Play Video
1
CCTV of Assassination of businessman Felix Pascual Gonzales in Surquillo, Peru
CCTV of Assassination of businessman Felix Pascual Gonzales in Surquillo, Peru
::2013/02/25::
Play Video
2
The Kennedy Assassination - Beyond Conspiracy BBC
The Kennedy Assassination - Beyond Conspiracy BBC
::2013/10/24::
Play Video
3
[Full Video-Part1] CCTV footage: The assassination of Mahmoud al Mabhouh in Dubai
[Full Video-Part1] CCTV footage: The assassination of Mahmoud al Mabhouh in Dubai
::2010/02/16::
Play Video
4
Inejiro Asanuma Assassination Footage (1960)
Inejiro Asanuma Assassination Footage (1960)
::2006/05/18::
Play Video
5
JFK Assassination Magic Bullet Computer Recreation
JFK Assassination Magic Bullet Computer Recreation
::2009/07/26::
Play Video
6
Who Was the Umbrella Man? | JFK Assassination Documentary | The New York Times
Who Was the Umbrella Man? | JFK Assassination Documentary | The New York Times
::2013/11/21::
Play Video
7
Beyond Conspiracy - Kennedy assassination
Beyond Conspiracy - Kennedy assassination
::2008/02/02::
Play Video
8
Conspiracy Theory : The Abraham Lincoln Assassination
Conspiracy Theory : The Abraham Lincoln Assassination
::2013/12/19::
Play Video
9
SHOCKING: Video unreleased JFK assassination
SHOCKING: Video unreleased JFK assassination
::2013/06/27::
Play Video
10
10 Failed Assassination Attempts
10 Failed Assassination Attempts
::2012/08/28::
Play Video
11
Hamid Karzai ASSASSINATION Attempt  CAUGHT ON TAPE  Sept 5 2002
Hamid Karzai ASSASSINATION Attempt CAUGHT ON TAPE Sept 5 2002
::2013/09/09::
Play Video
12
Failed Assassination Attempt on Ahmed Dogan
Failed Assassination Attempt on Ahmed Dogan
::2013/01/19::
Play Video
13
Reagan Assassination Attempt
Reagan Assassination Attempt
::2010/12/13::
Play Video
14
CBS NEWS Live Coverage of The Assassination of President Kennedy Part 1 (1:30 P.M - 2:30 P.M E.S.T)
CBS NEWS Live Coverage of The Assassination of President Kennedy Part 1 (1:30 P.M - 2:30 P.M E.S.T)
::2013/10/06::
Play Video
15
Lincoln Assassination Eyewitness (Feb 9, 1956)
Lincoln Assassination Eyewitness (Feb 9, 1956)
::2009/04/11::
Play Video
16
1968 King Assassination Report (CBS News)
1968 King Assassination Report (CBS News)
::2008/04/03::
Play Video
17
RONALD REAGAN ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT (MARCH 30, 1981)(UNNARRATED)
RONALD REAGAN ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT (MARCH 30, 1981)(UNNARRATED)
::2013/09/04::
Play Video
18
JFK assassination Zapruder 100fps stable super slow motion
JFK assassination Zapruder 100fps stable super slow motion
::2011/10/23::
Play Video
19
Aquino Assassination 1983
Aquino Assassination 1983
::2010/06/30::
Play Video
20
Kennedy Assassination: Proof LBJ Knew
Kennedy Assassination: Proof LBJ Knew
::2013/10/18::
Play Video
21
Moment of the assassination of Anwar Sadat and survival of Hosni Mubarak ترور انورسادات
Moment of the assassination of Anwar Sadat and survival of Hosni Mubarak ترور انورسادات
::2011/02/06::
Play Video
22
The Assassination of Ninoy Aquino
The Assassination of Ninoy Aquino
::2008/11/21::
Play Video
23
Assassination of Benazir Bhutto in video
Assassination of Benazir Bhutto in video
::2013/05/04::
Play Video
24
The JFK Assassination: Conspiracy, Photos, Facts, Autopsy, Documentary Evidence (2007)
The JFK Assassination: Conspiracy, Photos, Facts, Autopsy, Documentary Evidence (2007)
::2013/11/16::
Play Video
25
GTA 5 - Mission #48 - The Construction Assassination [100% Gold Medal Walkthrough]
GTA 5 - Mission #48 - The Construction Assassination [100% Gold Medal Walkthrough]
::2013/09/23::
Play Video
26
GTA 5 - Mission #33 - Hotel Assassination [100% Gold Medal Walkthrough]
GTA 5 - Mission #33 - Hotel Assassination [100% Gold Medal Walkthrough]
::2013/09/21::
Play Video
27
1968: Robert F. Kennedy Assassinated
1968: Robert F. Kennedy Assassinated
::2012/06/05::
Play Video
28
