Play Video
1
Urmia in Azerbaijan People
Urmia in Azerbaijan People's Government' Period (Dec.1945 - Dec.1946)
::2010/12/10::
Play Video
2
The Autonomous Government of Azerbaijan (1945-1946)
The Autonomous Government of Azerbaijan (1945-1946)
::2010/12/20::
Play Video
3
No federalism in Azerbaijan people because federal is dead in Azerbaijan with Sattarkhan zaman
No federalism in Azerbaijan people because federal is dead in Azerbaijan with Sattarkhan zaman
::2012/11/09::
Play Video
4
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (2/7)
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (2/7)
::2009/12/15::
Play Video
5
South Azerbaijan National 1945-1946
South Azerbaijan National 1945-1946
::2009/03/17::
Play Video
6
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (3/7)
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (3/7)
::2009/12/15::
Play Video
7
HUMAN RIGHTS NEWS (22- 24) JANUARY AZERBAIJAN RANKS AMONG NON FREE COUNTRIEAS
HUMAN RIGHTS NEWS (22- 24) JANUARY AZERBAIJAN RANKS AMONG NON FREE COUNTRIEAS
::2014/02/11::
Play Video
8
AZERBAIJANI GOVERNMENT TO PROVIDE FREE HOUSING TO JOURNALISTS
AZERBAIJANI GOVERNMENT TO PROVIDE FREE HOUSING TO JOURNALISTS
::2013/06/15::
Play Video
9
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (4/7)
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (4/7)
::2009/12/15::
Play Video
10
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (6/7)
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (6/7)
::2009/12/15::
Play Video
11
Great National Leader of Azerbaijan
Great National Leader of Azerbaijan
::2013/12/07::
Play Video
12
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (7/7)
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (7/7)
::2009/12/15::
Play Video
13
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (5/7)
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (5/7)
::2009/12/15::
Play Video
14
WORLD AZERBAIJANIS CONGRESS REACTS TO A PROTEST NOTE AGAINST ITSELF
WORLD AZERBAIJANIS CONGRESS REACTS TO A PROTEST NOTE AGAINST ITSELF
::2013/08/26::
Play Video
15
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (1/7)
Cənubi Azərbaycan Milli Höküməti - 21 Azər Hərəkatı (1/7)
::2009/12/15::
Play Video
16
WILLE-GOVERNMENT DECREASE CORRUPTION
WILLE-GOVERNMENT DECREASE CORRUPTION
::2011/11/29::
Play Video
17
فيديو نادر يوم اعلان جمهورية كوردستان 1946 Republic of Kurdistan
فيديو نادر يوم اعلان جمهورية كوردستان 1946 Republic of Kurdistan
::2014/04/01::
Play Video
18
The Talysh, an Iranian People, are Being Exterminated by Pan-Turkists
The Talysh, an Iranian People, are Being Exterminated by Pan-Turkists
::2011/03/01::
Play Video
19
Azerbaijan Gala The World by escAZE
Azerbaijan Gala The World by escAZE
::2009/06/23::
Play Video
20
Turkish Sufi Music, Alim and Fargana Father and Dougther   Azerbaijan)
Turkish Sufi Music, Alim and Fargana Father and Dougther Azerbaijan)
::2013/09/20::
Play Video
21
Azerbaijan Forts & Castles - Western Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Forts & Castles - Western Azerbaijan
::2011/08/01::
Play Video
22
Ethnic Iranian Azerbaijanis and the cartoon crisis (Part 2/3)
Ethnic Iranian Azerbaijanis and the cartoon crisis (Part 2/3)
::2010/05/17::
Play Video
23
Fourt anniversary of 22 May movement in South-Azerbaijan
Fourt anniversary of 22 May movement in South-Azerbaijan
::2010/08/06::
Play Video
24
Zaqatala - Beauty of Azerbaijan
Zaqatala - Beauty of Azerbaijan
::2014/01/23::
Play Video
25
گزارش جالب از غنی ترین منبع آبی کشور دریاچه سد ارس شهرستان پل دشت در آذربایجان غربی
گزارش جالب از غنی ترین منبع آبی کشور دریاچه سد ارس شهرستان پل دشت در آذربایجان غربی
::2014/01/24::
Play Video
26
History of Azerbaijan 1: PRE-ISLAMIC ERA
History of Azerbaijan 1: PRE-ISLAMIC ERA
::2010/11/13::
Play Video
27
West Azerbaijan, iran
West Azerbaijan, iran
::2011/02/02::
Play Video
28
Kurdistan Republic/ Mahabad 1946
Kurdistan Republic/ Mahabad 1946
::2012/01/19::
