Argentinian south-central Andes, typically above 1,000 m (3,300 ft). Juvenile trees exhibit a broadly pyramidal or conical habit which naturally develops into the distinctive umbrella form of mature specimens as the tree ages.[4] It prefers well-drained, slightly acidic, volcanic soil, but will tolerate almost any soil type provided it drains well.

Seed dispersal[edit]

Araucaria araucana is a masting species, and rodents are important consumers and dispersers of its seeds. The long-haired grass mouse, Abrothrix longipilis, is the most important animal responsible for dispersing the seeds of A. araucana. This rodent buries seeds whole in locations favorable for seed germination, unlike other animals.[5]

Threats[edit]

Logging, long a major threat, was finally banned in 1990.[6] Large fires burned thousands of acres of Araucaria forest in 2001–2002,[6] and areas of national parks have also burned, destroying trees over 1300 years old.[2] Overgrazing and invasive trees are also threats.[2][6] Extensive human harvesting of piñones (Araucaria seeds) can prevent new trees from growing.[2] A Global Trees Campaign project that planted 2000 trees found a 90 percent 10-year survival rate.[6]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Araucaria araucana is a popular garden tree, planted for the unusual effect of its thick, "reptilian" branches with very symmetrical appearance. It prefers temperate climates with abundant rainfall, tolerating temperatures down to about −20 °C (−4 °F). It is far and away the hardiest member of its genus, and can grow well in western Europe (north to the Faroe Islands and Smøla[7] in western Norway), the west coast of North America (north to the islands of Haida Gwaii in Canada), and locally on the east coast, as well as Long Island, and in New Zealand and southeastern Australia. It is tolerant of coastal salt spray, but does not tolerate exposure to pollution.

The piñones are similar to pine nuts, but larger; these roasted seeds are 3 cm and 5 cm long, from two different cultivars.

Its piñones, or seeds,[6] are edible, similar to large pine nuts, and are harvested by indigenous peoples in Argentina and Chile.[8] The tree has some potential to be a food crop in other areas in the future, thriving in climates with cool oceanic summers, e.g., western Scotland, where other nut crops do not grow well. A group of six female trees with one male for pollination could yield several thousand seeds per year. Since the cones drop, harvesting is easy. The tree, however, does not yield seeds until it is around 30 to 40 years old, which discourages investment in planting orchards (although yields at maturity can be immense); once established, it can live possibly as long as 1,000 years.[9]

Once valued because of its long, straight trunk, its current rarity and vulnerable status mean its wood is now rarely used; it is also sacred to some members of the Mapuche Native American tribe.[10] Before the tree became protected by law in 1971, lumber mills in Araucanía Region specialized in Chilean pine. This species is listed in the CITES Appendix I as an endangered species.[11]

Discovery and naming[edit]

First identified by Europeans in Chile in the 1780s,[citation needed] it was named Pinus araucana by Molina in 1782. In 1789, de Jussieu had erected a new genus called Araucaria based on the species, and in 1797, Pavón published a new description of the species which he called Araucaria imbricata (an invalid name, as it did not use Molina's older species epithet). Finally, in 1873, after several further redescriptions, Koch published the combination Araucaria araucana, validating Molina's name in the genus. The name araucana is derived from the native Araucanians who used the nuts (seeds) of the tree in Chile. A group of Araucanians living in the Andes, the Pehuenches, owe their name to their diet based on harvesting of the A. araucaria seeds. Pehuen means Araucaria and che means people in Mapudungun.

The origin of the popular English language name "monkey puzzle" derives from its early cultivation in Britain in about 1850, when the species was still very rare in gardens and not widely known. Sir William Molesworth, the proud owner of a young specimen at Pencarrow garden near Bodmin in Cornwall, was showing it to a group of friends, one of them – the noted barrister and Benthamist Charles Austin – remarked, "It would puzzle a monkey to climb that".[12] As the species had no existing popular name, first "monkey puzzler", then "monkey puzzle" stuck.[13]

Relatives[edit]

The nearest relative found is Araucaria angustifolia, a South American Araucaria from Brazil which differs in the width of the leaves. Also related to the Araucaria genus in the Pacific Islands and Australia, including Araucaria cunninghamii, Hoop Pine, Araucaria heterophylla the Norfolk Island pine and Araucaria bidwillii, Bunya Pine, in Australia. The recently found 'Wollemi pine', Wollemia, discovered in south-east Australia, is classed in the plant family Araucariaceae. Their common ancestry dates to a time when Australia, Antarctica, and South America were linked by land — all three continents were once part of the supercontinent known as Gondwana.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Native areas, Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved: 2012-09-20.
  2. ^ a b c d Premoli, A., Quiroga, P. & Gardner, M. 2013. Araucaria araucana. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/31355/0. Accessed on 10 July 2013.
  3. ^ C. H. Lusk, "Leaf lifespans of some conifers of the temperate forests of South America", REVISTA CHILENA DE HISTORIA NATURAL Vol. 74 (2001) pp. 711-718. Quoted at: http://www.botany.org/plantimages/Conant.php
  4. ^ Michael A. Arnold (2004). "Araucaria Araucana" (PDF). Landscape Plants For Texas And Environs 3rd. Aggie Horticulture. ISBN 1588747468. 
  5. ^ Shepherd, J.D. & R.S. Ditgen, 2013. Rodent handling of Araucaria araucana seeds. Austral Ecology, 38: 23–32.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Monkey Puzzle". Global Trees. 
  7. ^ "Araucaria araucana in Ålesund, Norway". Scanpalm. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2009. 
  8. ^ Gallo, L., F. Izquierdo, L.J. Sanguinetti, A. Pinna, G. Siffredi, J. Ayesa, C. Lopez, A. Pelliza, N. Strizler, M. Gonzales Peñalba, L. Maresca and L. Chauchard. 2004. Araucaria araucana forest genetic resources in Argentina. Pages 105-132 in Barbara Vinceti, Weber Amaral and Brien Meilleur (eds). Challenges in managing forest genetic resources for livelihoods: examples from Argentina and Brazil. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. 271 pp.
  9. ^ (Gymnosperm Database).
  10. ^ Anna Lewington & Edward Parker (1999). Ancient Trees. Collins & Brown. ISBN 1-85585-974-2. 
  11. ^ "Appendices I, II and III". CITES. UNEP. Archived from the original on 17 March 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  12. ^ Wilson, Matthew (July 5, 2013). "Riddle of how the monkey puzzle tree came to be a UK favourite". Financial Times. Retrieved May 14, 2016. 
  13. ^ Alan Mitchell (1996). Alan Mitchell's Trees of Britain. Collins. ISBN 0-00-219972-6. 

External links[edit]

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