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Malcolm X - The Ballot or the Bullet - April 4, 1964
Malcolm X - The Ballot or the Bullet - April 4, 1964
Published: 2012/12/07
Channel: Donnie Mossberg
Everything else on your ballot, explained
Everything else on your ballot, explained
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Vox
Progress is on the ballot | Hillary Clinton
Progress is on the ballot | Hillary Clinton
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: Hillary Clinton
Top 10 Smash Ballot Winners
Top 10 Smash Ballot Winners
Published: 2015/11/18
Channel: SkywardWing #TeamSkyward
Constitutional Court hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017
Constitutional Court hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: SABC Digital News
ConCourt rule on President Zuma no-confidence secret ballot
ConCourt rule on President Zuma no-confidence secret ballot
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: SABC Digital News
The Ballot Or The Bullet
The Ballot Or The Bullet
Published: 2015/02/21
Channel: Malcolm X - Topic
Top 50 STUPIDEST Character Requests for the Super Smash Bros Ballot
Top 50 STUPIDEST Character Requests for the Super Smash Bros Ballot
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: ABrandonToThePast
16 presidential ballot boxes broken and seals removed
16 presidential ballot boxes broken and seals removed
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: NTV Kenya
If change will not come through the ballot, it will through the bullet - David Ndii
If change will not come through the ballot, it will through the bullet - David Ndii
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: NTV Kenya
Malcolm X - Ballot or Bullet
Malcolm X - Ballot or Bullet
Published: 2006/11/23
Channel: TheJaredWilcurt
ConCourt hears secret ballot case | Ngcukaitobi for EFF
ConCourt hears secret ballot case | Ngcukaitobi for EFF
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Africa News Network 7 TV
Constitutional Court gives judgment on secret ballot
Constitutional Court gives judgment on secret ballot
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: eNCA
Malcolm X
Malcolm X's Legendary Speech: "The Ballot or the Bullet" (Detroit, April 12 1964)
Published: 2017/06/07
Channel: 20th Century Time Machine
A TRUCK WITH 300,000 PRE-MARKED PRESIDENTIAL BALLOT PAPERS  CONFISCATED IN KILIFI
A TRUCK WITH 300,000 PRE-MARKED PRESIDENTIAL BALLOT PAPERS CONFISCATED IN KILIFI
Published: 2017/08/09
Channel: Kenya News Alert TV
Jacob Zuma "No Need For Secret Ballot, ANC Will Win"
Jacob Zuma "No Need For Secret Ballot, ANC Will Win"
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: My Africa
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. 'Give Us the Ballot' May 17, 1957
Published: 2015/09/25
Channel: nicholasflyer
Selma - The Bridge to the Ballot
Selma - The Bridge to the Ballot
Published: 2016/11/04
Channel: Andy Carpenter
LIVE: Court hears case challenging ballot papers printing tender award to Al Ghurair
LIVE: Court hears case challenging ballot papers printing tender award to Al Ghurair
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: NTV Kenya
Malcolm X - "The Ballot or the Bullet"
Malcolm X - "The Ballot or the Bullet"
Published: 2015/10/07
Channel: Mind-Forged Manacles
ANAMBRA 2017: VOTING ENDS, COUNTING OF BALLOT PAPERS BEGINS & TURNOUT IS IMPRESSIVE
ANAMBRA 2017: VOTING ENDS, COUNTING OF BALLOT PAPERS BEGINS & TURNOUT IS IMPRESSIVE
Published: 2017/11/18
Channel: Stablelive showTV
Why Your Fighter Lost the Smash Bros. Fighter Ballot
Why Your Fighter Lost the Smash Bros. Fighter Ballot
Published: 2015/12/16
Channel: Nintendo Life
Vado "Ballot or Bullet" (WSHH Exclusive - Official Music Video)
Vado "Ballot or Bullet" (WSHH Exclusive - Official Music Video)
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: WORLDSTARHIPHOP
ConCourt hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017 Part 3
ConCourt hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017 Part 3
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: SABC Digital News
Political Parties react to Mbete
Political Parties react to Mbete's secret ballot decision
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: SABC Digital News
Filling Out Mail-In Absentee Ballot
