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BiOLOGY (7th video) -- PLANET OF LiFE (Lucy and other Australopithecine)
BiOLOGY (7th video) -- PLANET OF LiFE (Lucy and other Australopithecine)
Published: 2011/09/04
Channel: angpangalancu
The Australopithecine Morphology Song
The Australopithecine Morphology Song
Published: 2010/11/29
Channel: ohlookitsleah
AUSTRALOPITHECINE MARCH
AUSTRALOPITHECINE MARCH
Published: 2016/04/26
Channel: Walter Jahn
(Showtime MAMAMOOXGFRIEND EP.5) MAMAOO dance in groups like  australopithecine
(Showtime MAMAMOOXGFRIEND EP.5) MAMAOO dance in groups like australopithecine
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: ALL THE K-POP
Human Evolution: Crash Course Big History #6
Human Evolution: Crash Course Big History #6
Published: 2014/11/06
Channel: CrashCourse
History Of Ancient Africa - History Documentary
History Of Ancient Africa - History Documentary
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: Value Here
Lucy, humanoids past and present, Homo Neanderthal, Erectus, bonobo, Guinness, unique, exhibit
Lucy, humanoids past and present, Homo Neanderthal, Erectus, bonobo, Guinness, unique, exhibit
Published: 2013/10/12
Channel: WinningVid
Walking With Lucy | California Academy of Sciences
Walking With Lucy | California Academy of Sciences
Published: 2013/09/19
Channel: California Academy of Sciences
Who is Lucy the Australopithecus? - Google Doodle for her 41st anniversary
Who is Lucy the Australopithecus? - Google Doodle for her 41st anniversary
Published: 2015/11/24
Channel: One Minute Tech News
Australopithecus: Definition, Characteristics & Evolution
Australopithecus: Definition, Characteristics & Evolution
Published: 2015/12/05
Channel: Haytham Bakroun
Is "Lucy" the Australopithecine an Ape-to-Human Transition?
Is "Lucy" the Australopithecine an Ape-to-Human Transition?
Published: 2017/01/01
Channel: Genesis Apologetics
Laboratory session with robust australopithecines
Laboratory session with robust australopithecines
Published: 2014/06/24
Channel: John Hawks
Australopithecine Meaning
Australopithecine Meaning
Published: 2015/05/03
Channel: ADictionary
Australopithecine Meaning
Australopithecine Meaning
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: ADictionary
Australopithecus Robustus 2
Australopithecus Robustus 2
Published: 2014/05/17
Channel: bogdan petry
Australopithecine species
Australopithecine species
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: ProfCahoon
Characteristics of Australopithecine- Anthropology
Characteristics of Australopithecine- Anthropology
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: King of Mnemonics
In search of human origins episode 1: The story of Lucy (PBS Nova, 1994)
In search of human origins episode 1: The story of Lucy (PBS Nova, 1994)
Published: 2013/02/03
Channel: JoeCoder7
7 Facts about Chad
7 Facts about Chad
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: Sebastian Ioan
Australopithecine Music Video
Australopithecine Music Video
Published: 2010/01/04
Channel: Hoot Hoots
The Son of Adam Rediscovered - Abel, the Australopithecine
The Son of Adam Rediscovered - Abel, the Australopithecine
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Cennathis
In Search Of... The Missing Link / Lucy / Bigfoot
In Search Of... The Missing Link / Lucy / Bigfoot
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Documentary Movies & More
Lucy (Australopithecine) and Dating Methods - what evolutionists will never tell you (mirror).flv
Lucy (Australopithecine) and Dating Methods - what evolutionists will never tell you (mirror).flv
Published: 2013/02/14
Channel: chris obama
Lessons of Homo naledi
Lessons of Homo naledi
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Cennathis
Australopithecine
Australopithecine
Published: 2012/07/01
Channel: Ashley Zelinskie
The Runs "My Girlfriend
The Runs "My Girlfriend's an Australopithecine"