Clinton Assassination Attempt - Secret Service Secrets
Clinton Assassination Attempt - Secret Service Secrets
::2013/06/21::
Play Video
29
JFK Assassination Conspiracy.The Secret Service Stand Down Order. Was This Pre-Planned?
JFK Assassination Conspiracy.The Secret Service Stand Down Order. Was This Pre-Planned?
::2013/11/24::
Play Video
30
Assassination Nation: Backyard Gunshop (VICE on HBO Ep. #1 Extended)
Assassination Nation: Backyard Gunshop (VICE on HBO Ep. #1 Extended)
::2013/04/29::
Play Video
31
مشاهد فليم فاندام الاعيب الاغتيالات assassination games مترجم
مشاهد فليم فاندام الاعيب الاغتيالات assassination games مترجم
::2013/11/15::
Play Video
32
May 13, 1981:  Assassination Attempt on Pope John Paul II!
May 13, 1981: Assassination Attempt on Pope John Paul II!
::2013/02/28::
Play Video
33
Clip of the Week - The Assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia
Clip of the Week - The Assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia
::2013/10/11::
Play Video
34
Rare quality UNRELEASED RAW  colour footage of the Robert F Kennedy assassination with sound
Rare quality UNRELEASED RAW colour footage of the Robert F Kennedy assassination with sound
::2013/11/05::
Play Video
35
25 Boldest Assassination Attempts Ever
25 Boldest Assassination Attempts Ever
::2013/09/09::
Play Video
36
The Assassination of Anwar El Sadat
The Assassination of Anwar El Sadat
::2008/11/18::
Play Video
37
GTA 5 - Mission #34 - The Multi Target Assassination [100% Gold Medal Walkthrough]
GTA 5 - Mission #34 - The Multi Target Assassination [100% Gold Medal Walkthrough]
::2013/09/21::
Play Video
38
Assassination Rogue Guide 5.4
Assassination Rogue Guide 5.4
::2013/12/17::
Play Video
39
Rogue Assassination Guide Season 15 5.4.7 PvP Addons, Macros, Build etc.
Rogue Assassination Guide Season 15 5.4.7 PvP Addons, Macros, Build etc.
::2014/02/27::
Play Video
40
GTA 5 - Mission #42 - The Vice Assassination [100% Gold Medal Walkthrough]
GTA 5 - Mission #42 - The Vice Assassination [100% Gold Medal Walkthrough]
::2013/09/22::
Play Video
41
Tina Towner JFK Assassination Witness & Photographer - Her Film & The Kennedy Assassination
Tina Towner JFK Assassination Witness & Photographer - Her Film & The Kennedy Assassination
::2013/12/06::
Play Video
42
Yitzhak Rabin Assassination 1995
Yitzhak Rabin Assassination 1995
::2012/06/12::
Play Video
43
Grand Theft Auto 5 Gameplay Walkthrough Part 31 - Hotel Assassination (GTA 5)
Grand Theft Auto 5 Gameplay Walkthrough Part 31 - Hotel Assassination (GTA 5)
::2013/09/24::
Play Video
44
NEW 5.4 Assassination Rogue PVP Build Arena,Battlegrounds,Reforge,Stats,Gems,Glyph Guide
NEW 5.4 Assassination Rogue PVP Build Arena,Battlegrounds,Reforge,Stats,Gems,Glyph Guide
::2013/09/20::
Play Video
45
GTA 5 Gameplay Walkthrough Part 23: Multi Target Assassination [Gold] [No commentary]:
GTA 5 Gameplay Walkthrough Part 23: Multi Target Assassination [Gold] [No commentary]:
::2013/09/18::
Play Video
46
GTA 5: Make FAST Money - Assassination Mission Guide - Stock Market Tutorial (GTA V)
GTA 5: Make FAST Money - Assassination Mission Guide - Stock Market Tutorial (GTA V)
::2013/09/25::
Play Video
47
The assassination of Jesse James - Full original soundtrack
The assassination of Jesse James - Full original soundtrack
::2013/08/03::
Play Video
48
JFK ASSASSINATION BREAKING NEWS REPORTS- NBC, ABC, CBS - 50 YEARS LATER
JFK ASSASSINATION BREAKING NEWS REPORTS- NBC, ABC, CBS - 50 YEARS LATER
::2013/07/12::
Play Video
49
Tupac Assassination 2 .Reckoning Subtitulos Español Latino
Tupac Assassination 2 .Reckoning Subtitulos Español Latino
::2014/01/04::
Play Video
50
JFK
JFK'S ASSASSINATION (KLIF-RADIO IN DALLAS)(NOVEMBER 22, 1963)
::2013/08/29::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Assassination is the murder of a prominent person, political figure by a surprise attack, usually for payment or political reasons.[1][2]

