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The Bakarwal  in Kashmir
The Bakarwal in Kashmir
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: Gujjar Tv
Lifestyle of Bakarwal family
Lifestyle of Bakarwal family
Published: 2017/10/17
Channel: Bharat Bushan
Bakarwal
Bakarwal
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: RAKESH SHARMA
Bakarwal
Bakarwal
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: bappa ray
Bakarwal Or Bakerwal Nomads At Kashmir - Indian Tribal Video
Bakarwal Or Bakerwal Nomads At Kashmir - Indian Tribal Video
Published: 2014/09/06
Channel: Somjit Bhattacharyya
Bakarwal Dogs at a permanent Bakarwal settlement in Potohar.
Bakarwal Dogs at a permanent Bakarwal settlement in Potohar.
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: hamza habib
Trevling with A Bakarwal Family
Trevling with A Bakarwal Family
Published: 2016/07/13
Channel: hamza habib
Bakkarwals
Bakkarwals
Published: 2015/06/26
Channel: Capt Rajesh Kaul
Bakarwals Taking Care Of their Investments
Bakarwals Taking Care Of their Investments
Published: 2016/07/17
Channel: hamza habib
Muslim Gurjar Nomads At Pahalgam, Kashmir - Indian Tribal Video
Muslim Gurjar Nomads At Pahalgam, Kashmir - Indian Tribal Video
Published: 2014/09/06
Channel: Somjit Bhattacharyya
Gujjar got talent
Gujjar got talent
Published: 2011/12/16
Channel: javaid aalam
Kashmiri Bakarwal dog
Kashmiri Bakarwal dog
Published: 2016/10/08
Channel: Muzi Koul
Bakarwal female (Home Bred)
Bakarwal female (Home Bred)
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Bakarwal Dogs
Rare Bakarwal Dogs
Rare Bakarwal Dogs
Published: 2016/07/09
Channel: hamza habib
Bakarwal Cobra Pair
Bakarwal Cobra Pair
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: hamza habib
Kashmiri Traditional Bakarwal tribe with their cattle
Kashmiri Traditional Bakarwal tribe with their cattle
Published: 2017/09/29
Channel: Shaoor Education
farooq gujjar banda mali bakarwal
farooq gujjar banda mali bakarwal
Published: 2013/06/11
Channel: Farooq Mohammed
Gujjar bakarwal protest at presscolony against minister Lal Singh
Gujjar bakarwal protest at presscolony against minister Lal Singh
Published: 2016/10/22
Channel: Kns kashmir
First harvest celebrate by bakarwal
First harvest celebrate by bakarwal
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: ENJOY LIFE
Bakarwal Pather part ii
Bakarwal Pather part ii
Published: 2017/11/18
Channel: Dilkash folk Theatre
Bakarwal Richii Dog
Bakarwal Richii Dog
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: hamza habib
Bakarwals of the North
Bakarwals of the North
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: CROW ENTERTAINMENT PAKISTAN
bakarwal promo mpeg2video
bakarwal promo mpeg2video
Published: 2011/08/17
Channel: climatefrontlines
Gujjar Bakarwal Protest
Gujjar Bakarwal Protest
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: Newsroom TNN
gujjar bakarwal hostel ghoost in hostel - Copy.mpg
gujjar bakarwal hostel ghoost in hostel - Copy.mpg
Published: 2016/06/18
Channel: gulistan news
Gujjar Bakarwal protest in Sirinagar
Gujjar Bakarwal protest in Sirinagar
Published: 2017/01/04
Channel: Gujjar Tv
Bakarwal Dog
Bakarwal Dog
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: Bakarwal Dogs
Aman Gupta As Bakarwal In a TV Serial  Junoon