Published: 2008/11/29
Channel: BayAreaMusicLens
AUSTRALOPITHECINE - HOW TO PRONOUNCE IT!?
AUSTRALOPITHECINE - HOW TO PRONOUNCE IT!?
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: WordBox
CARTA: Early Hominids: Ronald Clarke - "Little Foot", Big Find - A Skeleton of Australopithecus
CARTA: Early Hominids: Ronald Clarke - "Little Foot", Big Find - A Skeleton of Australopithecus
Published: 2011/03/31
Channel: University of California Television (UCTV)
How to Pronounce Australopithecine
How to Pronounce Australopithecine
Published: 2015/01/26
Channel: Emma Saying
CARTA: Early Hominids: Hominid Skulls; The Discovery of Little Foot
CARTA: Early Hominids: Hominid Skulls; The Discovery of Little Foot
Published: 2011/02/25
Channel: University of California Television (UCTV)
How to say "australopithecine"! (High Quality Voices)
How to say "australopithecine"! (High Quality Voices)
Published: 2017/01/25
Channel: WordBox
Australopithecine - sort of
Australopithecine - sort of
Published: 2011/04/28
Channel: Brunoxyz
Lecture 18 Gracile Australopithecines
Lecture 18 Gracile Australopithecines
Published: 2014/03/28
Channel: Sharon Gursky
How to Pronounce Australopithecine
How to Pronounce Australopithecine
Published: 2015/02/27
Channel: Pronunciation Guide
Lesson 13 - Early Hominid Evolution:  The Australopithecines
Lesson 13 - Early Hominid Evolution: The Australopithecines
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: Rachel Mitchell
HOMINID FAMILY TREE 5  ROBUST AUSTRALOPITHECINES
HOMINID FAMILY TREE 5 ROBUST AUSTRALOPITHECINES
Published: 2013/12/01
Channel: Walter Jahn
Paranthropus robustus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Paranthropus robustus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Wiz Science™
How to Pronounce Australopithecine
How to Pronounce Australopithecine
Published: 2015/02/24
Channel: Pronunciation Guide
Lesson 12 - Early Hominid Evolution:  The Pre-Australopithecines
Lesson 12 - Early Hominid Evolution: The Pre-Australopithecines
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: Rachel Mitchell
How to Pronounce Australopithecine
How to Pronounce Australopithecine
Published: 2015/08/06
Channel: Dictionary Voice
Paranthropus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Paranthropus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: Wiz Science™
How to pronounce australopithecine
How to pronounce australopithecine
Published: 2017/02/04
Channel: How to pronounce
***Who is Lucy the Australopithecus **New Google Doodle Honors
***Who is Lucy the Australopithecus **New Google Doodle Honors
Published: 2015/11/24
Channel: Today Google Doodle
Finding Lucy
Finding Lucy
Published: 2010/01/30
Channel: SaxophoneGalaxy
Australopithecines
Australopithecines
Published: 2016/11/15
Channel: Autumn Cahoon
HOMINID FAMILY TREE 3  GRACILE AUSTRALOPITHECINES
HOMINID FAMILY TREE 3 GRACILE AUSTRALOPITHECINES
Published: 2013/12/01
Channel: Walter Jahn
Ambassador Rasool
Ambassador Rasool's Remarks at Cabell Library
Published: 2012/09/10
Channel: TheCollegeVCU
CHEWING IN ROBUST AUSTRALOPITHECINES
CHEWING IN ROBUST AUSTRALOPITHECINES
Published: 2016/04/26
Channel: Walter Jahn
Did Fossil Lucy Walk, Climb, or Both?
Did Fossil Lucy Walk, Climb, or Both?
Published: 2012/12/21
Channel: Dartmouth
CARTA: Culture-Gene Interactions: Gregory Wray-Genomic Basis for Dietary Shifts
CARTA: Culture-Gene Interactions: Gregory Wray-Genomic Basis for Dietary Shifts
Published: 2013/02/14
Channel: University of California Television (UCTV)
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Australopithecines
Temporal range: PliocenePleistocene5.6–1.2 Ma
Australopithecus sediba.JPG
Australopithecus sediba
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Family: Hominidae
Tribe: Hominini
Subtribe: Australopithecina
Gregory & Hellman, 1939
Type species
Australopithecus africanus
Dart, 1925
Genera

Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus,[2] Ardipithecus,[2] and Praeanthropus.[3] All these related species are now sometimes collectively classified as a subtribe of the Hominini tribe called Australopithecina.[4][5] They are the extinct, close relatives of humans and, with the extant genus Homo, comprise the human clade. Members of the human clade, i.e. the Hominini after the split from the chimpanzees, are now called homonina[6] (see Hominidae; terms "hominids" and hominins).

The terms australopithecine, et al., come from a former classification as members of a distinct subfamily, the Australopithecinae.[7] Members of Australopithecus are sometimes referred to as the gracile australopithecines, while Paranthropus are called the "robust australopithecines".[8][9]

The australopithecines occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene era and were bipedal, and they were dentally similar to humans, but with a brain size not much larger than that of modern apes, with lesser encephalization than in the genus Homo.[10] Humans (genus Homo) may have descended from australopithecine ancestors and the genus Ardipithecus is a possible ancestor of the australopithecines.[9]

Phylogeny[edit]

Phylogeny of subtribe Australopithecina according to Briggs & Crowther 2008, p. 124.

Physical characteristics[edit]

The post-cranial remains of australopithecines show they were adapted to bipedal locomotion, but did not walk identically to humans. They have a high brachial index (forearm/upper arm ratio) when compared to other hominins, and they exhibit greater sexual dimorphism than members of Homo or Pan but less so than Gorilla or Pongo. It is thought that they averaged heights of 1.2–1.5 metres (3.9–4.9 ft) and weighed between 30 and 55 kilograms (66 and 121 lb). The brain size may have been 350 cc to 600 cc. The postcanines (the teeth behind the canines) were relatively large, and had more enamel compared to contemporary apes and humans, whereas the incisors and canines were relatively small, and there was little difference between the males' and females' canines compared to modern apes.[9]

Relation to Homo[edit]

Most scientists maintain that one of the australopithecine species evolved into the Homo genus in Africa around two million years ago. However, there is no consensus on which species:

"Determining which species of australopithecine (if any) is ancestral to the genus Homo is a question that is a top priority for many paleoanthropologists, but one that will likely elude any conclusive answers for years to come. Nearly every possible species has been suggested as a likely candidate, but none are overwhelmingly convincing. Presently, it appears that A. garhi has the potential to occupy this coveted place in paleoanthropology, but the lack of fossil evidence is a serious problem. Another problem presents itself in the fact that it has been very difficult to assess which hominid [now "hominin"] represents the first member of the genus Homo. Without knowing this, it is not possible to determine which species of australopithecine may have been ancestral to Homo."[11]

Marc Verhaegen has argued that an australopithecine species could have also been ancestral to the Pan genus (i.e. chimpanzees).[12]

Asian australopithecines[edit]

A minority held viewpoint among palaeoanthropologists is that australopithecines moved outside of Africa. A notable proponent of this theory is Jens Lorenz Franzen, formerly Head of Paleoanthropology at the Research Institute Senckenberg. Franzen argues that robust australopithecines had reached not only Indonesia, as Meganthropus, but also China:

"In this way we arrive at the conclusion that the recognition of australopithecines in Asia would not confuse but could help to clarify the early evolution of hominids ["hominins"] on that continent. This concept would explain the scanty remains from Java and China as relic of an Asian offshoot of an early radiation of Australopithecus, which was followed much later by an [African] immigration of Homo erectus, and finally became extinct after a period of coexistence."[13]

In 1957, an Early Pleistocene Chinese fossil tooth of unknown province was described as resembling P. robustus. Three fossilized molars from Jianshi, China (Longgudong Cave) were later identified as belonging to an Australopithecus species (Gao, 1975). However further examination questioned this interpretation; Zhang (1984) argued the Jianshi teeth and unidentified tooth belong to H. erectus. Liu et al. (2010) also dispute the Jianshi-australopithecine link and argue the Jianshi molars fall within the range of Homo erectus:

"No marked difference in dental crown shape is shown between the Jianshi hominin and other Chinese Homo erectus, and there is also no evidence in support of the Jianshi hominin's closeness to Australopithecus."

But, Wolpoff (1999) notes that in China "persistent claims of australopithecine or australopithecine-like remains continue".

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Stanford & 2012 p.
  2. ^ a b Wood 2010.
  3. ^ Cela-Conde & Ayala 2003.
  4. ^ Wood & Richmond 2000.
  5. ^ Briggs & Crowther 2008, p. 124.
  6. ^ "GEOL 204 The Fossil Record: The Scatterlings of Africa: the Origins of Humanity". www.geol.umd.edu. Retrieved 2016-12-24. 
  7. ^ Kottak 2004.
  8. ^ Mai, Owl & Kersting 2005.
  9. ^ a b c Szpak, P. (2007). "Evolution of the Australopithecines". Tree of Life. 
  10. ^ Mai, Owl & Kersting 2005, p. 45.
  11. ^ Szpak, 2007.
  12. ^ Verhaegen, M (1990). "African ape ancestry". Human Evolution. 5 (3): 295–297. doi:10.1007/BF02437246. 
  13. ^ Franzen, 1985.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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