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Biggest Dinosaur Ever! Argentinosaurus - Planet Dinosaur - BBC
Biggest Dinosaur Ever! Argentinosaurus - Planet Dinosaur - BBC
Published: 2013/07/05
Channel: BBC Earth
Mapusaurus gang Vs. Argentinosaurus - Planet Dinosaur - BBC
Mapusaurus gang Vs. Argentinosaurus - Planet Dinosaur - BBC
Published: 2013/07/12
Channel: BBC Earth
Giganotosaurus vs. Argentinosaurus
Giganotosaurus vs. Argentinosaurus
Published: 2014/06/10
Channel: LegitEliminator
I
I'm a Dinosaur - Argentinosaurus | HooplaKidz TV
Published: 2012/12/12
Channel: HooplaKidz TV - Funny Cartoons For Children
Planet Dinosaur - Pterosaurs flying around a fallen Argentinosaurus
Planet Dinosaur - Pterosaurs flying around a fallen Argentinosaurus
Published: 2012/11/28
Channel: Mullerornis
Argentinosaurus Feeding - Planet Dinosaur - Episode 5 - BBC One
Argentinosaurus Feeding - Planet Dinosaur - Episode 5 - BBC One
Published: 2011/10/14
Channel: BBC
Andy
Andy's Prehistoric Adventures - 01. Argentinosaurus and Eggshell
Published: 2017/04/20
Channel: Sofia Ellipo
Paleontology News: Is Barosaurus Bigger Than Argentinosaurus?
Paleontology News: Is Barosaurus Bigger Than Argentinosaurus?
Published: 2016/10/07
Channel: The Vividen
Argentinosaurus | I Am the Best | Dinosaur Songs | PINKFONG Songs for Children
Argentinosaurus | I Am the Best | Dinosaur Songs | PINKFONG Songs for Children
Published: 2015/06/27
Channel: Pinkfong! Kids' Songs & Stories
ARGENTINOSAURUS  LEVEL 40 - Jurassic World The Game
ARGENTINOSAURUS LEVEL 40 - Jurassic World The Game
Published: 2015/08/13
Channel: Gam1ngNinja
What Was the World
What Was the World's Biggest Dinosaur?
Published: 2016/03/10
Channel: Nature on PBS
PPBA Argentinosaurus rampage 1000 sub special
PPBA Argentinosaurus rampage 1000 sub special
Published: 2015/08/14
Channel: Parasaurolophus 67
Argentinosaurus PT 1 .
Argentinosaurus PT 1 .
Published: 2012/09/17
Channel: MARTINEZZZ365
Dinosaur Size Comparison
Dinosaur Size Comparison
Published: 2014/05/06
Channel: Reigarw Comparisons
Dinosaur Discoveries Argentinosaurus
Dinosaur Discoveries Argentinosaurus
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: Michael Vespia
What is the Biggest Dinosaur?
What is the Biggest Dinosaur?
Published: 2016/07/16
Channel: MadWizard38
Zamba - Excursión al Museo de Ciencias Naturales - Argentinosaurus
Zamba - Excursión al Museo de Ciencias Naturales - Argentinosaurus
Published: 2013/07/02
Channel: Mundo Zamba
Argentinosaurus - Planet Dinosaur - Episode 5 - BBC One
Argentinosaurus - Planet Dinosaur - Episode 5 - BBC One
Published: 2011/10/14
Channel: BBC
BBC Planet Dinosaur Episode 5: New Giants ( Dinosaurs BBC Documentary )
BBC Planet Dinosaur Episode 5: New Giants ( Dinosaurs BBC Documentary )
Published: 2015/08/07
Channel: Poklu Nilayi
Argentinosaurus Vs Vastatosaurus Rex
Argentinosaurus Vs Vastatosaurus Rex
Published: 2017/09/25
Channel: MrEnder
PPBA Argentinosaurus vs Brachiosaurus
PPBA Argentinosaurus vs Brachiosaurus
Published: 2016/12/08
Channel: Parasaurolophus 67
Planet Dinosaur - Lacusavagus, Argentinosaurus and Aucasaurus
Planet Dinosaur - Lacusavagus, Argentinosaurus and Aucasaurus
Published: 2012/11/28
Channel: Mullerornis
Mundo Saurio: "El Argentinosaurus"
Mundo Saurio: "El Argentinosaurus"
Published: 2014/05/31
Channel: Lord Fox
Argentinosaurus The Earth Shaker (TDF Facts)
Argentinosaurus The Earth Shaker (TDF Facts)
Published: 2015/01/04
Channel: The DinoFeed
Mapusaures VS argentinosaurus (dinosaures) - ZAPPING SAUVAGE
Mapusaures VS argentinosaurus (dinosaures) - ZAPPING SAUVAGE
Published: 2016/11/24
Channel: Zapping Sauvage
Largest Dinosaurs Ever: Argentinosaurus II. 4 720p
Largest Dinosaurs Ever: Argentinosaurus II. 4 720p
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: Barrera Science Lab
ARGENTINOSAURUS GIGANTE DE LA PATAGONIA - MINI DOCUMENTAL #5 Documental dinosaurios español HD
ARGENTINOSAURUS GIGANTE DE LA PATAGONIA - MINI DOCUMENTAL #5 Documental dinosaurios español HD
Published: 2016/09/03
Channel: ABlistering - Dinosaurios, juegos, variedad
Argentinosaurus : le plus grand dinosaure - ZAPPING SAUVAGE
Argentinosaurus : le plus grand dinosaure - ZAPPING SAUVAGE
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Zapping Sauvage
