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President Obama on Authorization for Use of Military Force against ISIS (C-SPAN)
President Obama on Authorization for Use of Military Force against ISIS (C-SPAN)
Published: 2015/02/12
Channel: C-SPAN
Fact First: What is the Authorization for use of military force? #AUMF #Facts #Breaking
Fact First: What is the Authorization for use of military force? #AUMF #Facts #Breaking
Published: 2017/10/25
Channel: Almutaz Bur News Network
Day 1 of the Afghan Invasion or Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists
Day 1 of the Afghan Invasion or Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists
Published: 2014/04/08
Channel: 99thDimension
From the Vault: 2002 Authorization for Military Force in Iraq
From the Vault: 2002 Authorization for Military Force in Iraq
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: Washington Week
Inside the AUMF: America
Inside the AUMF: America's answer to terrorism
Published: 2013/05/29
Channel: RT America
President’s Request for the Re-Authorization for Use of Military Force against ISIS
President’s Request for the Re-Authorization for Use of Military Force against ISIS
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: TheRealNews
Rep. Lee Discussing Her Vote Against the Authorization to Use Military Force in Afghanistan
Rep. Lee Discussing Her Vote Against the Authorization to Use Military Force in Afghanistan
Published: 2012/09/14
Channel: Rep. Barbara Lee
President Obama on the Authorization for Use of Military Force.
President Obama on the Authorization for Use of Military Force.
Published: 2015/11/03
Channel: Trump New
Calls Grow for New Authorization for War on Terror
Calls Grow for New Authorization for War on Terror
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: VOA News
Sen. Flake pushes for new authorization for use of military force
Sen. Flake pushes for new authorization for use of military force
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: azfamily powered by 3TV & CBS5AZ
The New Authorization AUMF - Authorization For Use of Military Force
The New Authorization AUMF - Authorization For Use of Military Force
Published: 2016/01/23
Channel: GMSShieldOFaith
Sherman Discusses Authorization for the Use of Military Force and Current Terrorist Threats
Sherman Discusses Authorization for the Use of Military Force and Current Terrorist Threats
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: Congressman Brad Sherman
Bonnie Watson Coleman
Bonnie Watson Coleman's Statement on The Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF)
Published: 2017/05/22
Channel: Congresswoman Bonnie Watson Coleman
Obama Plans New Authorization for Military Force Against Islamic State
Obama Plans New Authorization for Military Force Against Islamic State
Published: 2014/11/05
Channel: Wochit News
Authorization for Use of Military Use and ISIS
Authorization for Use of Military Use and ISIS
Published: 2014/11/18
Channel: U.S. Representative Mike Quigley
Rep. Scott at HASC hearing on Proposed Authorization to Use Military Force in Syria
Rep. Scott at HASC hearing on Proposed Authorization to Use Military Force in Syria
Published: 2013/09/10
Channel: RepAustinScott
Public Forum: Presidential Military Authorization
Public Forum: Presidential Military Authorization
Published: 2018/02/14
Channel: Bill of Rights Institute
Hearing: Authorization for the Use of Military Force and Current Terrorist Threats (EventID=106315)
Hearing: Authorization for the Use of Military Force and Current Terrorist Threats (EventID=106315)
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: House Foreign Affairs Committee
Obama Asks Congress To Declare War On Islamic State | Authorization for Military Force Against ISIS
Obama Asks Congress To Declare War On Islamic State | Authorization for Military Force Against ISIS
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: gorapapo TV
Sens. Flake, Kaine Call on Congress to Authorize Use of Military Force Against ISIL
Sens. Flake, Kaine Call on Congress to Authorize Use of Military Force Against ISIL
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: Sen. Jeff Flake
Graham on Obama
Graham on Obama's Proposal to Congress for Authorization to Use Military Force Against ISIS
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: USSenLindseyGraham
WATCH: Tillerson, Mattis testify before Senate Foreign Relations Committee
WATCH: Tillerson, Mattis testify before Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Published: 2017/10/30
Channel: PBS NewsHour
Rep. Barbara Lee: Repeal 9/11 Authorization for Use of Force to Cancel Blank Check for Endless War
Rep. Barbara Lee: Repeal 9/11 Authorization for Use of Force to Cancel Blank Check for Endless War
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Democracy Now!
Congress to Rein in AUMF
Congress to Rein in AUMF's "Associated Forces"
Published: 2013/05/31
Channel: RT America
Authorization for Use of Military Force in Syria   Marco Rubio on Syrian Allegiances