Play Video
29
NATIONAL IDENTITY IN TURKEY AND AZERBAIJAN
NATIONAL IDENTITY IN TURKEY AND AZERBAIJAN
::2011/09/16::
Play Video
30
Babek Castle Gathering گردهمایی قلعه بابک Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381 (2/6)
Babek Castle Gathering گردهمایی قلعه بابک Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381 (2/6)
::2010/01/30::
Play Video
31
SOUTH AZERBAIJAN people demonstration in LONDON-2O/09/2009(first day of schools starts)8
SOUTH AZERBAIJAN people demonstration in LONDON-2O/09/2009(first day of schools starts)8
::2009/09/25::
Play Video
32
OPERATING CONDITIONS ARE DIFFICULT FOR AZERBAIJANI NGOS
OPERATING CONDITIONS ARE DIFFICULT FOR AZERBAIJANI NGOS
::2013/06/22::
Play Video
33
SOUTH AZERBAIJAN people demonstration in LONDON-2O/09/ 2009(first day of schools starts)6
SOUTH AZERBAIJAN people demonstration in LONDON-2O/09/ 2009(first day of schools starts)6
::2009/09/25::
Play Video
34
SUPPORTERS OF MILITARY ACTION ESTABLISH ALLIANCE FOR FREE KARABAKH
SUPPORTERS OF MILITARY ACTION ESTABLISH ALLIANCE FOR FREE KARABAKH
::2012/03/09::
Play Video
35
Babek Castle Gathering  گردهمایی قلعه بابک  Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381  (3/6)
Babek Castle Gathering گردهمایی قلعه بابک Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381 (3/6)
::2010/01/30::
Play Video
36
Babek Castle Gathering گردهمایی قلعه بابک Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381(4/6)
Babek Castle Gathering گردهمایی قلعه بابک Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381(4/6)
::2010/01/30::
Play Video
37
Babek Castle Gathering گردهمایی قلعه بابک Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381 (1/6)
Babek Castle Gathering گردهمایی قلعه بابک Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381 (1/6)
::2010/01/30::
Play Video
38
Babek Castle Gathering  گردهمایی قلعه بابک  Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381(5/4)
Babek Castle Gathering گردهمایی قلعه بابک Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381(5/4)
::2010/01/30::
Play Video
39
Babek Castle Gathering  گردهمایی قلعه بابک  Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381 - (6/6 son)
Babek Castle Gathering گردهمایی قلعه بابک Babek Qalasi Qurultay 1381 - (6/6 son)
::2010/01/30::
Play Video
40
Azerbaijan presented at Los Angeles Times Travel Show 2014 (AzTV report in Azerbaijani)
Azerbaijan presented at Los Angeles Times Travel Show 2014 (AzTV report in Azerbaijani)
::2014/01/28::
Play Video
41
Atatürk ve İranda yaşayan Türkler  Onlara sahip çıkmalıyız!
Atatürk ve İranda yaşayan Türkler Onlara sahip çıkmalıyız!
::2013/09/02::
Play Video
42
Cənnət Urmu-Urmiye-اورمیه-The paradise Urmia(part 2)
Cənnət Urmu-Urmiye-اورمیه-The paradise Urmia(part 2)
::2009/12/23::
Play Video
43
Urmiye Urmia; Həbib Babayan حبیب بابایان
Urmiye Urmia; Həbib Babayan حبیب بابایان
::2010/11/18::
Play Video
44
MAJORİTY OF THE POPULATİON OF AZERBAİJAN İS AGAİNST RELİGİOUS RADİCALİSM
MAJORİTY OF THE POPULATİON OF AZERBAİJAN İS AGAİNST RELİGİOUS RADİCALİSM
::2012/11/15::
Play Video
45
Turkish Halay   Yalli Song   Van, Erçiş, Urmiye, Salmas, Hoy
Turkish Halay Yalli Song Van, Erçiş, Urmiye, Salmas, Hoy
::2013/09/20::
Play Video
46
Urmiye, Urmia: İsmail Ülker - Türkce Şeir
Urmiye, Urmia: İsmail Ülker - Türkce Şeir
::2010/12/02::
Play Video
47
Urmia avtovağzalı - ot üstə oturma icazəsi / Bus station - sitting on the grass is allowed
Urmia avtovağzalı - ot üstə oturma icazəsi / Bus station - sitting on the grass is allowed
::2011/06/25::
Play Video
48
В.Путин.Выступление.16.02.05
В.Путин.Выступление.16.02.05
::2008/12/25::
Play Video
49
Aşıq Havası Sulduz, Neğede
Aşıq Havası Sulduz, Neğede
::2013/09/20::
Play Video
50
Emin Milli at the Azerbaijan Media Center
Emin Milli at the Azerbaijan Media Center
::2011/05/21::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Azerbaijan People's Government
آذربایجان میللی حکومتی
Puppet state of the Soviet Union

