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Constitutional Court hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017
Constitutional Court hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: SABC Digital News
Everything else on your ballot, explained
Everything else on your ballot, explained
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Vox
Malcolm X - The Ballot or the Bullet - April 4, 1964
Malcolm X - The Ballot or the Bullet - April 4, 1964
Published: 2012/12/07
Channel: Donnie Mossberg
Top 10 Smash Ballot Winners
Top 10 Smash Ballot Winners
Published: 2015/11/18
Channel: SkywardWing
ConCourt rule on President Zuma no-confidence secret ballot
ConCourt rule on President Zuma no-confidence secret ballot
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: SABC Digital News
If change will not come through the ballot, it will through the bullet - David Ndii
If change will not come through the ballot, it will through the bullet - David Ndii
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: Kenya NTV
Progress is on the ballot | Hillary Clinton
Progress is on the ballot | Hillary Clinton
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: Hillary Clinton
'RECOUNT THE VOTES IN THE BALLOT BOX DON'T GO FOR ANOTHER ELECTION' WAITITU ADVICES RAILA
Published: 2017/09/23
Channel: BREAKING NEWS KENYA
Constitutional Court gives judgment on secret ballot
Constitutional Court gives judgment on secret ballot
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: eNCA
Filling Out Mail-In Absentee Ballot
Filling Out Mail-In Absentee Ballot
Published: 2015/09/01
Channel: Fairfax County Government
ConCourt hears secret ballot case | Ngcukaitobi for EFF
ConCourt hears secret ballot case | Ngcukaitobi for EFF
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Africa News Network 7 TV
Selma - The Bridge to the Ballot
Selma - The Bridge to the Ballot
Published: 2016/11/04
Channel: Andy Carpenter
LIVE: Court hears case challenging ballot papers printing tender award to Al Ghurair
LIVE: Court hears case challenging ballot papers printing tender award to Al Ghurair
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: Kenya NTV
Jacob Zuma "No Need For Secret Ballot, ANC Will Win"
Jacob Zuma "No Need For Secret Ballot, ANC Will Win"
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: My Africa
Top 50 STUPIDEST Character Requests for the Super Smash Bros Ballot
Top 50 STUPIDEST Character Requests for the Super Smash Bros Ballot
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: ABrandonToThePast
Vado "Ballot or Bullet" (WSHH Exclusive - Official Music Video)
Vado "Ballot or Bullet" (WSHH Exclusive - Official Music Video)
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: WORLDSTARHIPHOP
Why Your Fighter Lost the Smash Bros. Fighter Ballot
Why Your Fighter Lost the Smash Bros. Fighter Ballot
Published: 2015/12/16
Channel: Nintendo Life
Maraga rejects Ekuru Aukot
Maraga rejects Ekuru Aukot's proposal to be on ballot
Published: 2017/09/21
Channel: The Star Kenya
Political Parties react to Mbete
Political Parties react to Mbete's secret ballot decision
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: SABC Digital News
Malcolm X - "The Ballot or the Bullet"
Malcolm X - "The Ballot or the Bullet"
Published: 2015/10/07
Channel: Mind-Forged Manacles
Malcolm X - Ballot or Bullet
Malcolm X - Ballot or Bullet
Published: 2006/11/23
Channel: TheJaredWilcurt
Ballot Box Take 2: Is The Judiciary Under Siege?
Ballot Box Take 2: Is The Judiciary Under Siege?
Published: 2017/09/20
Channel: Ebru TV Kenya
High Court to make key ruling over presidential ballot paper printing tender against Al Ghurair
High Court to make key ruling over presidential ballot paper printing tender against Al Ghurair
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: KTN News Kenya
16 presidential ballot boxes broken and seals removed
16 presidential ballot boxes broken and seals removed
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: Kenya NTV
Malema on: The secret ballot, dictatorship, corruption and Zuma
Malema on: The secret ballot, dictatorship, corruption and Zuma's 'empty head'
Published: 2017/07/24
Channel: News24
A TRUCK WITH 300,000 PRE-MARKED PRESIDENTIAL BALLOT PAPERS  CONFISCATED IN KILIFI
A TRUCK WITH 300,000 PRE-MARKED PRESIDENTIAL BALLOT PAPERS CONFISCATED IN KILIFI
Published: 2017/08/09