Dinosaur Train : How Big are You?  #4 - Argentinosaurus VS Blue Whale  @ Make For Kids
Dinosaur Train : How Big are You? #4 - Argentinosaurus VS Blue Whale @ Make For Kids
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: MakeForKids
Argentinosaurus Tail
Argentinosaurus Tail
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: Kayakasaurus
Dinosaur Cartoons for Children | Argentinosaurus & More | Learn Dinosaur Facts with I
Dinosaur Cartoons for Children | Argentinosaurus & More | Learn Dinosaur Facts with I'm A Dinosaur
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: I'm A Dinosaur
Argentinosaurus Vs Mapusaurus
Argentinosaurus Vs Mapusaurus
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: JPWorld
ARGENTINOSAURUS | Learn Dinosaur Facts Dinosaur Cartoons Compilations for Children | I
ARGENTINOSAURUS | Learn Dinosaur Facts Dinosaur Cartoons Compilations for Children | I'm A Dinosaur!
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: I'm A Dinosaur
Lo que no conocías de un Argentinosaurus
Lo que no conocías de un Argentinosaurus
Published: 2016/01/30
Channel: Planeta Dinosaurio
Indominus VS Argentinosaurus
Indominus VS Argentinosaurus
Published: 2015/06/26
Channel: T-RexSpinoMaster2015 Studios
I
I'm A Dinosaur - Argentinosaurus | Cartoon Collection For Children To Learn Dinosaur Facts
Published: 2016/02/12
Channel: HooplaKidz TV - Funny Cartoons For Children
Field Station Dinosaurs Argentinosaurus Secaucus NJ
Field Station Dinosaurs Argentinosaurus Secaucus NJ
Published: 2012/05/29
Channel: Mostly Animal Videos
How to Draw Argentinosaurus Dinosaur and Paint Argentinosaurus Coloring Pages for Children 🌟
How to Draw Argentinosaurus Dinosaur and Paint Argentinosaurus Coloring Pages for Children 🌟
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: DrawingAZ Coloring Pages for Kids
Microraptor VS Argentinosaurus
Microraptor VS Argentinosaurus
Published: 2014/11/20
Channel: MatromX
PRODUCTION PROCESS: 30 Meters Long Argentinosaurus
PRODUCTION PROCESS: 30 Meters Long Argentinosaurus
Published: 2016/07/18
Channel: Danny Zhang
7 Dinosaur Train dinosaurs - Spinosaurus Tyrannosaurus Argentinosaurus - Colorful Dinosaur toys
7 Dinosaur Train dinosaurs - Spinosaurus Tyrannosaurus Argentinosaurus - Colorful Dinosaur toys
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: PressPlayPictureHouse
COMO ERA EL ARGENTINOSAURUS - ¡¡DATOS SORPRENDENTES!!
COMO ERA EL ARGENTINOSAURUS - ¡¡DATOS SORPRENDENTES!!
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: ISMASAURIO
Argentinosaurus Dinosaur Skeleton Part 3 @ Fernbank Museum, Atlanta
Argentinosaurus Dinosaur Skeleton Part 3 @ Fernbank Museum, Atlanta
Published: 2009/04/15
Channel: Anand Tandon
Zoosparkle - Speed Lapse Argentinosaurus huinculensis (by Federica Messina)
Zoosparkle - Speed Lapse Argentinosaurus huinculensis (by Federica Messina)
Published: 2016/06/17
Channel: ZooSparkle
La Dinopedia de chimmy! #2| Hoy: Argentinosaurus
La Dinopedia de chimmy! #2| Hoy: Argentinosaurus
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: ChimmySaurus: Bienvenidos a la prehistoria
Argentinosaurus - Dinomaster
Argentinosaurus - Dinomaster
Published: 2016/01/03
Channel: Deinos And Sauros
Argentinosaurus vs Giganotosaurus
Argentinosaurus vs Giganotosaurus
Published: 2014/11/16
Channel: Parasaurolophus 67
Argentinosaurus, Fire Tooth Has Won!!! | Tiny Dino World | #15
Argentinosaurus, Fire Tooth Has Won!!! | Tiny Dino World | #15
Published: 2016/02/08
Channel: T Rekt
Argentinosaurus 阿根廷恐龍化石仿制品展覽 (Replica fossil setup of Argentinosaurus)
Argentinosaurus 阿根廷恐龍化石仿制品展覽 (Replica fossil setup of Argentinosaurus)
Published: 2015/06/29
Channel: davehkg
Mapusaurus vs Argentinosaurus
Mapusaurus vs Argentinosaurus
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: Dinosaur Boy
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Argentinosaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 97–93.5 Ma
Argentinosaurus DSC 2943.jpg
Reconstructed skeleton, Naturmuseum Senckenberg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Sauropodomorpha
Clade: Sauropoda
Clade: Titanosauria
Genus: Argentinosaurus
Bonaparte & Coria, 1993
Type species
Argentinosaurus huinculensis
Bonaparte & Coria, 1993