An assassination may be prompted by religious, ideological, political, or military motives; it is an act that may be done for financial gain, to avenge a grievance, from a desire to acquire fame or notoriety, or because of a military or security services command to carry out the murder.

Etymology[edit]

The word "assassin" was derived from Hasan-i Sabbah and his Assassin's Order of Nizari Ismailism.

The word assassin is often believed to derive from the word Hashshashin (Arabic: حشّاشين, ħashshāshīyīn, also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, or Assassins),[3] and shares its etymological roots with hashish (/hæˈʃʃ/ or /ˈhæʃʃ/; from Arabic: حشيش ḥashīsh).[4] It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Persians who worked against various Arab & Persian targets.

Founded by the Arab-Persian Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Iran from the 8th to the 14th centuries, and also controlled the castle of Masyaf in Syria. The group killed members of the Persian, Abbasid, Seljuq, and Christian Crusader élite for political and religious reasons.[5]

Although it is commonly believed that Assassins were under the influence of hashish during their killings or during their indoctrination, there is debate as to whether these claims have merit, with many Eastern writers and an increasing number of Western academics coming to believe that drug-taking was not the key feature behind the name.[6] The earliest known literary use of the word assassination is in Macbeth by William Shakespeare (1605).[7][8]

The word for "murder" in many romance languages is derived from this same root word (see Spanish asesinato, French assassinat).

Use in history[edit]

Ancient to medieval times[edit]

Assassination of King Henry III of France

Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics. It dates back at least as far as recorded history.

The Old Testament story of Judith illustrates how a woman frees the Israelites by tricking and assassinating Holofernes, a warlord of the rival Assyrians, with whom the Israelites were at war. King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants;[9] Joab assassinated Absalom, King David's son;[10] and King Sennacherib of Assyria was assassinated by his own sons.[11]

Chanakya (c. 350–283 BC) wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra. His student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire, later made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, including two of Alexander the Great's generals, Nicanor and Philip.[12] Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon (336 BC), the father of Alexander the Great, and Roman consul Julius Caesar (44 BC).[13] Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later. The practice was also well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC.

Assassination of King Przemysł II of Poland

In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most commonly used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe. High medieval sources mention the assassination of King Demetrius Zvonimir (1089), dying at the hands of his own people, who objected to a proposition by the Pope to go on a campaign to aid the Byzantines against the Seljuk Turks. This account is, however, contentious among historians, it being most commonly asserted that he died of natural causes. The myth of the "Curse of King Zvonimir" is based on the legend of his assassination.[14] In 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin.

The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland (1296), William the Silent of the Netherlands (1584), and the French kings Henry III (1589) and Henry IV (1610) were all ended by assassins.

Modern history[edit]

In the modern world, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves and was also used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed. In Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years.

Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln; 1865 depiction. Assassin John Wilkes Booth on the right.

In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy—died at the hands of assassins. There have been at least 20 known attempts on U.S. presidents' lives. In Austria, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, was carried out by Gavrilo Princip, a Yugoslavian national and a member of the Serbian nationalist insurgents (The Black Hand) is blamed for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II used operatives specifically trained for assassination. Reinhard Heydrich was killed after an attack by British trained Czechoslovak soldiers on behalf of the Czechoslovak government in exile in Operation Anthropoid,[15] and knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the U.S. to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto while he was travelling by plane. The Polish Home Army conducted a regular campaign of assassinations against top Nazi German officials in occupied Poland. Adolf Hitler, meanwhile, was almost killed by his own officers, and survived various attempts by other persons and organizations (such as Operation Foxley, though this plan was never put into practice).

During the 1930s and 1940s Joseph Stalin's NKVD carried out numerous assassinations outside of the Soviet Union, such as the killings of Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists leader Yevhen Konovalets, Ignace Poretsky, Fourth International secretary Rudolf Klement, Leon Trotsky, and the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM) leadership in Catalonia.[16]

India's "Father of the Nation," Mohandas K. Gandhi, was shot to death in 1948 by Nathuram Godse.

The American Civil rights activist, Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated on April 4, 1968 at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. African-American Activist Fred Hampton of the Black Panther Party was assassinated on December 4, 1969.

Cold War and beyond[edit]

President Kennedy minutes before his assassination, November 22, 1963.

Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, was assassinated by Saad Akbar, a lone assassin, in 1951. Conspiracy theorists believe his conflict with certain members of the Pakistani military (Rawalpindi conspiracy) or suppression of Communists and antagonism towards the Soviet Union, were potential reasons for his assassination.

In 1960, Inejiro Asanuma, Chairman of the Japanese Socialist Party, was assassinated in a stabbing by an extreme rightist.

The U.S. Senate Select Committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (the Church Committee) reported in 1975 that it had found "concrete evidence of at least eight plots involving the CIA to assassinate Fidel Castro from 1960 to 1965."[17]

Most major powers repudiated Cold War assassination tactics, though many allege that this was merely a smokescreen for political benefit and that covert and illegal training of assassins continues today, with Russia, Israel, the U.S., Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and other nations accused of engaging in such operations.[18] In 1986, U.S. President Ronald Reagan (who survived an assassination attempt himself) ordered the Operation El Dorado Canyon air raid on Libya in which one of the primary targets was the home residence of Libyan ruler Muammar Gaddafi. Gaddafi escaped unharmed; however, his adopted daughter Hanna was claimed to be one of the civilian casualties.