Channel: Kenya News Alert TV
ConCourt hears secret ballot case : Mpofu for UDM
ConCourt hears secret ballot case : Mpofu for UDM
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Africa News Network 7 TV
Supreme court judges raised questions on ballot paper security features
Supreme court judges raised questions on ballot paper security features
Published: 2017/09/02
Channel: Kenya NTV
Massachusetts retailers move forward with 5 percent sales tax ballot question
Massachusetts retailers move forward with 5 percent sales tax ballot question
Published: 2017/09/22
Channel: WWLP-22News
James Orengo pleads NASA
James Orengo pleads NASA's case in ballot paper row
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: KTN News Kenya
Why Did Trump Sneak A Peek At Melania
Why Did Trump Sneak A Peek At Melania's Ballot?
Published: 2016/11/09
Channel: The Young Turks
"The Ballot or the Bullet" - Malcolm X - April 3, 1964
"The Ballot or the Bullet" - Malcolm X - April 3, 1964
Published: 2016/07/08
Channel: KD
Jacob Zuma NOT Scared By Secret Ballot
Jacob Zuma NOT Scared By Secret Ballot
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: My Africa
Outcome of the secret ballot hearing: Aldrin Sampear
Outcome of the secret ballot hearing: Aldrin Sampear
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: SABC Digital News
STOP VOTING FOR STUPID CHARACTERS IN THE SMASH BALLOT!
STOP VOTING FOR STUPID CHARACTERS IN THE SMASH BALLOT!
Published: 2015/04/09
Channel: HMK
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. 'Give Us the Ballot' May 17, 1957
Published: 2015/09/25
Channel: nicholasflyer
SHOCK AS KENYATTA FAMILY ARE  LINKED  TO ALGHURAIR BALLOT PRINTING FIRM
SHOCK AS KENYATTA FAMILY ARE LINKED TO ALGHURAIR BALLOT PRINTING FIRM
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: Kenya News Alert TV
ConCourt hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017 Part 2
ConCourt hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017 Part 2
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: SABC Digital News
ConCourt hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017 Part 3
ConCourt hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017 Part 3
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: SABC Digital News
Malcolm X - 06 - The Ballot or the Bullet
Malcolm X - 06 - The Ballot or the Bullet
Published: 2011/03/16
Channel: Increase My Knowledge
The Sky News Ballot Ballad | General Election 2015
The Sky News Ballot Ballad | General Election 2015
Published: 2015/03/30
Channel: Sky News
South Africa: Zuma at risk in secret ballot
South Africa: Zuma at risk in secret ballot 'no confidence' vote
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
Julius Malema reacts following secret ballot arguments
Julius Malema reacts following secret ballot arguments
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: SABC Digital News
Malcolm X
Malcolm X's Legendary Speech: "The Ballot or the Bullet" (Detroit, April 12 1964)
Published: 2017/06/07
Channel: 20th Century Time Machine
Adv Dali Mpofu   Closing Argument on the ConCourt Secret Ballot Application
Adv Dali Mpofu Closing Argument on the ConCourt Secret Ballot Application
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: Economic Freedom Fighters
"Our progress is on the ballot" - President Obama
"Our progress is on the ballot" - President Obama
Published: 2016/09/21
Channel: Daily Kos
Ballot Box Babes Audience Roast (The Jerry Springer Show)
Ballot Box Babes Audience Roast (The Jerry Springer Show)
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: The Jerry Springer Show
Breaking News: SECRET BALLOT APPROVED - Baleka Mbete
Breaking News: SECRET BALLOT APPROVED - Baleka Mbete
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: My Africa
How To Spoil Your Ballot Paper
How To Spoil Your Ballot Paper
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: HuffPost UK
Voter Fraud! DemocRATs Caught Stuffing Ballot Boxes, Disgusting!
Voter Fraud! DemocRATs Caught Stuffing Ballot Boxes, Disgusting!
Published: 2016/10/23
Channel: Kadster Lenen
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A ballot is a device used to cast votes in an election, and may be a piece of paper or a small ball used in secret voting.[1] It was originally a small ball (see blackballing) used to record decisions made by voters.