Filling Out Mail-In Absentee Ballot
Published: 2015/09/01
Channel: Fairfax County Government
Trailer for "Secret Ballot"
Trailer for "Secret Ballot"
Published: 2008/11/12
Channel: FirouzanFilms
ConCourt hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017 Part 2
ConCourt hears secret ballot application by opposition parties, 15 May 2017 Part 2
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: SABC Digital News
Wet van Buys Ballot
Wet van Buys Ballot
Published: 2014/10/22
Channel: Machael van Vlaenderen
Anambra Election: Voting Ends,Counting Of Ballot Papers Begin
Anambra Election: Voting Ends,Counting Of Ballot Papers Begin
Published: 2017/11/18
Channel: Channels Television
MALCOLM X: "The Ballot or the Bullet" EXTENDED FILM VERSION (29th March 1964)
MALCOLM X: "The Ballot or the Bullet" EXTENDED FILM VERSION (29th March 1964)
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: MALCOLMSREVENGE
Malema on: The secret ballot, dictatorship, corruption and Zuma
Malema on: The secret ballot, dictatorship, corruption and Zuma's 'empty head'
Published: 2017/07/24
Channel: News24
Ballot Printing Case: The court to give NASA and IEBC the final verdict
Ballot Printing Case: The court to give NASA and IEBC the final verdict
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: KTN News Kenya
Ballot box sealing
Ballot box sealing
Published: 2014/06/06
Channel: gskhati
Adv Dali Mpofu   Closing Argument on the ConCourt Secret Ballot Application
Adv Dali Mpofu Closing Argument on the ConCourt Secret Ballot Application
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: Economic Freedom Fighters
KNOW YOUR BALLOT ISSUES: 2017 Ohio State Ballot Issue 1
KNOW YOUR BALLOT ISSUES: 2017 Ohio State Ballot Issue 1
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: OhioSOSHusted
De wet van Buys Ballot
De wet van Buys Ballot
Published: 2016/12/28
Channel: Aardrijkskunde Bijles
Election Day Plan C STEALTH (Payday 2 Breaking Ballot)
Election Day Plan C STEALTH (Payday 2 Breaking Ballot)
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: b33croft
C
C'EST BALLOT.. 😂 (Parodie de Black M - Frérot ft. Soprano)
Published: 2017/07/01
Channel: Monsieur Seby
BALLOT PAPER
BALLOT PAPER
Published: 2017/02/02
Channel: Dist. e-Governance Soecity Ganjam Collectorate
Super Smash Bros Wii U: Failed Ballot Character Auditions
Super Smash Bros Wii U: Failed Ballot Character Auditions
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: daretobestupidshow
Voter Fraud! DemocRATs Caught Stuffing Ballot Boxes, Disgusting!
Voter Fraud! DemocRATs Caught Stuffing Ballot Boxes, Disgusting!
Published: 2016/10/23
Channel: Kadster Lenen
Malcolm X - 06 - The Ballot or the Bullet
Malcolm X - 06 - The Ballot or the Bullet
Published: 2011/03/16
Channel: Increase My Knowledge
Ballot Tender Row : High Court hearing of the tender case ongoing
Ballot Tender Row : High Court hearing of the tender case ongoing
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: KTN News Kenya
BALLOT PAPERS ARRIVE IN MIGORI IN STYLE UNDER TIGHT SECURITY
BALLOT PAPERS ARRIVE IN MIGORI IN STYLE UNDER TIGHT SECURITY
Published: 2017/10/25
Channel: Kenya News Alert TV
Ballot Box Babes Audience Roast (The Jerry Springer Show)
Ballot Box Babes Audience Roast (The Jerry Springer Show)
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: The Jerry Springer Show
Breaking News: SECRET BALLOT APPROVED - Baleka Mbete
Breaking News: SECRET BALLOT APPROVED - Baleka Mbete
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: My Africa
Baleka Mbete announces decision on secret ballot
Baleka Mbete announces decision on secret ballot
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: TimesLIVE
"The Ballot or the Bullet" - Malcolm X - April 3, 1964
"The Ballot or the Bullet" - Malcolm X - April 3, 1964
Published: 2016/07/08
Channel: KD
Migori Residents Disrupt Distribution of IEBC Ballot boxes, this happens |FlipTv
Migori Residents Disrupt Distribution of IEBC Ballot boxes, this happens |FlipTv
Published: 2017/10/25
Channel: Flip Tv Kenya
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A ballot is a device used to cast votes in an election, and may be a piece of paper or a small ball used in secret voting.[1] It was originally a small ball (see blackballing) used to record decisions made by voters.