In the Philippines, the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. triggered the eventual downfall of the 20-year autocratic rule of President Ferdinand Marcos. Aquino, a former Senator and a leading figure of the political opposition, was assassinated in 1983 at the Manila International Airport (now the Ninoy Aquino International Airport) upon returning home from exile. His death thrust his widow, Corazon Aquino, into the limelight and, ultimately, the presidency following the peaceful 1986 EDSA Revolution.

After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the new Islamic government of Iran began an international campaign of assassination that lasted into the 1990s. At least 162 killings in 19 countries have been linked to the senior leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran.[19] This campaign came to an end after the Mykonos restaurant assassinations, because a German court publicly implicated senior members of the government and issued arrest warrants for Ali Fallahian, the head of the Iranian Intelligence.[20] Evidence indicates that Fallahian's personal involvement and individual responsibility for the murders were far more pervasive than his current indictment record represents.[21]

Anwar Sadat, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (formerly President of the United Arab Republic) was assassinated October 6, 1981, during the annual parade celebrating Operation Badr, the opening maneuver of the Yom Kippur War.

On August 17, 1988, President of Pakistan Gen. M. Zia ul Haq died alongside 31 others including the Chief of Staff of the Pakistani Armed Forces, the US Ambassador to Pakistan and the chief of the US Military Mission to Pakistan when his C-130 transport plane mysteriously crashed. The crash is widely considered – inside of Pakistan – to be an act of political assassination.

In post-Saddam Iraq, the Shiite-dominated government used death squads to perform extrajudicial executions of radical Sunni Iraqis, with some alleging that the death squads were trained by the U.S.[22][23] Concrete allegations have since surfaced that the Iranian government has actively armed and funded Shia death-squads in post-Saddam Iraq.[24]

Indira Gandhi's blood-stained sari and belongings at the time of her assassination. She was the Prime Minister of India.

In India, Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi and her son Rajiv Gandhi (neither of whom were related to Mohandas Gandhi, who was assassinated in 1948), were assassinated in 1984 and 1991 respectively. The assassinations were linked to separatist movements in Punjab and northern Sri Lanka, respectively.

In Israel, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated on November 4, 1995. Yigal Amir confessed and was convicted of the crime.

Israeli tourist minister Rehavam Ze'evi was assassinated on October 17, 2001, by Hamdi Quran and three other members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). The PFLP stated that the assassination was in retaliation for the August 27, 2001, killing of Abu Ali Mustafa, the Secretary General of the PFLP, by the Israeli Air Force under its policy of targeted killings.

In Lebanon, the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14, 2005, prompted an investigation by the United Nations. The suggestion in the resulting Mehlis report that there was Syrian involvement, prompted the Cedar Revolution, which drove Syrian troops out of Lebanon.

In Pakistan, former prime minister and opposition leader Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in 2007, while in the process of running for re-election. Bhutto's assassination drew unanimous condemnation from the international community.[25]

In Guinea Bissau, President João Bernardo Vieira was assassinated in the early hours of March 2, 2009, in the capital, Bissau. Unlike typical assassinations his death was not swift; he first survived an explosion at the Presidential Villa, was then shot and wounded, and finally was butchered with machetes. His assassination was carried out by renegade soldiers who were apparently revenging the killing of General Tagme Na Waie, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Guinea Bissau, who had been killed in a bomb explosion the day before.

Further motivations[edit]

As military doctrine[edit]

The functions of the ninja included espionage and assassination.

Assassination for military purposes has long been espoused – Sun Tzu, writing around 500 BC, argued in favor of using assassination in his book The Art of War. Nearly 2000 years later, in his book The Prince, Machiavelli also argued assassination could be useful.[citation needed] An army and even a nation might be based upon and around a particularly strong, canny, or charismatic leader, whose loss could paralyze the ability of both to make war.

There is also the risk that the target could be replaced by an even more competent leader, or that such a killing (or a failed attempt) will "martyr" a leader and lead to greater support of his or her cause (by showing the moral ruthlessness of the assassins). Faced with particularly brilliant leaders, this possibility has in various instances been risked, such as in the attempts to kill the Athenian Alcibiades during the Peloponnesian War. A number of additional examples from World War II show how assassination was used as a tool:

  • The assassination of Reinhard Heydrich in Prague on 27 May 1942 by the British and Czechoslovak government-in-exile.
  • The American interception of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's plane during World War II, after his travel route had been decrypted.
  • Operation Gaff was a planned British commando raid to capture or kill the German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel (also known as "The Desert Fox").[26]

Use of assassination has continued in more recent conflicts:

  • During the Vietnam War, partly in response to Viet Cong assassinations of government leaders, the U.S. engaged in the Phoenix Program to assassinate Viet Cong leaders and sympathizers, and killed between 6,000 and 41,000 persons, with official 'targets' of 1,800 per month.

As tool of insurgents[edit]

Insurgent groups have often employed assassination as a tool to further their causes. Assassinations provide several functions for such groups, namely the removal of specific enemies and as propaganda tools to focus the attention of media and politics on their cause.