Argentinosaurus (meaning "Argentine lizard"[1]) is a genus of titanosaur sauropod dinosaur first discovered by Guillermo Heredia in Argentina. The generic name refers to the country in which it was discovered. The dinosaur lived on the then-island continent of South America somewhere between 97 and 93.5 million years ago,[2] during the Late Cretaceous Period. It is among the largest known dinosaurs.

Discovery[edit]

The first fossils identified as Argentinosaurus were found in 1987 by a rancher in Argentina, who mistook the leg for a giant piece of petrified wood. A gigantic vertebra, approximately the size of a man, was also found.[1]

The type and only species, A. huinculensis, was described and published in 1993 by the Argentine palaeontologists José F. Bonaparte and Rodolfo Coria. Its more specific time-frame within the Cretaceous is the late Cenomanian faunal stage, ~96 to 94 million years ago. The fossil discovery site is in the Huincul Formation of the Río Limay Subgroup in Neuquén Province, Argentina (the Huincul Formation was a member of the Río Limay Formation according to the naming of the time).[3]

Description[edit]

Life restoration based on related Dreadnoughtus

Not much of Argentinosaurus has been recovered. The holotype included only a series of vertebrae (six from the back, five partial vertebrae from the hip region), ribs of the right side of the hip region, a part of a rib from the flank, and the right fibula (lower leg bone). One of these vertebrae was 1.59 meters tall, and the fibula was about 1.55 meters (61 inches).[3] In addition to these bones, an incomplete femur (upper leg bone, specimen number MLP-DP 46-VIII-21-3) is assigned to Argentinosaurus; this incomplete femur shaft has a minimum circumference of about 1.18 meters.[4] The proportions of these bones and comparisons with other sauropod relatives allow paleontologists to estimate the size of the animal.