1945–1946
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Tabriz
Languages Azerbaijani
Government Communist puppet state
President Ja'far Pishevari
Historical era Cold War
 -  Established November 1945
 -  Disestablished November 1946
A surcharged stamp published under the name of National Government of Azerbaijan.

The Azerbaijan People's Government (APG; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Demokratik Hökuməti , آذربایجان میلی حکومتی, Russian: Азербайджанское народное правительство, Azerbajdzhanskoe narodnoe pravitel'stvo) was a short-lived Soviet puppet government[1][2] in northern Iran from November 1945 to November 1946. Established in Iranian Azerbaijan, the APG's capital was the city of Tabriz. Its establishment and demise were a part of the Iran crisis, which was a precursor to the Cold War.

History[edit]

To supply the Soviet forces with war material through Iran, British and Soviet troops jointly occupied the country in August 1941.[3] Soviet forces from the Armenian SSR and the Azerbaijan SSR and British and Indian forces from Iraq entered Iranian territory and soon took the control of the country. In September, the British forced Reza Shah to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who ruled until 1979.

With the dethronement of Reza Shah in September 1941, Soviet troops captured Tabriz and northwestern Persia for military and strategic reasons. Azerbaijan People's Government, a puppet government set up by the Soviets, under leadership of Jafar Pishevari was proclaimed in Tabriz. The party, which was created by the direct order of Joseph Stalin, capitalized on some local people's dissatisfaction with centralization policies of Reza Shah. With northern Iran under Soviet occupation, Stalin made plans to "spread Socialism" by creating separatist puppet states. The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad was one such state and the Soviets decided to create a separatist state for northern Iran's Azeri population as well. During this time, a revival of the Azerbaijani literary language, which had largely been supplanted by Persian, was promoted with the help of writers, journalists, and teachers from Azerbaijan SSR. In the quest of imposing national homogeneity on the country where half of the population consisted of ethnic minorities, Reza Shah had previously issued in quick succession bans on the use of Azerbaijani language on the premises of schools, in theatrical performances, religious ceremonies, and, finally, in the publication of books.[4] These directives were issued despite the fact that Reza Shah's mother Noosh Afarin and his wife Taj-Al-Molook Ayrimlu were both of Azerbaijani descent.

Establishment[edit]

The Firqah-i Dimukrat, or Azerbaijani Democratic Party (ADP), publicly announced its formation in Tabriz on September 3, 1945 by a group of veteran communists headed by Jafar Pishevari. After the announcement, the communist, Soviet-supported Tudeh party dissolved its Azerbaijan chapter and ordered the members to join ADP.[5] ADP expanded throughout Iranian Azerbaijan, and initiated a local coup d'état with help from Soviet army, who prevented the Iranian army from intervening.[6] During the first week of September 1945, the Azerbaijani Democratic Party, now led by Jafar Pishevari, a long-time leader of the revolutionary movement in Gilan, declared itself to be in control of Iranian Azerbaijan, promised liberal democratic reforms, and disbanded the local branch of Tudeh.[7][8] Later in September 1945, at its first congress, the Azerbaijani Democratic Party authorized the formation of a peasant's militia. This militia started a bloodless coup on November 18, 1945[9] and by November 21, 1945 they had captured all remaining government posts in the province and Iranian Azerbaijan "became an autonomous republic under the direction of a 39-member national executive committee".[10][6] The only Prime Minister of this short-lived republic was Ahmad Kordary (variously spelled Kordari or Kodari).[citation needed]

At the same time, the US was steadily increasing its military assistance to the government. Under pressure by the Western powers, the Soviet Union reneged its support of the newly created state and the Iranian military succeeded in re-establishing Iranian rule in November 1946. According to Tadeusz Swietochowski:

As it turned out, the Soviets had to recognize that their ideas on Iran were premature. The issue of Iranian Azerbaijan became one of the opening skirmishes of the Cold War, and, largely under the Western powers' pressure, Soviet forces withdrew in 1946. The autonomous republic collapsed soon afterward, and the members of the Democratic Party took refuge in the Soviet Union, fleeing Iranian revenge. In Tabriz, the crowds that had just recently applauded the autonomous republic were now greeting the returning Iranian troops, and Azerbaijani students publicly burned their native-language textbooks. The mass of the population was obviously not ready even for a regional self-government so long as it smacked of separatism.[11]

Soviet support[edit]

New de-archived evidence of former top secret documents from the Cold War implicates the USSR in forming the government of Pishevari by the direct orders of Stalin.[12] Soviet military supported the new autonomous entity and prevented Iranian army from restoring governmental control over the area. After Soviet withdrawal, Iranian troops entered the region in December 1946 and Pishevari and his cabinet fled to Soviet Union.[13][14] According to Prof. Gary R. Hess:

