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Atterberg Limit Tests (LL and PL)
Atterberg Limit Tests (LL and PL)
Published: 2012/06/03
Channel: ronaluna
Atterberg Limit Tests
Atterberg Limit Tests
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: Steven Woodruff
Determination of liquid limit and plastic limit of soil
Determination of liquid limit and plastic limit of soil
Published: 2013/04/08
Channel: NCTEL
Soil Mechanics Laboratory Tests: Atterberg Limits
Soil Mechanics Laboratory Tests: Atterberg Limits
Published: 2012/10/08
Channel: METUGeotech
CEEN 341 - Lecture 4 -  Atterberg Limits and Soil Consistency
CEEN 341 - Lecture 4 - Atterberg Limits and Soil Consistency
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: Office Hours
Atterberg Limits - plastic limit
Atterberg Limits - plastic limit
Published: 2014/04/07
Channel: Virtual Soil Science Learning Resources
Atterberg Limit Tests - Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and the Plasticity Index of soils.
Atterberg Limit Tests - Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and the Plasticity Index of soils.
Published: 2016/11/15
Channel: Dana Vim
Video 2   Liquid limit, Plastic limit and plasticity index, Linear shrinkage1)
Video 2 Liquid limit, Plastic limit and plasticity index, Linear shrinkage1)
Published: 2013/09/15
Channel: Kuhle Zatu
Atterberg limits
Atterberg limits
Published: 2014/11/11
Channel: Audiopedia
Soil Tests / Finding Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit (Atterberg Limits)
Soil Tests / Finding Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit (Atterberg Limits)
Published: 2013/07/23
Channel: barmx
Classification of Fine Grain Soil & Atterberg Limits | Soil Mechanics
Classification of Fine Grain Soil & Atterberg Limits | Soil Mechanics
Published: 2014/11/04
Channel: Spoon Feed Me
Atterberg Limits Cal Poly
Atterberg Limits Cal Poly
Published: 2013/06/05
Channel: Ryan Blunk
VL18   Soil Plasticity
VL18 Soil Plasticity
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: Phil Renforth
Atterberg Limits - Liquid Limit
Atterberg Limits - Liquid Limit
Published: 2014/04/07
Channel: Virtual Soil Science Learning Resources
CE230_Soil_Mechanics_Lec05: Plasticity and Atterberg Limits
CE230_Soil_Mechanics_Lec05: Plasticity and Atterberg Limits
Published: 2016/08/03
Channel: Tae-Hyuk Kwon
Plastic and Liquid Limits
Plastic and Liquid Limits
Published: 2012/08/20
Channel: Federico Fernandez
Carleton University - CIVE 3208 Lab 2: Atterberg Limits
Carleton University - CIVE 3208 Lab 2: Atterberg Limits
Published: 2011/09/12
Channel: Carleton University
CONSISTENCY LIMITS || CIVIL ENGG SUBJECTIVE MATERIALS || PART -27
CONSISTENCY LIMITS || CIVIL ENGG SUBJECTIVE MATERIALS || PART -27
Published: 2016/12/03
Channel: CIVIL ENGINEERING OBJECTIVE
Atterberg Limits
Atterberg Limits
Published: 2014/01/07
Channel: UVA TTA, Virginia's LTAP
Lab #2B Plasticity and Atterberg Limits
Lab #2B Plasticity and Atterberg Limits
Published: 2016/05/19
Channel: RatnaYesuraj CR
Atterberg Limits
Atterberg Limits
Published: 2014/03/24
Channel: Kaiser Mahmood
plastic limit test
plastic limit test
Published: 2013/10/23
Channel: marftrogdor
Atterberg Limits Test
Atterberg Limits Test
Published: 2015/12/29
Channel: Building & Earth
Relative density , atterberg limits and compaction
Relative density , atterberg limits and compaction
Published: 2014/11/04
Channel: Civilium
LIQUID LIMIT DETERMINATION BY CONE PENETROMETER
LIQUID LIMIT DETERMINATION BY CONE PENETROMETER
Published: 2013/08/21
Channel: NCTEL
Plastic limit test
Plastic limit test
Published: 2016/03/16
Channel: Michael Cocjin
Atterberg Limits
Atterberg Limits
Published: 2009/10/20
Channel: geotechrocks
Atterberg limits
Atterberg limits
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Creative Engineers
Atterberg
Atterberg's Limits
Published: 2014/08/29
Channel: Jan Adrian Hernandez
Atterberg Limits (Soil Plasticity test)
Atterberg Limits (Soil Plasticity test)
Published: 2016/08/21
Channel: Numb$rs
Geotechnical Laboratory Test Collection: Plastic Limit & Liquid Limit By Using Casagrande Method
Geotechnical Laboratory Test Collection: Plastic Limit & Liquid Limit By Using Casagrande Method
Published: 2015/09/15
Channel: Dr Ng WK
Laboratory Test for Soil Consistency Limits
Laboratory Test for Soil Consistency Limits
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: Charmagne Reyes
Atterberg Limit Test
Atterberg Limit Test
Published: 2017/05/13
Channel: Bonjovert Domingo
Soil Mechanics || Soil Water Relationship || Consistency Limits || Lecture 7 || GATE || IES
Soil Mechanics || Soil Water Relationship || Consistency Limits || Lecture 7 || GATE || IES
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: APSED
Determination of Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils
Determination of Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils
Published: 2017/01/18
Channel: Carlotta Magnaye
Atternberg Limit
Atternberg Limit
Published: 2013/08/01
Channel: World Agroforestry Centre
Atterberg Limits Carleton University
Atterberg Limits Carleton University
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Creative Engineers
Atterberg Limit.m4v
Atterberg Limit.m4v
Published: 2012/02/08
Channel: brickmaj
Atterberg Limits Extra Scenes
Atterberg Limits Extra Scenes
Published: 2012/08/24
Channel: Federico Fernandez
Liquid Limit Test of Black Cotton Soil India
Liquid Limit Test of Black Cotton Soil India
Published: 2013/02/28
Channel: Danish Khan
Basic of Atterberg limit(Bangla tutorial)
Basic of Atterberg limit(Bangla tutorial)
Published: 2017/01/07
Channel: Concepta 71
practical application of atterberg limit
practical application of atterberg limit
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: Concepta 71
Atterberg Limit Tests LL and PL cut
Atterberg Limit Tests LL and PL cut
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: Farrah Eddy
Testing of Liquid Limit of soil
Testing of Liquid Limit of soil
Published: 2013/08/22
Channel: NCTEL
UTS 180,Liquid Limit Cone penetrometer,EN
UTS 180,Liquid Limit Cone penetrometer,EN
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: UTEST - Material Testing Equipment
ATTERBERG
ATTERBERG'S LIMIT GROUP HAMIEYAH
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: Siti Salasiah
Liquid limit test (Casagrande)
Liquid limit test (Casagrande)
Published: 2015/12/06
Channel: shah neyamat ullah
Atterberg Limit
Atterberg Limit
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: Mohd Amin
CVEG3133L Lab 4 Video - Atterberg Limits - Group B
CVEG3133L Lab 4 Video - Atterberg Limits - Group B
Published: 2014/05/01
Channel: Braden Davidson
Soil Mechanics Laboratory Tests  Atterberg Limits
Soil Mechanics Laboratory Tests Atterberg Limits
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: Soil Test
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Atterberg limits are a basic measure of the critical water contents of a fine-grained soil: its shrinkage limit, plastic limit, and liquid limit. As a dry, clayey soil takes on increasing amounts of water, it undergoes distinct changes in behavior and consistency. Depending on the water content of the soil, it may appear in four states: solid, semi-solid, plastic and liquid. In each state, the consistency and behavior of a soil is different and consequently so are its engineering properties. Thus, the boundary between each state can be defined based on a change in the soil's behavior. The Atterberg limits can be used to distinguish between silt and clay, and it can distinguish between different types of silts and clays. These limits were created by Albert Atterberg, a Swedish agriculturist.[1] They were later refined by Arthur Casagrande. These distinctions in soil are used in assessing the soils that are to have structures built on. Soils when wet retain water and some expand in volume. The amount of expansion is related to the ability of the soil to take in water and its structural make-up (the type of atoms present). These tests are mainly used on clayey or silty soils since these are the soils that expand and shrink due to moisture content. Clays and silts react with the water and thus change sizes and have varying shear strengths. Thus these tests are used widely in the preliminary stages of designing any structure to ensure that the soil will have the correct amount of shear strength and not too much change in volume as it expands and shrinks with different moisture contents.