Authorization for Use of Military Force in Syria Marco Rubio on Syrian Allegiances
Published: 2013/09/04
Channel: BigDaddyCF
Hearing: “Authorization for the Use of Military Force and Current Terrorist Threats”
Hearing: “Authorization for the Use of Military Force and Current Terrorist Threats”
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: HFACDemocrats
What is an AUMF?
What is an AUMF?
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: Human Rights First
AUMF: Reasserting the Role of Congress
AUMF: Reasserting the Role of Congress
Published: 2013/07/16
Channel: WoodrowWilsonCenter
Principal Deputy Legal Adviser McLeod Discusses Authorization for Use of Military Force
Principal Deputy Legal Adviser McLeod Discusses Authorization for Use of Military Force
Published: 2014/05/21
Channel: U.S. Department of State
7.25.17. RM Engel Remarks on Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF)
7.25.17. RM Engel Remarks on Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF)
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: HFACDemocrats
Senator Johnson speaking on the authorization of the use of military force against ISIS.
Senator Johnson speaking on the authorization of the use of military force against ISIS.
Published: 2014/12/11
Channel: SenatorRonJohnson
Pres Obama Urges Congress To Authorize-Use Of Military Force - America
Pres Obama Urges Congress To Authorize-Use Of Military Force - America's News HQ
Published: 2015/02/15
Channel: MTPAmerica
Sen. Flake Calls On Colleagues To Support Updated AUMF
Sen. Flake Calls On Colleagues To Support Updated AUMF
Published: 2017/11/08
Channel: Sen. Jeff Flake
Rep. Lee Discusses 2001 AUMF on 16th Anniversary of Historic Vote
Rep. Lee Discusses 2001 AUMF on 16th Anniversary of Historic Vote
Published: 2017/09/13
Channel: Rep. Barbara Lee
Obama urges Congress to Authorize War on ISIL Terror
Obama urges Congress to Authorize War on ISIL Terror
Published: 2015/02/18
Channel: Public Domain TV
Few 3 - Authorization of Use of Force vs. Declaration of War
Few 3 - Authorization of Use of Force vs. Declaration of War
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Justin Alexander
Congressman Drafts Bill To End The War On Terror
Congressman Drafts Bill To End The War On Terror
Published: 2013/06/12
Channel: Secular Talk
AUMF Video Medely
AUMF Video Medely
Published: 2015/10/09
Channel: Mac McCrary
What lawmakers think of Obama’s Islamic State resolution
What lawmakers think of Obama’s Islamic State resolution
Published: 2015/02/12
Channel: PBS NewsHour
The War on Terror: Time for Congress to play a role?
The War on Terror: Time for Congress to play a role?
Published: 2013/07/16
Channel: WoodrowWilsonCenter
Rep. Cole: "A new AUMF is necessary" (Part 1)
Rep. Cole: "A new AUMF is necessary" (Part 1)
Published: 2017/07/17
Channel: Rep. Tom Cole
State of the Union: Obama Calls on Congress to Authorize War Against ISIS
State of the Union: Obama Calls on Congress to Authorize War Against ISIS
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: Wall Street Journal
Wampler 3 - Authorization of Use of Force vs. Declaration of War
Wampler 3 - Authorization of Use of Force vs. Declaration of War
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Justin Alexander
Ron Paul
Ron Paul's Texas Straight Talk 2/16/15: Obama's Force Authorization: Blank Check for War W
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: kerdon labne
White House: AUMF is Congress
White House: AUMF is Congress' responsibility
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: The Washington Examiner
Secretary Tillerson on authorizations for the use of military force
Secretary Tillerson on authorizations for the use of military force
Published: 2017/10/31
Channel: Eurovision Social Newswire
Chairman Menendez
Chairman Menendez's Opening Remarks at AUMF Hearing
Published: 2014/05/21
Channel: SenatorMenendezNJ
Secretaries Tillerson, Mattis testify before lawmakers on military force. Oct 30, 2017 update 2017
Secretaries Tillerson, Mattis testify before lawmakers on military force. Oct 30, 2017 update 2017
Published: 2017/12/22
Channel: Anvan Lee
New efforts for congressional review of AUMF
New efforts for congressional review of AUMF
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Fox News
Kerry Requests Military Authorization Against ISIS | NowThis
Kerry Requests Military Authorization Against ISIS | NowThis
Published: 2014/12/10
Channel: NowThis News
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), Pub. L. 107-40, codified at 115 Stat. 224 and passed as S.J.Res. 23 by the United States Congress on September 14, 2001, authorizes the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001 and any "associated forces". The authorization granted the President the authority to use all "necessary and appropriate force" against those whom he determined "planned, authorized, committed or aided" the September 11th attacks, or who harbored said persons or groups.