Each voter uses one ballot, and ballots are not shared. In the simplest elections, a ballot may be a simple scrap of paper on which each voter writes in the name of a candidate, but governmental elections use preprinted ballots to protect the secrecy of the votes. The voter casts his/her ballot in a box at a polling station.

In British English, this is usually called a "ballot paper".[2] The word ballot is used for an election process within an organisation (such as a trade union "holding a ballot" of its members).

Etymology[edit]

The word ballot comes from Italian ballotta, meaning a “small ball used in voting” or a “secret vote taken by ballots” in Venice, Italy.[3]

History[edit]

Ancient Greek ostraca, 5th century BC, Ancient Agora Museum in Athens, housed in the Stoa of Attalus.
Ancient Greek bronze secret ballots used to cast a juror's vote on a case, 3rd century BC, Ancient Agora Museum in Athens, housed in the Stoa of Attalus

In ancient Greece, citizens used pieces of broken pottery to scratch in the name of the candidate in the procedures of ostracism.

The first use of paper ballots to conduct an election appears to have been in Rome in 139 BC.

In Ancient India, around 920 AD, in Tamil Nadu, Palm leaves were used for village assembly elections. The palm leaves with candidate names, will be put inside a mud pot, for counting. This was called Kudavolai system.[4][5][6]

The first use of paper ballots in America was in 1629 within the Massachusetts Bay Colony to select a pastor for the Salem Church.[7] Paper ballots were pieces of paper marked and supplied by voters.

Types of voting systems[edit]

Depending on the type of voting system used in the election, different ballots may be used. Ranked ballots allow voters to rank candidates in order of preference, while ballots for first-past-the-post systems only allow voters to select one candidate for each position. In party-list systems, lists may be open or closed.

The United States, a republic, has a unique politics of long and short ballot. Before the Civil War, many[who?] believed governmental effectiveness was enhanced by increasing the number of elective offices to include such comparatively minor posts as the state-level secretary of state, county surveyor, register of deeds, county coroner, and city clerk. A larger number of elected offices required longer ballots, and at times the long ballot has been suggested to have resulted in donkey voting and confusion, though the seriousness of either problem can be disputed. Progressivists attacked the long ballot during the Progressive Era (circa 1893–1917).[citation needed]

Design[edit]

Ballots may be tickets rather than forms, as in Israel.
Perspective view of the infamous 2000 Palm Beach County, Florida "butterfly ballot".
Top view of the same 2000 Florida "butterfly ballot".

Ballot design can aid or inhibit clarity in an election. Poor designs lead to confusion and potentially chaos if large numbers of voters spoil or mismark a ballot. The butterfly ballot used in the Palm Beach County, Florida U.S. presidential election, 2000 (a ballot paper that has names down both sides, with a single column of punch holes in the center, which has been likened to a maze[8][9]) led to widespread allegations of mismarked ballots.[10]

Some political scientists[who?] prefer more explicit statements of the voter's actual tolerances and preferences, and believe that failure to reflect these in ballot design and voting system alternatives causes many problems and leads to calls for electoral reform. For instance, a non-binding referendum or poll, carried out on a ballot, carries much more weight than one carried out with only a public sampling in a less politically committed event than an election. For example, one might count the number of ballots whereon the voter had crossed out the name of the political party that nominated the candidate, even if (maybe only if) that voter had voted for him or her. This would indicate support for candidates but would be able to send signals to them that the "party line" was not why that voter voted for them, but rather, she or he expected them to act independently.

Such marking and counting could be carried out on an ordinary ballot with no provision for it, however, there would be risk of counting it as "spoiled" if the marks were unclear, and if ballot design had not allowed for it initially.