The Irish Republican Army guerrillas of 1919–21 killed many RIC Police Intelligence officers during the Irish War of Independence. Michael Collins set up a special unit – the Squad – for this purpose, which had the effect of intimidating many policemen into resigning from the force. The Squad's activities peaked with the killing of 14 British agents in Dublin on Bloody Sunday in 1920.

This tactic was used again by the Provisional IRA during the Troubles in Northern Ireland (1969–1998). Killing of RUC officers and assassination of RUC politicians was one of a number of methods used in the Provisional IRA campaign 1969–1997. The IRA also attempted to assassinate British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher by bombing the Conservative Party Conference in a Brighton hotel. Loyalist paramilitaries retaliated by killing Catholics at random and assassinating Irish nationalist politicians.

Basque terrorists ETA in Spain have assassinated many security and political figures since the late 1960s, notably Luis Carrero Blanco, 1st Duke of Carrero-Blanco Grandee of Spain, in 1973. Since the early 1990s, they have also targeted academics, journalists and local politicians who publicly disagreed with them.

The Red Brigades in Italy carried out assassinations of political figures, as to a lesser extent, did the Red Army Faction in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s.

In the Vietnam War, Communist insurgents routinely assassinated government officials and individual civilians deemed to offend or rival the revolutionary movement. Such attacks, along with widespread military activity by insurgent bands, almost brought the Diem regime to collapse before the U.S. intervention.[27]

Psychology[edit]

A major study about assassination attempts in the U.S. in the second half of the 20th century came to the conclusion that most prospective assassins spend copious amounts of time planning and preparing for their attempts. Assassinations are thus rarely a case of 'impulsive' action.[28]

However, about 25% of the actual attackers were found to be delusional, a figure that rose to 60% with 'near-lethal approachers' (people apprehended before reaching their target). This shows that while mental instability plays a role in many modern-age assassinations, the more delusional attackers are less likely to succeed in their attempt. The report also found that around two-thirds of attackers had previously been arrested (not necessarily for related offenses), that 44% had a history of serious depression, and that 39% had a history of substance abuse.[28]

Techniques[edit]

Ancient methods[edit]

Death cap mushrooms

It seems likely that the first assassinations would have been direct and simple: stabbing, strangling or bludgeoning. The key technique was likely infiltration, with the actual assassination by stabbing, smothering or strangulation. Poisons also started to be used in many forms.

Death cap mushrooms and similar plants became a traditional choice of assassins especially if they could not be perceived as poisonous by taste, and the symptoms of the poisoning did not show until after some time.[citation needed]

In ancient Rome, paid mobs were sometimes used to beat political enemies to death.[citation needed]

Modern methods[edit]

With the advent of effective ranged weaponry, and later firearms, the position of an assassination target was more precarious. Bodyguards were no longer enough to hold back determined killers, who no longer needed to directly engage or even subvert the guard to kill the leader in question. Moreover, the engagement of targets at greater distance dramatically increased the chances of an assassin's survival. The first heads of government to be assassinated with a firearm were the Regent Moray of Scotland in 1570, and William the Silent, the Prince of Orange of the Netherlands in 1584. Gunpowder and other explosives also allowed the use of bombs or even greater concentrations of explosives for deeds requiring a larger touch.

Explosives, especially the car bomb, become far more common in modern history, with grenades and remote-triggered land mines also used, especially in the Middle East and Balkans (the initial attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand's life was with a grenade). With heavy weapons, the rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) has become a useful tool given the popularity of armored cars (discussed below), while Israeli forces have pioneered the use of aircraft-mounted missiles,[29] as well as the innovative use of explosive devices.

Rifle of Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President John F. Kennedy
Derringer of John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of President Abraham Lincoln

A sniper with a precision rifle is often used in fictional assassinations. However, certain difficulties attend long-range shooting, including finding a hidden shooting position with a clear line-of-sight, detailed advance knowledge of the intended victim's travel plans, the ability to identify the target at long range, and the ability to score a first-round lethal hit at long range, usually measured in hundreds of meters. A dedicated sniper rifle is also expensive, often costing thousands of dollars because of the high level of precision machining and hand-finishing required to achieve extreme accuracy.[30]

Despite their comparative disadvantages, handguns are more easily concealable, and consequentially much more commonly used than rifles. Of 74 principal incidents evaluated in a major study about assassination attempts in the U.S. in the second half of the 20th century, 51% were undertaken by a handgun, 30% with a rifle or shotgun, 15% used knives, and 8% explosives (usage of multiple weapons/methods was reported in 16% of all cases).[28]