As a hard, rigid solid in the dry state, soil becomes a crumbly (friable) semisolid when a certain moisture content, termed the shrinkage limit, is reached. If it is an expansive soil, this soil will also begin to swell in volume as this moisture content is exceeded. Increasing the water content beyond the soil's plastic limit will transform it into a malleable, plastic mass, which causes additional swelling. The soil will remain in this plastic state until its liquid limit is exceeded, which causes it to transform into a viscous liquid that flows when jarred.

Laboratory tests[edit]

Shrinkage limit[edit]

The shrinkage limit (SL) is the water content where further loss of moisture will not result in any more volume reduction.[2] The test to determine the shrinkage limit is ASTM International D4943. The shrinkage limit is much less commonly used than the liquid and plastic limits.

Plastic limit[edit]

The plastic limit (PL) is determined by rolling out a thread of the fine portion of a soil on a flat, non-porous surface. The procedure is defined in ASTM Standard D 4318. If the soil is at a moisture content where its behavior is plastic, this thread will retain its shape down to a very narrow diameter. The sample can then be remolded and the test repeated. As the moisture content falls due to evaporation, the thread will begin to break apart at larger diameters. The plastic limit is defined as the moisture content where the thread breaks apart at a diameter of 3.2 mm (about 1/8 inch). A soil is considered non-plastic if a thread cannot be rolled out down to 3.2 mm at any moisture possible.

