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President’s Request for the Re-Authorization for Use of Military Force against ISIS
President’s Request for the Re-Authorization for Use of Military Force against ISIS
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: TheRealNews
Updating the AUMF (Authorization to Use Military Force): Will Congress Act?
Updating the AUMF (Authorization to Use Military Force): Will Congress Act?
Published: 2017/07/27
Channel: WoodrowWilsonCenter
Day 1 of the Afghan Invasion or Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists
Day 1 of the Afghan Invasion or Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists
Published: 2014/04/08
Channel: 99thDimension
Statement on Request for an "Authorization for Use of Military Force" against Islamic State
Statement on Request for an "Authorization for Use of Military Force" against Islamic State
Published: 2015/02/12
Channel: McClintockCA04
President Obama on Authorization for Use of Military Force against ISIS (C-SPAN)
President Obama on Authorization for Use of Military Force against ISIS (C-SPAN)
Published: 2015/02/12
Channel: C-SPAN
Senate Foreign Relations Hearing on Authorization for use of Military Force After Ir
Senate Foreign Relations Hearing on Authorization for use of Military Force After Ir
Published: 2014/05/31
Channel: chamberlinp
Rep. Lee Discussing Her Vote Against the Authorization to Use Military Force in Afghanistan
Rep. Lee Discussing Her Vote Against the Authorization to Use Military Force in Afghanistan
Published: 2012/09/14
Channel: Rep. Barbara Lee
Experts Tell Senate Hearing NEW Authorization Of Military Force Needed For Military Action In Syria
Experts Tell Senate Hearing NEW Authorization Of Military Force Needed For Military Action In Syria
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: wwwMOXNEWScom
7.25.17. RM Engel Remarks on Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF)
7.25.17. RM Engel Remarks on Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF)
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: HFACDemocrats
Obama addresses nation on Authorization for the Use of Military Force request to Congress
Obama addresses nation on Authorization for the Use of Military Force request to Congress
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: Egberto Willies
Hearing: “Authorization for the Use of Military Force and Current Terrorist Threats”
Hearing: “Authorization for the Use of Military Force and Current Terrorist Threats”
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: HFACDemocrats
President Obama on the Authorization for Use of Military Force.
President Obama on the Authorization for Use of Military Force.
Published: 2015/11/03
Channel: Trump New
Sherman Discusses Authorization for the Use of Military Force and Current Terrorist Threats
Sherman Discusses Authorization for the Use of Military Force and Current Terrorist Threats
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: Congressman Brad Sherman
S.J.Res.26 - Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Leva
S.J.Res.26 - Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Leva
Published: 2016/03/26
Channel: 4USXUS®
The New Authorization AUMF - Authorization For Use of Military Force
The New Authorization AUMF - Authorization For Use of Military Force
Published: 2016/01/23
Channel: GMSShieldOFaith
Tom Votes Against Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF) in Syria
Tom Votes Against Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF) in Syria
Published: 2013/09/04
Channel: SenatorTomUdall
President Obama’s Request For Authorization To Use Military Force Against ISIS
President Obama’s Request For Authorization To Use Military Force Against ISIS
Published: 2015/03/12
Channel: CSPANJUNKIEd0tORG
Obama speaks military force authorization
Obama speaks military force authorization
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: Washington Post
From the Vault: 2002 Authorization for Military Force in Iraq
From the Vault: 2002 Authorization for Military Force in Iraq
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: Washington Week
Rep. Barbara Lee: Repeal 9/11 Authorization for Use of Force to Cancel Blank Check for Endless War
Rep. Barbara Lee: Repeal 9/11 Authorization for Use of Force to Cancel Blank Check for Endless War
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Democracy Now!
Inside the AUMF: America
Inside the AUMF: America's answer to terrorism
Published: 2013/05/29
Channel: RT America
Authorization for Use of Military Force: Will Congress Step Up to the Plate?
Authorization for Use of Military Force: Will Congress Step Up to the Plate?
Published: 2014/11/21
Channel: WoodrowWilsonCenter
Obama Asks Congress To Declare War On Islamic State | Authorization for Military Force Against ISIS
Obama Asks Congress To Declare War On Islamic State | Authorization for Military Force Against ISIS
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: gorapapo TV
Sen. Nelson on Hardball discussing the authorization of military force against ISIS