In the case of state-sponsored assassination, poisoning can be more easily denied. Georgi Markov, a Bulgarian dissident was assassinated by ricin poisoning. A tiny pellet containing the poison was injected into his leg through a specially designed umbrella. Widespread allegations involving the Bulgarian government and KGB have not led to any legal results. However, it was learned that after fall of the USSR, the KGB had developed an umbrella that could inject ricin pellets into a victim, and two former KGB agents who defected said the agency assisted in the murder.[31] The CIA has allegedly made several attempts to assassinate Fidel Castro, many of the schemes involving poisoning his cigars. In the late 1950s, KGB assassin Bohdan Stashynsky killed Ukrainian nationalist leaders Lev Rebet and Stepan Bandera with a spray gun that fired a jet of poison gas from a crushed cyanide ampule, making their deaths look like heart attacks.[32] A 2006 case in the UK concerned the assassination of Alexander Litvinenko who was given a lethal dose of radioactive polonium-210, possibly passed to him in aerosol form sprayed directly onto his food. Litvinenko, a former KGB agent, had been granted asylum in the UK in 2000 after citing persecution in Russia. Shortly before his death he issued a statement accusing then-President of Russia Vladimir Putin of involvement in his assassination. President Putin denies he had any part in Litvinenko's death.[33]

James Bell proposed "Assassination Politics" both as a political idea and as a logical consequence of anonymous cash.[34] Essentially anonymous contributors fund those who can predict the time and manner of a given person's death; the "predictor" is also paid anonymously.

Targeted killing[edit]

Predator drone; sometimes used in targeted killings

Targeted killing is the intentional killing–by a government or its agents–of a civilian or "unlawful combatant" targeted by the government, who is not in the government's custody. The target is a person taking part in an armed conflict or terrorism, whether by bearing arms or otherwise, who has thereby lost the immunity from being targeted that he would otherwise have under the Third Geneva Convention.[35] Note that this is a different term and concept from that of "targeted violence" as used by specialists who study violence.

On the other hand, Georgetown Law Professor Gary Solis, in his 2010 book entitled The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War,[36] writes: "Assassinations and targeted killings are very different acts".[35] The use of the term assassination is opposed, as it denotes murder, whereas the terrorists are targeted in self-defense, and thus it is viewed as a killing, but not a crime.[37] Judge Abraham Sofaer, former federal judge for the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, wrote on the subject:

When people call a targeted killing an "assassination," they are attempting to preclude debate on the merits of the action. Assassination is widely defined as murder, and is for that reason prohibited in the United States ... U.S. officials may not kill people merely because their policies are seen as detrimental to our interests ... But killings in self-defense are no more "assassinations" in international affairs than they are murders when undertaken by our police forces against domestic killers. Targeted killings in self-defense have been authoritatively determined by the federal government to fall outside the assassination prohibition.[38]

Author and former U.S. Army Captain Matthew J. Morgan has argued that "there is a major difference between assassination and targeted killing ... targeted killing [is] not synonymous with assassination. Assassination ... constitutes an illegal killing."[39] Similarly, Amos Guiora, professor of law at the University of Utah, writes: "Targeted killing is ... not an assassination", Steve David, Professor of International Relations at Johns Hopkins University, writes: "There are strong reasons to believe that the Israeli policy of targeted killing is not the same as assassination". Syracuse Law Professor William Banks and GW Law Professor Peter Raven-Hansen write: "Targeted killing of terrorists is ... not unlawful and would not constitute assassination", Rory Miller writes: "Targeted killing ... is not 'assassination'". Associate Professor Eric Patterson and Teresa Casale write: "Perhaps most important is the legal distinction between targeted killing and assassination".[40][41][42][42][43]

On the other hand, the American Civil Liberties Union also states on its website, "A program of targeted killing far from any battlefield, without charge or trial, violates the constitutional guarantee of due process. It also violates international law, under which lethal force may be used outside armed conflict zones only as a last resort to prevent imminent threats, when non-lethal means are not available. Targeting people who are suspected of terrorism for execution, far from any war zone, turns the whole world into a battlefield."[44] Yael Stein, the research director of B'Tselem, The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, also states in her article "By Any Name Illegal and Immoral: Response to 'Israel's Policy of Targeted Killing'":[45]

The argument that this policy affords the public a sense of revenge and retribution could serve to justify acts both illegal and immoral. Clearly, lawbreakers ought to be punished. Yet, no matter how horrific their deeds, as the targeting of Israeli civilians indeed is, they should be punished according to the law. David's arguments could, in principle, justify the abolition of formal legal systems altogether.

Targeted killing has become a frequent tactic of the United States and Israel in their fight against terrorism.[35][46] The tactic can raise complex questions and lead to contentious disputes as to the legal basis for its application, who qualifies as an appropriate "hit list" target, and what circumstances must exist before the tactic may be employed.[35] Opinions range from people considering it a legal form of self-defense that reduces terrorism, to people calling it an extra-judicial killing that lacks due process, and which leads to further violence.[35][38][47][48] Methods used have included firing a five-foot-long Hellfire missile from a Predator or Reaper drone (an unmanned, remote-controlled plane), detonating a cell phone bomb, and long-range sniper shooting. Countries such as the U.S. (in Pakistan and Yemen) and Israel (in the West Bank and Gaza) have used targeted killing to eliminate members of groups such as Al-Qaeda and Hamas.[35] In early 2010, with President Obama's approval, Anwar al-Awlaki became the first U.S. citizen to be publicly approved for targeted killing by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Awlaki was killed in a drone strike in September 2011.[49][50]

Counter-measures[edit]

Early forms[edit]

This bodyguard was killed by an IED during Sheik Abdul Sattar Abu Risha's assassination in 2007

One of the earliest forms of defense against assassins was employing bodyguards. Bodyguards act as a shield for the potential target, keeping lookout for potential attackers (sometimes in advance, for example on a parade route), and putting themselves in harm's way—both by simple presence, showing that physical force is available to protect the target,[28][51] and by shielding the target during any attack. To neutralize an attacker, bodyguards are typically armed as much as legal and practical concerns permit.