Liquid limit[edit]

Casagrande cup in action

The liquid limit (LL) is conceptually defined as the water content at which the behavior of a clayey soil changes from plastic to liquid. However, the transition from plastic to liquid behavior is gradual over a range of water contents, and the shear strength of the soil is not actually zero at the liquid limit. The precise definition of the liquid limit is based on standard test procedures described below.

The original liquid limit test of Atterberg's involved mixing a pat of clay in a round-bottomed porcelain bowl of 10–12 cm diameter. A groove was cut through the pat of clay with a spatula, and the bowl was then struck many times against the palm of one hand. Casagrande subsequently standardized the apparatus and the procedures to make the measurement more repeatable. Soil is placed into the metal cup portion of the device and a groove is made down its center with a standardized tool of 13.5 millimetres (0.53 in) width. The cup is repeatedly dropped 10 mm onto a hard rubber base at a rate of 120 blows per minute, during which the groove closes up gradually as a result of the impact. The number of blows for the groove to close is recorded. The moisture content at which it takes 25 drops of the cup to cause the groove to close over a distance of 13.5 millimetres (0.53 in) is defined as the liquid limit. The test is normally run at several moisture contents, and the moisture content which requires 25 blows to close the groove is interpolated from the test results. The Liquid Limit test is defined by ASTM standard test method D 4318.[3] The test method also allows running the test at one moisture content where 20 to 30 blows are required to close the groove; then a correction factor is applied to obtain the liquid limit from the moisture content.[4]

Another method for measuring the liquid limit is the fall cone test, also called the cone penetrometer test. It is based on the measurement of penetration into the soil of a standardized cone of specific mass. Although the Casagrande test is widely used across North America, the fall cone test is much more prevalent in Europe due to being less dependent on the operator in determining the Liquid Limit.[5]

Derived limits[edit]

The values of these limits are used in a number of ways. There is also a close relationship between the limits and properties of a soil such as compressibility, permeability, and strength. This is thought to be very useful because as limit determination is relatively simple, it is more difficult to determine these other properties. Thus the Atterberg limits are not only used to identify the soil's classification, but it allows for the use of empirical correlations for some other engineering properties.

Plasticity index[edit]

The plasticity index (PI) is a measure of the plasticity of a soil. The plasticity index is the size of the range of water contents where the soil exhibits plastic properties. The PI is the difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit (PI = LL-PL). Soils with a high PI tend to be clay, those with a lower PI tend to be silt, and those with a PI of 0 (non-plastic) tend to have little or no silt or clay.

Soil descriptions based on PI[6]

  • (0)- Nonplastic
  • (<7) - Slightly plastic
  • (7-17) - Medium plastic
  • >17 - Highly plastic

Liquidity index[edit]

The liquidity index (LI) is used for scaling the natural water content of a soil sample to the limits. It can be calculated as a ratio of difference between natural water content, plastic limit, and liquid limit: LI=(W-PL)/(LL-PL) where W is the natural water content.

Consistency index[edit]

The consistency index (CI) indicates the consistency (firmness) of a soil. It is calculated as CI = (LL-W)/(LL-PI), where W is the existing water content. Soil at the liquid limit will have a consistency index of 0, while soil at the plastic limit will have a consistency index of 1.

Activity[edit]

The activity (A) of a soil is the PI divided by the percent of clay-sized particles (less than 2 μm) present. Different types of clays have different specific surface areas which controls how much wetting is required to move a soil from one phase to another such as across the liquid limit or the plastic limit. From the activity, one can predict the dominant clay type present in a soil sample. High activity signifies large volume change when wetted and large shrinkage when dried. Soils with high activity are very reactive chemically. Normally the activity of clay is between 0.75 and 1.25, and in this range clay is called normal. It is assumed that the plasticity index is approximately equal to the clay fraction (A = 1). When A is less than 0.75, it is considered inactive. When it is greater than 1.25, it is considered active.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Brief history of Swedish Soil Mechanics". Archived from the original on 2007-03-25. Retrieved 2007-01-15. 
  2. ^ "Shrinkage Limit Test" (PDF). United States Army Corps of Engineers. 
  3. ^ "ASTM D4318 - 10 Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils". ASTM. 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-18. 
  4. ^ "trid.trb.org". 
  5. ^ BS 1377 part 2
  6. ^ Sowers, 1979

References[edit]

  • Soil Physical Properties--Mechanics
  • Seed, H.B. (1967). "Fundamental Aspects of the Atterberg Limits". Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Div., 92(SM4), Retrieved from http://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=38900
  • Das, B. M. (2006). Principles of geotechnical engineering. Stamford,CT: Thomson Learning College.
  • Sowers, 1979. Introductory Soil Mechanics and Foundations: Geotechnical Engineering, 4th Ed., Macmillan, New York. (as referenced in Coduto, 1999. Geotechnical Engineering: Principles and Practices. Prentice Hall. New Jersey.)

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