Each voter uses one ballot, and ballots are not shared. In the simplest elections, a ballot may be a simple scrap of paper on which each voter writes in the name of a candidate, but governmental elections use preprinted ballots to protect the secrecy of the votes. The voter casts his/her ballot in a box at a polling station.

In British English, this is usually called a "ballot paper".[2] The word ballot is used for an election process within an organisation (such as a trade union "holding a ballot" of its members).

Etymology[edit]

The word ballot comes from Italian ballotta, meaning a “small ball used in voting” or a “secret vote taken by ballots” in Venice, Italy.[3]

History[edit]

Ancient Greek ostraca, 5th century BC, Ancient Agora Museum in Athens, housed in the Stoa of Attalus.
Ancient Greek bronze secret ballots used to cast a juror's vote on a case, 3rd century BC, Ancient Agora Museum in Athens, housed in the Stoa of Attalus

In ancient Greece, citizens used pieces of broken pottery to scratch in the name of the candidate in the procedures of ostracism.

The first use of paper ballots to conduct an election appears to have been in Rome in 139 BC, following the introduction of the lex Gabinia tabellaria.

In Ancient India, around 920 AD, in Tamil Nadu, Palm leaves were used for village assembly elections. The palm leaves with candidate names, will be put inside a mud pot, for counting. This was called Kudavolai system.[4][5][6]

The first use of paper ballots in America was in 1629 within the Massachusetts Bay Colony to select a pastor for the Salem Church.[7] Paper ballots were pieces of paper marked and supplied by voters.

Types of voting systems[edit]

Depending on the type of voting system used in the election, different ballots may be used. Ranked ballots allow voters to rank candidates in order of preference, while ballots for first-past-the-post systems only allow voters to select one candidate for each position. In party-list systems, lists may be open or closed.

Design[edit]

Ballots may be tickets rather than forms, as in Israel.
Perspective view of the infamous 2000 Palm Beach County, Florida "butterfly ballot".
Top view of the same 2000 Florida "butterfly ballot".

Ballot design can aid or inhibit clarity in an election. Poor designs lead to confusion and potentially chaos if large numbers of voters spoil or mismark a ballot. The butterfly ballot used in the Palm Beach County, Florida U.S. presidential election, 2000 (a ballot paper that has names down both sides, with a single column of punch holes in the center, which has been likened to a maze[8][9]) led to widespread allegations of mismarked ballots.[10]

Methods[edit]

  • In a jurisdiction using a paper system, voters choose by marking a ballot or, as in the case of Israel and France, picking one pre-marked ballot from among many. In most jurisdictions the ballots are pre-printed with names of candidates and the text of the referenda. The Philippines (until 2007) and Japan are an exception. There, voters must write the names of their candidates on the ballot. Election officials manually count the ballots after the polls close and may be recounted in the event of a dispute.
  • In a jurisdiction using an optical scan voting system, voters choose by filling an oval or by completing an arrow on the printed ballot next to their chosen candidate or referendum position. Voters with disabilities may be provided with electronic ballot marking devices. Optical scan technology has also been used by many standardized tests. Tabulating machines count the ballots either after the polls close or as the voters feed the ballots into the machine, in which case the results are not known until after the polls close. Officials often will manually count any ballots that cannot be read or with a write-in candidate and may recount the ballots in the event of a dispute.
  • In a jurisdiction using a punched card system, voters choose by removing or "punching out" a perforated chad from the ballot next each choice, sometimes with tools as simple as a pin, but usually with a ballot marking device such as the Votomatic. The ballot may be pre-printed with candidates and referenda, or may be a generic ballot placed under a printed list of candidates and referenda. Tabulating machines count ballots after the polls close. Officials may manually count the ballots in the event of a dispute. Punched card voting systems are being replaced by other voting systems because of a high rate of inaccuracy related to the incomplete removal of the perforated chad and the inaccessibility to voters with disabilities.
  • In a jurisdiction using a mechanical voting system, often called a "voting machine", voters choose by pulling a lever next to their choice. There is a printed list of candidates, parties and referenda next to the levers indicating which lever is assigned to which choice. When the voter pulls a lever, it turns a connected gear in the machine, which turns a counter wheel. Each counter wheel shows a number, which is the number of votes cast using that lever. After the polls close, election officials check the wheels' positions and record the totals. No physical ballot is used in this system, except when the voter chooses to write-in a candidate. Other systems are replacing mechanical voting systems because they are inaccessible to disabled voters, do not have a physical ballot and are getting old.
  • In a jurisdiction using an electronic direct record voting system (DRE), voters choose by pushing a button next to a printed list of candidates and referenda, or by touching the candidate or referenda box on a touchscreen interface. As the voter makes a selection, the DRE creates an electronic ballot stored by in the memory components of the system. After the polls close, the system counts the votes and reports the totals to the election officials. Many DREs include a communication device to transmit vote totals to a central tabulator. The touchscreen systems remind people of an automated teller machine (ATM) and often are described as such.
  • Bonser is a method allowing the voter more than two choices for a proposition. Choices of red, yellow and green can indicate disapproval, requirement for more clarity and approval, for example.[11]

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ballot". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  2. ^ "Ballot". Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  3. ^ "Ballot". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  4. ^ "Panchayat Raj, Policy notes 2011-2012" (PDF). Rural development & panchayat raj department, TN Government, India. Retrieved 3 November 2011. 
  5. ^ "Heritage in a park". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2 April 2010. 
  6. ^ "Handbook on Kongu archaeological treasures". The Hindu. Coimbatore, India. 27 June 2005. 
  7. ^ Jones, Douglas W.. A Brief Illustrated History of Voting. University of Iowa Department of Computer Science.
  8. ^ Associated Press (2003-07-14). "State: Ballot display revives chads, chaos of bungled election". Saint Petersburg Times Online Tampa Bay. Retrieved 2014-10-26. 
  9. ^ "Statement of Commissioner Victoria Wilson". Voting Irregularities in Florida During the 2000 Presidential Election, www.usccr.gov. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved 2014-10-26. 
  10. ^ Dershowitz, 'Supreme Injustice: how the High Court hijacked Election 2000', p. 22-28. ISBN 9780195148275
  11. ^ Bonser Method. Retrieved 2016-10-06.

External links[edit]

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