Methods[edit]

  • In a jurisdiction using a paper system, voters choose by marking a ballot or, as in the case of Israel and France, picking one pre-marked ballot from among many. In most jurisdictions the ballots are pre-printed with names of candidates and the text of the referenda. The Philippines (until 2007) and Japan are an exception. There, voters must write the names of their candidates on the ballot. Election officials manually count the ballots after the polls close and may be recounted in the event of a dispute.
  • In a jurisdiction using an optical scan voting system, voters choose by filling an oval or by completing an arrow on the printed ballot next to their chosen candidate or referendum position. Voters with disabilities may be provided with electronic ballot marking devices. Optical scan technology has also been used by many standardized tests. Tabulating machines count the ballots either after the polls close or as the voters feed the ballots into the machine, in which case the results are not known until after the polls close. Officials often will manually count any ballots that cannot be read or with a write-in candidate and may recount the ballots in the event of a dispute.
  • In a jurisdiction using a punched card system, voters choose by removing or "punching out" a perforated chad from the ballot next each choice, sometimes with tools as simple as a pin, but usually with a ballot marking device such as the Votomatic. The ballot may be pre-printed with candidates and referenda, or may be a generic ballot placed under a printed list of candidates and referenda. Tabulating machines count ballots after the polls close. Officials may manually count the ballots in the event of a dispute. Punched card voting systems are being replaced by other voting systems because of a high rate of inaccuracy related to the incomplete removal of the perforated chad and the inaccessibility to voters with disabilities.
  • In a jurisdiction using a mechanical voting system, often called a "voting machine", voters choose by pulling a lever next to their choice. There is a printed list of candidates, parties and referenda next to the levers indicating which lever is assigned to which choice. When the voter pulls a lever, it turns a connected gear in the machine, which turns a counter wheel. Each counter wheel shows a number, which is the number of votes cast using that lever. After the polls close, election officials check the wheels' positions and record the totals. No physical ballot is used in this system, except when the voter chooses to write-in a candidate. Other systems are replacing mechanical voting systems because they are inaccessible to disabled voters, do not have a physical ballot and are getting old.
  • In a jurisdiction using an electronic direct record voting system (DRE), voters choose by pushing a button next to a printed list of candidates and referenda, or by touching the candidate or referenda box on a touchscreen interface. As the voter makes a selection, the DRE creates an electronic ballot stored by in the memory components of the system. After the polls close, the system counts the votes and reports the totals to the election officials. Many DREs include a communication device to transmit vote totals to a central tabulator. The touchscreen systems remind people of an automated teller machine (ATM) and often are described as such.
  • Bonser is a method allowing the voter more than two choices for a proposition. Choices of red, yellow and green can indicate disapproval, requirement for more clarity and approval, for example.[11]

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ballot". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  2. ^ "Ballot". Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  3. ^ "Ballot". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  4. ^ "Panchayat Raj, Policy notes 2011-2012" (PDF). Rural development & panchayat raj department, TN Government, India. Retrieved 3 November 2011. 
  5. ^ "Heritage in a park". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2 April 2010. 
  6. ^ "Handbook on Kongu archaeological treasures". The Hindu. Coimbatore, India. 27 June 2005. 
  7. ^ Jones, Douglas W.. A Brief Illustrated History of Voting. University of Iowa Department of Computer Science.
  8. ^ Associated Press (2003-07-14). "State: Ballot display revives chads, chaos of bungled election". Saint Petersburg Times Online Tampa Bay. Retrieved 2014-10-26. 
  9. ^ "Statement of Commissioner Victoria Wilson". Voting Irregularities in Florida During the 2000 Presidential Election, www.usccr.gov. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved 2014-10-26. 
  10. ^ Dershowitz, 'Supreme Injustice: how the High Court hijacked Election 2000', p. 22-28. ISBN 9780195148275
  11. ^ Bonser Method. Retrieved 2016-10-06.

External links[edit]

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