The AUMF was signed by President George W. Bush on September 18, 2001. As of December 2016, the Office of the President published a brief interpreting the AUMF as providing Congressional authorization for the use of force against al-Qaeda and other militant groups.[1][2]

The only representative to vote against the Authorization in 2001 was Barbara Lee, who has consistently criticized it since for being a blank check giving the government unlimited powers to wage war without debate.[3] Lee has initiated several attempts to repeal the authorization since. On June 29, 2017, a group of libertarian Republicans and Democrats on the House Appropriations Committee approved Lee’s amendment to end the 2001 authorization within 240 days, which would have forced debate on a replacement authorization. This amendment was removed from the bill by the Rules Committee so the AUMF remains in effect.[4][5] Business Insider has reported that the AUMF has been used to allow military action in Afghanistan, the Philippines, Georgia, Yemen, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Iraq, and Somalia.[6]

Text of the AUMF[edit]

Preamble

Joint Resolution

To authorize the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the recent attacks launched against the United States.

Whereas, on September 11, 2001, acts of treacherous violence were committed against the United States and its citizens; and
Whereas, such acts render it both necessary and appropriate that the United States exercise its rights to self-defense and to protect United States citizens both at home and abroad; and
Whereas, in light of the threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States posed by these grave acts of violence; and
Whereas, such acts continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States; and
Whereas, the President has authority under the Constitution to take action to deter and prevent acts of international terrorism against the United States: Now, therefore, be it
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

Section 1 – Short Title

This joint resolution may be cited as the 'Authorization for Use of Military Force'.

Section 2 – Authorization For Use of United States Armed Forces

(a) IN GENERAL- That the President is authorized to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons.

(b) War Powers Resolution Requirements-

(1) SPECIFIC STATUTORY AUTHORIZATION- Consistent with section 8(a)(1) of the War Powers Resolution, the Congress declares that this section is intended to constitute specific statutory authorization within the meaning of section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution.
(2) APPLICABILITY OF OTHER REQUIREMENTS- Nothing in this resolution supersedes any requirement of the War Powers Resolution.

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Vice President of the United States and

President of the Senate.