This bodyguard function was often executed by the leader's most loyal warriors, and was extremely effective throughout most of early human history, leading assassins to attempt stealthy means, such as poison (which risk was answered by having another person taste the leader's food first).

Another notable measure is the use of a body double, a person who looks like the leader and who pretends to be the leader to draw attention away from the intended target.[citation needed]

Notable examples of bodyguards include the Roman Praetorian Guard or the Ottoman Janissaries—though, in both cases, the protectors sometimes became assassins themselves, exploiting their power to make the head of state a virtual hostage or killing the very leaders they were supposed to protect. The fidelity of individual bodyguards is an important question as well, especially for leaders who oversee states with strong ethnic or religious divisions. Failure to realize such divided loyalties led to the assassination of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, assassinated by two Sikh bodyguards in 1984.

Modern strategies[edit]

Assassination attempt on President Ronald Reagan

With the advent of gunpowder, ranged assassination (via bombs or firearms) became possible. One of the first reactions was to simply increase the guard, creating what at times might seem a small army trailing every leader; another was to begin clearing large areas whenever a leader was present, to the point where entire sections of a city might be shut down.

As the 20th century dawned, the prevalence and capability of assassins grew quickly, as did measures to protect against them. For the first time, armored cars or limousines were put into service for safer transport, with modern versions virtually invulnerable to small arms fire, smaller bombs and mines.[52] Bulletproof vests also began to be used, which were of limited utility, restricting movement and leaving the head unprotected – so they tended to be worn only during high-profile public events, if at all.

Access to famous persons, too, became more and more restricted;[53] potential visitors would be forced through numerous different checks before being granted access to the official in question, and as communication became better and information technology more prevalent, it has become all but impossible for a would-be killer to get close enough to the personage at work or in private life to effect an attempt on his or her life, especially given the common use of metal and bomb detectors.

Most modern assassinations have been committed either during a public performance or during transport, both because of weaker security and security lapses, such as with U.S. President John F. Kennedy and former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, or as part of coups d'état where security is either overwhelmed or completely removed, such as with Patrice Lumumba.

The methods used for protection by famous people have sometimes evoked negative reactions by the public, with some resenting the separation from their officials or major figures. One example might be traveling in a car protected by a bubble of clear bulletproof glass, such as the Popemobile of Pope John Paul II – built following an attempt at his life. Politicians often resent this need for separation, sometimes sending their bodyguards away from them for personal or publicity reasons; U.S. President William McKinley did this at the public reception where he was assassinated.[53]

Other potential targets go into seclusion, and are rarely heard from or seen in public, such as writer Salman Rushdie. A related form of protection is the use of body doubles a person built similar to the person he is expected to impersonate. These persons are then made up, and in some cases altered to look like the target, with the body double then taking the place of the person in high risk situations. According to Joe R. Reeder, Under Secretary of the Army from 1993 to 1997, Fidel Castro has used body doubles.[54]