Size[edit]

Argentinosaurus (in red) compared to 4 other sauropods.

An early reconstruction by Gregory S. Paul estimated Argentinosaurus at between 30–35 metres (98–115 ft) in length and with a weight of up to 80–100 tonnes (88–110 short tons).[5][6] The length of the skeletal restoration mounted in Museo Carmen Funes is 39.7 metres (130 ft) long and 7.3 metres (24 ft) tall at the shoulder. This is the longest reconstruction in a museum and contains the original material, including a mostly complete fibula.[7] Other estimates have compared the fragmentary material to relatively complete titanosaurs to help estimate the size of Argentinosaurus. In 2006 Carpenter used the more complete Saltasaurus as a guide and estimated Argentinosaurus at 30 metres (98 ft) in length.[8] An unpublished estimate used published reconstructions of Saltasaurus, Opisthocoelicaudia, and Rapetosaurus as guides and gave shorter length estimates of between 22–26 metres (72–85 ft).[9] Weight estimates are less common, but Mazzetta et al. (2004) provide a range of 60–88 tonnes (66–97 short tons), and consider 73 tonnes (80 short tons) to be the most likely, making it the heaviest sauropod known from good material.[4] More recently, it was estimated at 83.2 tonnes (91.7 short tons) by calculating the volume of the aforementioned Museo Carmen Funes skeleton.[7] Scott Hartman suggests that since Argentinosaurus is a basal titanosaur, it would have a shorter tail and narrower chest than Puertasaurus, suggesting that it was slightly smaller than other giant titanosaurs such as Puertasaurus and Alamosaurus.[10]

Paleobiology[edit]

Biomechanics and speed[edit]

Reconstructed skeleton used to estimate speed, Museo Municipal Carmen Funes, Plaza Huincul, Argentina

In 2013, in a study published in Plos One on October 30, 2013 by Dr. Bill Sellers, Dr. Rodolfo Coria, Lee Margetts et al., Argentinosaurus was digitally reconstructed to test its locomotion for the first time. Before this study, the most common way of estimating speed was through studying bone histology and ichnology. Commonly, studies about sauropod bone histology and speed focus on the postcranial skeleton which holds many unique features, such as an enlarged process on the ulna, a wide lobe on the ilia, an inward-slanting top third of the femur, and an extremely ovoid femur shaft. Those features are useful when attempting to explain trackway patterns of graviportal animals. When studying ichnology to calculate sauropod speed, there are a few problems, such as only providing estimates for certain gaits because of preservation bias, and being subject to many more accuracy problems.[7]

Video of the most likely way Argentinosaurus walked

To estimate the gait and speed of Argentinosaurus, the study performed a musculoskeletal analysis. The only previous musculoskeletal analyses were conducted on hominids, terror birds, and other dinosaurs. Before they could conduct the analysis, the team had to create a digital skeleton of the animal in question, show where there would be muscle layering, locate the muscles and joints, and finally find the muscle properties before finding the gait and speed. The results of the biomechanical study revealed that Argentinosaurus was mechanically competent at a top speed of 2 m/s (5 mph) given the great weight of the animal and the strain that its joints were capable of bearing. The results further revealed that much larger terrestrial vertebrates might be possible, but would require significant body remodeling and possibly behavioral change to prevent joint collapse.[7][11]

Digestion[edit]

Argentinosaurus was, like all sauropods, a herbivore. It probably used its long neck to reach into conifers, or sweep the ground in search of ferns and bushes. Once swallowed, the food would have needed to travel all the way down the neck before entering the stomach. Inside the stomach, the vegetation would have been ground or broken down by smooth stones known as gastroliths.[1]

Growth[edit]

Argentinosaurus femur, Museo de La Plata.