Congressional votes[edit]

An initial draft of Senate Joint Resolution 23 included language granting the power "to deter and preempt any future acts of terrorism or aggression against the United States.” Members were concerned that this would provide "a blank check to go anywhere, anytime, against anyone the Bush administration or any subsequent administration deemed capable of carrying out an attack" and the language was removed.[7] Constitutional law specialist professor Bruce Ackerman of Yale Law School has said that the Obama Administration's use of the AUMF has so far overstepped the authorized powers of the final, enacted version of the bill as to more closely resemble the capabilities named in this draft text rejected by Congress.[8]

Senate[edit]

On September 14, 2001 Senate Joint Resolution 23 passed in the Senate by roll call vote. The totals in the Senate were: 98 Ayes, 0 Nays, 2 Present/Not Voting (Senators Larry Craig, R–ID, and Jesse Helms, R–NC).

House of Representatives[edit]

On September 14, 2001 the House passed House Joint Resolution 64. The totals in the House of Representatives were 420 ayes, 1 nay and 10 not voting. The sole nay vote was by Barbara Lee, D-CA.[9] Lee was the only member of either house of Congress to vote against the bill.[10]

Lee opposed the wording of the AUMF, not the action it represented. She believed that a response was necessary but feared the vagueness of the document was similar to the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. The Tonkin act was repealed in 1970 amid discussion of its facilitation of the Vietnam war and its potential to enable a new incursion in Cambodia.[11]

Citations in law[edit]

Reason: Guantanamo Bay has a population that is severely skewed, asimetric, and there are no expectations of neutrality, therefore constituting a competent tribunal on Guantanamo Bay would be impossible.

Use by the DOD[edit]

The AUMF has also been cited by a wide variety of US officials as justification for continuing US military actions all over the world. Often the phrases "Al-Qaeda and associated forces" or "affiliated forces" have been used by these officials. However, that phrase does not appear in the AUMF.[12]

According to a report by the Congressional Research Service, published May 11, 2016, at that time the 2001 AUMF had been cited 37 times in connection with actions in 14 countries and on the high seas. The report stated that "Of the 37 occurrences, 18 were made during the Bush Administration, and 19 have been made during the Obama Administration." The countries that were mentioned in the report included Afghanistan, Cuba (Guantanamo Bay), Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Iraq, Kenya, Libya, Philippines, Somalia, Syria and Yemen. [13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Report on the Legal and Policy Frameworks Guiding the United States' Use of Military Force and Related National Security Operations" (PDF). The White House. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  2. ^ Wong, Scott (13 April 2015). "GOP: Obama war request is dead". The Hill. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  3. ^ Herb, Jeremy; Walsh, Deirdre. "House panel votes to repeal war authorization for fight against ISIS and al Qaeda". CNN. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  4. ^ Desiderio, Andrew (2017-06-29). "House Committee Approves Repeal of 2001 Military Authorization". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2017-07-20. 
  5. ^ Bertuca, Tony (2017-07-19). "UMF repeal stripped from defense appropriations bill". Inside Defense. Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  6. ^ Woody, Christopher. "Congress may repeal the post-9/11 act the US military used to justify the fight against ISIS". Business Insider. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  7. ^ Erik, Luna; McCormack, Wayne (2015), Understanding the Law of Terrorism, New Providence, New Jersey: LexisNexis, p. 413, ISBN 9780769849072, OCLC 893668978 
  8. ^ Mian, Rashed (2016-09-14). "2001 AUMF: The Controversial Truth Behind America's Never-Ending War". Long Island Press. Morey Publishing, LLC. Archived from the original on 2016-10-11. Retrieved 2016-10-11. 
  9. ^ Polner, Murray (2010-03-01) Left Behind, The American Conservative
  10. ^ Final Vote Results for Roll Call 342, U.S. House of Representatives. Accessed 7 April 2007.
  11. ^ "GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION". history.com. The History Channel. 
  12. ^ NPR, 4/18/14. Radiolab. "60 Words" In collaboration with Buzzfeed. Reporter, Gregory Johnsen.
  13. ^ Matthew Weed (May 11, 2016). "Congressional Research Service Report" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved July 21, 2017. 

External links[edit]

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