Aman Gupta As Bakarwal In a TV Serial Junoon
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: Aman Gupta
Gujjar Bakarwal
Gujjar Bakarwal
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Sabir Hussain
Bakkarwal in warvan valley
Bakkarwal in warvan valley
Published: 2015/02/09
Channel: farooq khan
Beautiful Kashmir Bakarwal of Pentha HD
Beautiful Kashmir Bakarwal of Pentha HD
Published: 2017/09/28
Channel: AJK 786
Bakarwal, Kashmir
Bakarwal, Kashmir
Published: 2012/08/28
Channel: Ishfaq Mir
Bakarwal Goats Sheeps Dogs Gojri Gujjar Singing
Bakarwal Goats Sheeps Dogs Gojri Gujjar Singing
Published: 2017/10/19
Channel: AJK 786
Highly aggressive Bakarwal dog named kilashancove
Highly aggressive Bakarwal dog named kilashancove
Published: 2017/03/05
Channel: Azim Mushtaq
Bakarwal
Bakarwal
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Gulamqadir Khan
Bakarwal dog in aggression
Bakarwal dog in aggression
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: lone wolf
Big monkey banged by bakarwal dog...TIGER
Big monkey banged by bakarwal dog...TIGER
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: lone wolf
Bakarwal Dogs
Bakarwal Dogs
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: Bakarwal Dogs
Bakarwal Promo 60 Sec
Bakarwal Promo 60 Sec
Published: 2013/02/19
Channel: Nabarun Banerjee
Aggression of a Bakarwal Dog | Gaddi Dog Barking | Tibetan Mastiff
Aggression of a Bakarwal Dog | Gaddi Dog Barking | Tibetan Mastiff
Published: 2017/12/23
Channel: Razi Khalid
Married of bakarwal
Married of bakarwal
Published: 2017/12/02
Channel: Khan Haneef
Bakarwal Dog Compilation | Gaddi Dog | Tibetan Mastiff Compilation
Bakarwal Dog Compilation | Gaddi Dog | Tibetan Mastiff Compilation
Published: 2017/12/26
Channel: Razi Khalid
Gujjar Bakarwal Press Conference
Gujjar Bakarwal Press Conference
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: waqt india
The Bakarwals
The Bakarwals' Caravan: Now Cow Vigilantism Poses A Threat To This Centuries-Old Tradition
Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: IndianExpressOnline
Bakarwal Dog Guarding Instinct | Gaddi Dog Attack | Tibetan Mastiff Barking | Tibetan Mastiff Attack
Bakarwal Dog Guarding Instinct | Gaddi Dog Attack | Tibetan Mastiff Barking | Tibetan Mastiff Attack
Published: 2018/01/09
Channel: Razi Khalid
gujar and bakarwal marrage
gujar and bakarwal marrage
Published: 2013/09/11
Channel: Showkat Ali
Bakarwal Yak Saahi
Bakarwal Yak Saahi
Published: 2016/12/27
Channel: hamza habib
Bakarwal Dog | Bakrwali Dog | Gaddi Dog | Tibetan Mastiff
Bakarwal Dog | Bakrwali Dog | Gaddi Dog | Tibetan Mastiff
Published: 2017/11/20
Channel: Razi Khalid
Gujjar and Bakarwal students conference held protest in Kupwara against cold blooded murder of Asifa
Gujjar and Bakarwal students conference held protest in Kupwara against cold blooded murder of Asifa
Published: 2018/01/20
Channel: Inside Kashmir
gujjar bakarwal
gujjar bakarwal
Published: 2017/12/24
Channel: Sagar Gujariya
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Bakarwal
Total population
c. 16.5 to 28.5 million
Regions with significant populations
Pakistan 8,400,000[1]
India 7,549,331[2]
Afghanistan 5,301,456
China (PRC) 900,000
Languages
Gojri (varieties of Pashto and Urdu)
Religion
Islam (mostly Sunni)
Related ethnic groups
Other Iranian peoples