Studies show that Argentinosaurus did not stop growing in its lifetime. One article found that Argentinosaurus hatchlings would have had to grow 25,000 times their original size before reaching adult size. Argentinosaurus probably traveled in herds of a few dozen animals, including juveniles. Young animals were vulnerable to attacks from predators. It is thought that only a handful of juveniles would be lucky enough to reach adulthood. Fossilized eggs of sauropods related to Argentinosaurus have been preserved. These eggs show that every year, hundreds of adults would gather to nest. Wide flat floodplains have been identified as the preferred nesting sites. The eggs were around 22 centimetres (8.7 in) in diameter, and each adult probably laid large numbers of eggs each season. Once hatched, it took about 15 years for the tiny hatchlings to reach adulthood, and gigantic size.[1]

In popular culture[edit]

Argentinosaurus starred in the 2002 BBC series Chased by Dinosaurs, where it was portrayed as the prey of pack-hunting Giganotosaurus.[citation needed] In 2001, the BBC Horizon special Extreme Dinosaurs: The Science of Giants had examined the evidence for pack hunting of Argentinosaurus by the as-yet-unnamed Mapusaurus.[citation needed] It was also featured in the 2011 BBC series Planet Dinosaur where it was portrayed as the biggest dinosaur ever discovered and also portrayed as prey of Mapusaurus.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Haines, T.; Chambers, P. (2007). The Complete Guide to Prehistoric Life. Italy: Firefly Books Ltd. pp. 118–119. ISBN 1-55407-181-X. 
  2. ^ Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. (2012) Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages, Winter 2011 Appendix.
  3. ^ a b Bonaparte J, Coria R (1993). "Un nuevo y gigantesco sauropodo titanosaurio de la Formacion Rio Limay (Albiano-Cenomaniano) de la Provincia del Neuquen, Argentina". Ameghiniana (in Spanish). 30 (3): 271–282. 
  4. ^ a b Mazzetta, Gerardo V.; Christiansen, Per; Fariña, Richard A. (2004). "Giants and Bizarres: Body Size of Some Southern South American Cretaceous Dinosaurs" (PDF). Historical Biology. 16 (2-4): 71–83. doi:10.1080/08912960410001715132. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  5. ^ Paul, Gregory S. (Autumn 1994). "Big Sauropods - Really, Really Big Sauropods" (PDF). The Dinosaur Report. The Dinosaur Society: 12–13. Retrieved 2011-11-14. 
  6. ^ Paul, Gregory S. (1997). "Dinosaur models: the good, the bad, and using them to estimate the mass of dinosaurs". In Wolberg, D. L.; Stump, E.; Rosenberg, G. D. DinoFest International Proceedings. The Academy of Natural Sciences. pp. 129–154. 
  7. ^ a b c d Sellers, W. I.; Margetts, L.; Coria, R. A. B.; Manning, P. L. (2013). Carrier, David, ed. "March of the Titans: The Locomotor Capabilities of Sauropod Dinosaurs". PLoS ONE. 8 (10): e78733. PMC 3864407Freely accessible. PMID 24348896. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078733. 
  8. ^ Carpenter, Kenneth (2006). "Biggest of the Big: A Critical Re-Evaluation of the Mega-Sauropod Amphicoelias fragillimus Cope, 1878" (PDF). In Foster, John R.; Lucas, Spencer G. Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. 36. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. pp. 131–138. 
  9. ^ Mortimer, Mickey (2001-09-12). "Titanosaurs too Large?". Dinosaur Mailing List. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  10. ^ http://www.skeletaldrawing.com/home/2013/06/the-biggest-of-big.html?rq=puertasaurus
  11. ^ "Argentinosaurus"

External links[edit]

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