Sen. Nelson on Hardball discussing the authorization of military force against ISIS
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: SenBillNelson
Congressman Forbes debates the authorization to use military force in the war on terror
Congressman Forbes debates the authorization to use military force in the war on terror
Published: 2011/05/26
Channel: Congressman Randy Forbes
Graham on Obama
Graham on Obama's Proposal to Congress for Authorization to Use Military Force Against ISIS
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: USSenLindseyGraham
Senator Murphy Delivers Remarks on President
Senator Murphy Delivers Remarks on President's Request for Authorization of Military Force
Published: 2015/02/12
Channel: Senator Chris Murphy
Corker Renews Call for Updating 9/11 Authorization for Use of Military Force
Corker Renews Call for Updating 9/11 Authorization for Use of Military Force
Published: 2014/05/23
Channel: senatorcorker
Rubio On AUMF: Congress Must Authorize A Use Of Force Sufficient To Defeat ISIL
Rubio On AUMF: Congress Must Authorize A Use Of Force Sufficient To Defeat ISIL
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: SenatorMarcoRubio
Graham Questions Military Leaders on Use of Military Force
Graham Questions Military Leaders on Use of Military Force
Published: 2013/05/16
Channel: USSenLindseyGraham
Obama Plans New Authorization for Military Force Against Islamic State
Obama Plans New Authorization for Military Force Against Islamic State
Published: 2014/11/05
Channel: Wochit News
Barbara Lee
Barbara Lee's 9/14/01 Speech
Published: 2007/09/12
Channel: OneVoicePAC
Senator Rand Paul on America
Senator Rand Paul on America's unconstitutional war AUMF
Published: 2017/09/15
Channel: Political LiveStream
AUMF: Reasserting the Role of Congress
AUMF: Reasserting the Role of Congress
Published: 2013/07/16
Channel: WoodrowWilsonCenter
Sen. Tim Kaine on Authorizing Military Force to Fight ISIS | The Daily Signal
Sen. Tim Kaine on Authorizing Military Force to Fight ISIS | The Daily Signal
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: The Daily Signal
US Rep Adam Schiff (D) on the Authorization To Use Military Force (AUMF)
US Rep Adam Schiff (D) on the Authorization To Use Military Force (AUMF)
Published: 2016/07/30
Channel: The Aspen Institute
Bonnie Watson Coleman
Bonnie Watson Coleman's Statement on The Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF)
Published: 2017/05/22
Channel: Congresswoman Bonnie Watson Coleman
President Obama Asks For Authorization To Use Force Against ISIS
President Obama Asks For Authorization To Use Force Against ISIS
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: CBS New York
War Authority
War Authority
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: Matthew Palmer
McCAIN ON SENATE FLOOR ON AUMF AMENDMENT TO NDAA 9-13-17
McCAIN ON SENATE FLOOR ON AUMF AMENDMENT TO NDAA 9-13-17
Published: 2017/09/13
Channel: SenatorJohnMcCain
President Obama Delivers a Statement on ISIL
President Obama Delivers a Statement on ISIL
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: The Obama White House
SEN RAND PAUL
SEN RAND PAUL'S [R-KY] EFFORTS TO SUNSET AUMF [AUTHORIZATION TO USE MILITARY FORCE]
Published: 2017/09/16
Channel: McQueenPress
GOP congressman upset that Jews are not mentioned in AUMF
GOP congressman upset that Jews are not mentioned in AUMF
Published: 2015/02/12
Channel: CNN
White House: Islamic State authorization of force language coming this week
White House: Islamic State authorization of force language coming this week
Published: 2015/02/10
Channel: The Washington Examiner
Sen. Flake pushes for new authorization for use of military force
Sen. Flake pushes for new authorization for use of military force
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: azfamily powered by 3TV & CBS5AZ
Obama Calls for ISIS AUMF
Obama Calls for ISIS AUMF
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: Roll Call
AUMF: How America Codified Endless War | Brainwash Update
AUMF: How America Codified Endless War | Brainwash Update
Published: 2013/09/17
Channel: breakingtheset
Action Against ISIS: Congress Reviews AUMF
Action Against ISIS: Congress Reviews AUMF
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: Richard French
SECDEF Urges Congress to Enact AUMF
SECDEF Urges Congress to Enact AUMF
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: DoD News
HASC Q&A - Ten Years After the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force
HASC Q&A - Ten Years After the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force
Published: 2011/07/26
Channel: Colleen Hanabusa
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), Pub. L. 107-40, codified at 115 Stat. 224 and passed as S.J.Res. 23 by the United States Congress on September 14, 2001, authorizes the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001 and any "associated forces". The authorization granted the President the authority to use all "necessary and appropriate force" against those whom he determined "planned, authorized, committed or aided" the September 11th attacks, or who harbored said persons or groups.