On December 11, an Iranian force entered Tabriz and the Peeshavari government quickly collapsed. The Soviet willingness to forego its influence in (Iranian) Azerbaijan probably resulted from several factors, including the realization that the sentiment for autonomy had been exaggerated and that oil concessions remained the more desirable long-term Soviet Objective.[15]

Dissolution[edit]

On June 13, 1946, an agreement was reached between the Central Government [in Tehran] and the delegates from Azerbaijan, headed by Pishevari.[16] By that agreement, Pishevari agreed to abandon its autonomy, to relinquish its ministries and premiership and to become once more part of Iran. Its parliament was to be transformed into a provincial council- a system recognized and provided for in the Iranian Constitution.[16]

By mid-December 1946, the Iranian army reentered Tabriz, thus putting an end to Azerbaijan People's Government after a full year of its existence.[17] During the lawless interregnum, approximately 500 supporters[18][19] of the Ferqeh were killed.

Many of the leaders took refuge in the Azerbaijan SSR. Jafar Pishevari, who was never fully trusted by Stalin, soon died in a car accident under mysterious circumstances. Prime Minister Kordary was jailed for many years by the Shah and later released due to the tireless efforts of his brother Kazem.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chelkowski, Peter J.; Pranger, Robert J. (1988). Ideology and Power in the Middle East: Studies in Honor of George Lenczowski. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822307815. OCLC 16923212. 
  2. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691053424. OCLC 7975938. 
  3. ^ Reza Shah Pahlavi :: Policies as shah. - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  4. ^ Tadeusz Swietochowski, Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. ISBN 0-231-07068-3
  5. ^ Iran in claws of the bear, The failed Soviet landgrab of 1946 , Farhad Tale, iUniverse books, 2007, ISBN 0-595-41345-5,p19
  6. ^ a b Abrahamian, Ervand (October 1970). "Communism and Communalism in Iran: The Tudah and the Firqah-I Dimukrat" (PDF). International Journal of Middle East Studies (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press) 1 (4): 291–316. 
  7. ^ Sepehr Zabih. The Communist Movement in Iran, Berkeley, 1966, p. 99
  8. ^ Ervand Abrahamian. Iran between Two Revolutions, Princeton, 1982, pp. 217-218
  9. ^ Jessup, John E. (1989). A Chronology of Conflict and Resolution, 1945-1985. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-24308-5. 
  10. ^ Fred H. Lawson. "The Iranian Crisis of 1945-1946 and the Spiral Model of International Conflict", International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3. (Aug., 1989), p. 316
  11. ^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz 1989. "Islam and the Growth of National Identity in Soviet Azerbaijan", Kappeler, Andreas, Gerhard Simon, Georg Brunner eds. Muslim Communities Reemerge: Historical Perspective on Nationality, Politics, and Opposition in the Former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. Durham: Duke University Press, pp. 46-60.
  12. ^ "Cold War International History Project 1945-46 Iranian Crisis". 
  13. ^ Azerbaijan Crisis (1947-1948)
  14. ^ Iran in World War II
  15. ^ Gary. R. Hess Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 89, No. 1 (March., 1974) [1]
  16. ^ a b A. C. Edwards. "Persia Revisited", International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944), Vol. 23, No. 1. (Jan., 1947), p. 58
  17. ^ George Lenczowski. "United States' Support for Iran's Independence and Integrity, 1945-1959", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 401, America and the Middle East. (May, 1972), p. 49
  18. ^ Swietchowski:“Addressing the troops entering Azerbaijan, General ‘Ali Razmara proclaimed that they were restoing the soul of Iran to the nation, and henceforth the anniversary of the event would be celebrated by a military parade. By all accounts the population’s enthusiastic welcome of the Iranian army was genuine. Among the elated throngs were many who barely a year ago had also enthusiastically greeted the rise of the Pishevari government; the change of heart was due not only to disenchantment with the Democrats but also the uncontrollable violence being meted out at the sympathizers of the faller regime. Rossow conservatively estimated 500 killed during the lawless interregnum that preceded the coming of the Iranian troops. Hundreds of others were tried and jailed, and scores were hanged. ”( Tadeusz Swietochowski, Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. New York: Columbia. University Press, 1995. pg 154)
  19. ^ A British source cited by the US Embassy in Tehran gives the number of killed Democrats as 421. The American Embass’s report has been classified under wash. Nat. Arch. 891.00/1-1547, 15 January 1947”( Touraj Atabaki, Azerbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran, [Revised Edition of Azerbaijan, Ethnicity and Autonomy in the Twentieth-Century Iran] (London: I.B.Tauris, 2000. pg 227).

Documents[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License

Mashpedia enables any individual or company to promote their own Youtube-hosted videos or Youtube Channels, offering a simple and effective plan to get them in front of our engaged audience.

Want to learn more? Please contact us at: hello@mashpedia.com

Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014