Bakarwal (or Gujjar - Bakharwal) is a mostly-Sunni Muslim[3] nomadic tribe based in the Pir Panjal and Himalayan mountains of South Asia. They are mainly goatherds and shepherds (Gadaria). They are found in the entire Kashmir region between India and Pakistan, and in the Nuristan province of Afghanistan

History[edit]

The Gurjar-Bakarwals claim a common ancestry from the ancient Gurjar tribe of India. Scholars are of the opinion that they are the foreign stock representing the pastoral nomads who migrated from Central Asia.[citation needed]

Some take the opinion that the Gurjar-Bakarwals are the descendants of the Kushan and the Yuezhi (Yuchi) tribes of Eastern Tatars (Turkic-speaking people in south-west Russia). Recent archaeological, linguistic and geographical evidences also support the theory that they are the descendants of Yuezhi Gurjis (Georgians) who inhabit a territory between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, south of the Caucasus Mountains, now an independent republic which was formerly part of south-west Russia. One of the major traditions of the Gurji people is that they used to give their tribal name to the places and localities they inhabited. It is strongly believed that before their march to the Subcontinent of India, they occupied some places in Iran, Central Asia and Afghanistan. These areas are known as Juzrs or Jurz, Gujar, Guru, Gurjistan, Gujar Khas and Chausak Gujar. When they came to India, they named certain areas as Gujranwala (a district in Pakistan), Gujargarh (Gwalior). Many smaller places also have their names after Gujjars.[citation needed]

Many Kashmiri Muslims including many Bakerwals and Gurjars migrated from the Valley to Punjab due to famine and policies of Hindu Dogra rulers, during the mid-18th Century. Traditionally Shia and Sufi Muslims, they are usually pro-India, and caretaker and service providers to the Hindu shrine of Amarnath Temple.[3][4]

Etymology[edit]

'Bakarwal' is derived from the Gojri, Urdu, Punjabi, Kashmiri, Dogri, Jammu and Pashto terms, bakra meaning goat or sheep, and wal meaning "one who takes care of". Essentially, the name "Bakarwal" implies "high-altitude goatherds/shepherds".

The Bakarwals belong to the same ethnicity as the Gujjars, and inter-marriages take place among them.[5] Although, Bakarwals have same gotra or clan like Gujjars, many local shepherds, who may not necessarily belong to the community, are often termed as Bakarwal.

Economy and society[edit]

The Gujar-Bakarwals have divided themselves into three principal kinship groups:

(i) The dera (household), (ii) Dada-Potre (lineage), (iii) the gotra (clan).

The dera is the basic unit of social structure among the Gujjar-Bakarwals. They count their numbers and describe their grazing and qafila groups in terms of the number of deras.

A dera usually comes into existence when a person establishes an independent household, which happens normally after his marriage. Each son, thus, establishes his own dera as he gets married. A dera usually consists of five to six members. There is a division of labour among the members of the household on the basis of sex and age.

Females perform the domestic tasks of cooking, washing, fetching of water, upbringing of children, collection of wood, and spinning and making of woolen garments. On the other hand, males perform more arduous tasks like herding of flock and cattle, repairing of tools and equipment, collection of grass, herbs, deer-musk, hunting of wild animals, ploughing and harvesting of crops.

The household is, thus, a primary economic unit. A nuclear family is the production and consumption unit. A joint family which is generally large cannot survive on the meagre pasture resource as the transhumance are on the move for about 110 to 130 days in a year.

The elders want the eligible married youngsters to shoulder the responsibility of looking after the flock of sheep and goats independently. This would ensure greater security to the herds and sharing all responsible jobs by the adult members.

Several deras (households) constitute a lineage (dada-potra). The pastures are allotted to the lineage and not to the individuals. In a lineage, there may be about two hundred persons. Usually, a Gujjar-Bakarwal father divides his property (animal wealth) among his male children as and when they get married.

The lineage, thus, consists of several generations and includes cousins and distant relatives. They share the common pastures. The lineage unit is quite powerful administrative unit. Each lineage has a head who is responsible for the socio-economic and political activities of his group.

Social status[edit]

As of 2001, the Bakarwal were classified as a Scheduled Tribe under the Indian government's reservation program of positive discrimination.[6] They are mentioned in the Afghan National Anthem as one of the integral tribes present in Afghanistan.

References[edit]

  1. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Pakistan
  2. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Kashmir
  3. ^ a b Expert Speak on Kashmir: No algorithm for Azadi, Observer Research Foundation, August 2016.
  4. ^ Carl W. Ernst, 2016, Refractions of Islam in India: Situating Sufism and Yoga, SAGE Publications, ISBN 9351509648.
  5. ^ Kapoor, A. K.; M. K. Raha; D. Basu; Satwanti Kapoor (1994). Ecology and man in the Himalayas. M. D. Publications. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-81-85880-16-7. 
  6. ^ "List of Scheduled Tribes". Census of India: Government of India. 7 March 2007. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Prashad, Ram (1992). Tribal Migration in Himalayan Frontiers: Study of Gujjar Bakarwal Transhumance Economy class. Vintage Books. ISBN 81-85326-46-0. 

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