The AUMF was signed by President George W. Bush on September 18, 2001. As of December 2016, the Office of the President published a brief interpreting the AUMF as providing Congressional authorization for the use of force against al-Qaeda and other Islamic militant groups.[1][2]

The only representative to vote against the Authorization in 2001 was Barbara Lee, who has consistently criticised it since for being a blank check giving the government unlimited powers to wage war without debate.[3] Lee has initiated several attempts to repeal the authorization since. On June 29, 2017, a group of libertarian Republicans and Democrats on the House Appropriations Committee approved Lee’s amendment to end the 2001 authorization within 240 days, which would have forced debate on a replacement authorization. This amendment was removed from the bill by the Rules Committee so the AUMF remains in effect.[4][5] Business Insider has reported that the AUMF has been used to allow military action in Afghanistan, the Philippines, Georgia, Yemen, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Iraq, and Somalia.[6]

Text of the AUMF[edit]

Preamble

Joint Resolution

To authorize the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the recent attacks launched against the United States.

Whereas, on September 11, 2001, acts of treacherous violence were committed against the United States and its citizens; and
Whereas, such acts render it both necessary and appropriate that the United States exercise its rights to self-defense and to protect United States citizens both at home and abroad; and
Whereas, in light of the threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States posed by these grave acts of violence; and
Whereas, such acts continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States; and
Whereas, the President has authority under the Constitution to take action to deter and prevent acts of international terrorism against the United States: Now, therefore, be it
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

Section 1 – Short Title

This joint resolution may be cited as the 'Authorization for Use of Military Force'.

Section 2 – Authorization For Use of United States Armed Forces

(a) IN GENERAL- That the President is authorized to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons.

(b) War Powers Resolution Requirements-

(1) SPECIFIC STATUTORY AUTHORIZATION- Consistent with section 8(a)(1) of the War Powers Resolution, the Congress declares that this section is intended to constitute specific statutory authorization within the meaning of section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution.
(2) APPLICABILITY OF OTHER REQUIREMENTS- Nothing in this resolution supersedes any requirement of the War Powers Resolution.

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Vice President of the United States and

President of the Senate.

Congressional votes[edit]

An initial draft of Senate Joint Resolution 23 included language granting the power "to deter and preempt any future acts of terrorism or aggression against the United States.” Members were concerned that this would provide "a blank check to go anywhere, anytime, against anyone the Bush administration or any subsequent administration deemed capable of carrying out an attack" and the language was removed.[7] Constitutional law specialist professor Bruce Ackerman of Yale Law School has said that the Obama Administration's use of the AUMF has so far overstepped the authorized powers of the final, enacted version of the bill as to more closely resemble the capabilities named in this draft text rejected by Congress.[8]

Senate[edit]

On September 14, 2001 Senate Joint Resolution 23 passed in the Senate by roll call vote. The totals in the Senate were: 98 Ayes, 0 Nays, 2 Present/Not Voting (Senators Larry Craig, R–ID, and Jesse Helms, R–NC).

House of Representatives[edit]

On September 14, 2001 the House passed House Joint Resolution 64. The totals in the House of Representatives were 420 ayes, 1 nay and 10 not voting. The sole nay vote was by Barbara Lee, D-CA.[9] Lee was the only member of either house of Congress to vote against the bill.[10]

Lee opposed the wording of the AUMF, not the action it represented. She believed that a response was necessary but feared the vagueness of the document was similar to the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. The Tonkin act was repealed in 1970 amid discussion of its facilitation of the Vietnam war and its potential to enable a new incursion in Cambodia.[11]

Citations in law[edit]

Reason: Guantanamo Bay has a population that is severely skewed, asimetric, and there are no expectations of neutrality, therefore constituting a competent tribunal on Guantanamo Bay would be impossible.

Use by the DOD[edit]

The AUMF has also been cited by a wide variety of US officials as justification for continuing US military actions all over the world. Often the phrases "Al-Qaeda and associated forces" or "affiliated forces" have been used by these officials. However, that phrase does not appear in the AUMF.[12]

According to a report by the Congressional Research Service, published May 11, 2016, at that time the 2001 AUMF had been cited 37 times in connection with actions in 14 countries and on the high seas. The report stated that "Of the 37 occurrences, 18 were made during the Bush Administration, and 19 have been made during the Obama Administration." The countries that were mentioned in the report included Afghanistan, Cuba (Guantanamo Bay), Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Iraq, Kenya, Libya, Philippines, Somalia, Syria and Yemen. [13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Report on the Legal and Policy Frameworks Guiding the United States’ Use of Military Force and Related National Security Operations" (PDF). The White House. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  2. ^ Wong, Scott (13 April 2015). "GOP: Obama war request is dead". The Hill. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  3. ^ Herb, Jeremy; Walsh, Deirdre. "House panel votes to repeal war authorization for fight against ISIS and al Qaeda". CNN. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  4. ^ Desiderio, Andrew (2017-06-29). "House Committee Approves Repeal of 2001 Military Authorization". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2017-07-20. 
  5. ^ Bertuca, Tony (2017-07-19). "UMF repeal stripped from defense appropriations bill". Inside Defense. Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  6. ^ Woody, Christopher. "Congress may repeal the post-9/11 act the US military used to justify the fight against ISIS". Business Insider. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  7. ^ Erik, Luna; McCormack, Wayne (2015), Understanding the Law of Terrorism, New Providence, New Jersey: LexisNexis, p. 413, ISBN 9780769849072, OCLC 893668978 
  8. ^ Mian, Rashed (2016-09-14). "2001 AUMF: The Controversial Truth Behind America’s Never-Ending War". Long Island Press. Morey Publishing, LLC. Archived from the original on 2016-10-11. Retrieved 2016-10-11. 
  9. ^ Polner, Murray (2010-03-01) Left Behind, The American Conservative
  10. ^ Final Vote Results for Roll Call 342, U.S. House of Representatives. Accessed 7 April 2007.
  11. ^ "GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION". history.com. The History Channel. 
  12. ^ NPR, 4/18/14. Radiolab. "60 Words" In collaboration with Buzzfeed. Reporter, Gregory Johnsen.
  13. ^ Matthew Weed (May 11, 2016). "Congressional Research Service Report" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved July 21, 2017. 

External links[edit]

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