United States Secret Service protective agents receive training in the psychology of assassins.[55]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Other definitions include:
  2. ^ "assassinate (kill)". Memidex/WordNet Dictionary/Thesaurus. Retrieved March 4, 2011. 
  3. ^ American Speech – McCarthy, Kevin M. Volume 48, pp. 77–83
  4. ^ The Assassins: a radical sect in Islam – Bernard Lewis, pp. 11–12
  5. ^ Secret Societies Handbook, Michael Bradley, Altair Cassell Illustrated, 2005. ISBN 978-1-84403-416-1
  6. ^ Martin Booth (2004). Cannabis: A History. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-42494-7. 
  7. ^ "Assassination." Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, second edition, 1989
  8. ^ Inventing English: A Portable History of the Language, Seth Lerer, 2007
  9. ^ 2 Kings 12:19-21
  10. ^ 2 Samuel 3:26-28 RSV
  11. ^ 2 Chronicles 32:21
  12. ^ Boesche, Roger (January 2003). "Kautilya's Arthaśāstra on War and Diplomacy in Ancient India". The Journal of Military History 67 (1): 9–37. doi:10.1353/jmh.2003.0006. 
  13. ^ Johnson, Francis (March 3, 2008). Famous assassinations of history .... Retrieved October 27, 2010. 
  14. ^ "FFZG.hr" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  15. ^ Burian, Michal; Aleš (2002). "Assassination — Operation Arthropoid, 1941–1942" (PDF). Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  16. ^ Michael Ellman. The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934. Europe-Asia Studies, 2005. p. 826
  17. ^ Church Committee – Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders Part III.B, page 71 (from the 'history-matters.com' website. Retrieved August 22, 2008.
  18. ^ John Dingles (2004) The Condor Years ISBN 978-1-56584-764-4
  19. ^ "English front cover – No Safe Haven" (PDF). p. 100. Archived from the original on 2010-06-02. Retrieved June 2, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Mykonos front cover" (PDF). Archived from the original on June 2, 2010. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Condemned by Law – Report 11-10-08.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original on June 2, 2010. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  22. ^ "The Salvador Option" – The Pentagon may put Special-Forces-led assassination or kidnapping teams in IraqNewsweek, Friday January 14, 2005
  23. ^ CBS: Death Squads In Iraqi HospitalsCBS Evening News, Wednesday October 4, 2006
  24. ^ Iran 'training Shia death squads'[Scotsman.com News], March 22, 2007
  25. ^ Benazir Bhutto shot dead at suicide bombing of rally; 20 feared deadThe Canadian Press, Thursday December 27, 2007
  26. ^ Commando Extraordinary – Foley, Charles; Legion for the Survival of Freedom, 1992, page 155
  27. ^ Viet Cong – Pike, Douglas, The MIT Press; New Ed edition, Wednesday December 16, 1970
  28. ^ a b c d Assassination in the United States: An Operational Study – Fein, Robert A. & Vossekuil, Brian, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Volume 44, Number 2, March 1999
  29. ^ Hamas leader killed in Israeli airstrikeCNN, Saturday April 17, 2004
  30. ^ Iraqi insurgents using Austrian rifles from IranThe Daily Telegraph, Tuesday February 13, 2007
  31. ^ The case of the poisoned umbrella. BBC World Service, 2007.
  32. ^ Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin. The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books, 1999. ISBN 978-0-465-00312-9 p. 362
  33. ^ Putin 'Deplores' Spy DeathSky News Friday November 24, 2006
  34. ^ "Cryptome.org". Cryptome.org. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f Gary D. Solis (2010). The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87088-7. Retrieved May 19, 2010. 
  36. ^ The law of armed conflict ... – Gary D. Solis. Google Books. February 15, 2010. ISBN 978-1-139-48711-5. Retrieved December 27, 2011. 
  37. ^ Targeted killing is a necessary option, Sofaer, Abraham D., Hoover Institution, March 26, 2004
  38. ^ a b Abraham D. Sofaer (March 26, 2004). "Responses to Terrorism / Targeted killing is a necessary option". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  39. ^ Matthew J. Morgan (2009). The Impact of 9–11: The New Legal Landscape. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-60838-2. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  40. ^ Amos Guiora (2004). "Targeted Killing as Active Self-Defense". 36 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 31920. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  41. ^ Steven R. David (September 2002). "Fatal Choices: Israel's Policy Of Targeted Killing" (PDF). The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  42. ^ a b Rory Miller (2007). Ireland and the Middle East: trade, society and peace. Irish Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-7165-2868-5. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  43. ^ "Targeted Killing and Assassination: The U.S. Legal Framework", Banks, William C., Raven-Hansen, Peter, 37 U. Rich. L. Rev. 667 (2002–03). Retrieved October 89, 2010.
  44. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions About Targeting Killing | American Civil Liberties Union". Aclu.org. 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  45. ^ http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/resources/journal/17_1/debate/860.html
  46. ^ "Q&A: Targeted Killings", Eben Kaplan, The New York Times, January 25, 2006. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
  47. ^ Dana Priest (November 8, 2002). "U.S. Citizen Among Those Killed In Yemen Predator Missile Strike". The Tech (MIT); The Washington Post. Retrieved May 19, 2010. 
  48. ^ Mohammed Daraghmeh (February 20, 2001). "Hamas Leader Dies in Apparent Israeli Targeted Killing". Times Daily. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  49. ^ Greg Miller (January 31, 2010). "U.S. citizen in CIA's cross hairs". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 7, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  50. ^ Greg Miller (April 7, 2010). "Muslim cleric Aulaqi is 1st U.S. citizen on list of those CIA is allowed to kill". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  51. ^ Lincoln – Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
  52. ^ How to choose the appropriate bulletproof cars (from Alpha-armouring.com website, includes examples of protection levels available)
  53. ^ a b The Need For Protection Further Demonstrated – Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
  54. ^ Donaldson-Evans, Catherine (December 20, 2001). "It's Bin Laden ... or Is It?". Fox News. 
  55. ^ Pelley, Scott (August 15, 2000). "Mind of the Assassin". CBS 60 Minutes II. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Clarke, James W. (2006). Defining Danger: American Assassins and the New Domestic Terrorists, 2006.
  • Clarke, James W. (2011). "America's History of Crazy Political Assassins Didn't Begin with Loughner", History News Network, Jan. 28, 2011.
  • Porter, Lindsay (2010). Assassination: a History of Political Murder. Thames and Hudson.  Review The Daily Telegraph, Apr 3, 2010.

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014