Play Video
1
Epic Persian battle music - At the Gates of Babylon
Epic Persian battle music - At the Gates of Babylon
::2013/07/10::
Play Video
2
300 - First Battle Scene - Full HD 1080p - Earthquake. No Captain, Battle Formations...
300 - First Battle Scene - Full HD 1080p - Earthquake. No Captain, Battle Formations...
::2012/11/12::
Play Video
3
Skyrim Epic Battles: Defend the Hot Gates
Skyrim Epic Battles: Defend the Hot Gates
::2012/12/31::
Play Video
4
Sacred Gate - The Battle Of Thermopylae
Sacred Gate - The Battle Of Thermopylae
::2013/09/27::
Play Video
5
Prince of Persia-Warrior Within soundtrack-Conflict at the entrance
Prince of Persia-Warrior Within soundtrack-Conflict at the entrance
::2008/09/23::
Play Video
6
Battle of Gate Pa, 1864
Battle of Gate Pa, 1864
::2010/10/26::
Play Video
7
Sacred Blood - The Battle of the Granicus (Persian in Throes)
Sacred Blood - The Battle of the Granicus (Persian in Throes)
::2013/02/10::
Play Video
8
Lego 300: The First Battle
Lego 300: The First Battle
::2014/01/18::
Play Video
9
Sacred Blood - The Battle of the Granicus (Persian in throes)
Sacred Blood - The Battle of the Granicus (Persian in throes)
::2012/08/15::
Play Video
10
Prince of Persia: The Forgotten Sands Walkthrough - The Fortress Gates
Prince of Persia: The Forgotten Sands Walkthrough - The Fortress Gates
::2010/06/04::
Play Video
11
Thermopylae - Documentary on the Ancient Battle of Thermopylae
Thermopylae - Documentary on the Ancient Battle of Thermopylae
::2014/06/29::
Play Video
12
Voice of Persia
Voice of Persia
::2014/05/06::
Play Video
13
The Great Gate/Native Fortress - Crash Bandicoot Ost (High Quality)
The Great Gate/Native Fortress - Crash Bandicoot Ost (High Quality)
::2014/08/03::
Play Video
14
LEGO 300 Battle of Thermopylae - Brickworld Chicago 2014
LEGO 300 Battle of Thermopylae - Brickworld Chicago 2014
::2014/06/19::
Play Video
15
The Best Epic Music of Battles
The Best Epic Music of Battles
::2013/10/13::
Play Video
16
Persian Risk - Spirit In My Dreams
Persian Risk - Spirit In My Dreams
::2014/09/17::
Play Video
17
Immediate Music - Black Gates (Subversion)
Immediate Music - Black Gates (Subversion)
::2014/04/15::
Play Video
18
Decisive Battles - Episode 8 - Chalons, 451 A.D.
Decisive Battles - Episode 8 - Chalons, 451 A.D.
::2014/07/01::
Play Video
19
Voice of Persia & Lions Gate Pro
Voice of Persia & Lions Gate Pro
::2013/06/08::
Play Video
20
Battles of the Civil War: Crash Course US History #19
Battles of the Civil War: Crash Course US History #19
::2013/06/20::
Play Video
21
Baldur
Baldur's Gate 2 EE : The Black Pits 2 - The Ambush (Insane Difficulty Solo)
::2013/12/09::
Play Video
22
Total War: Rome 2 - Massive Battles - 300 Heroes of Sparta vs. 20,000 Mob
Total War: Rome 2 - Massive Battles - 300 Heroes of Sparta vs. 20,000 Mob
::2013/09/27::
Play Video
23
Ancient Battles   Victory at Marathon
Ancient Battles Victory at Marathon
::2014/03/19::
Play Video
24
Persepolis Documentary
Persepolis Documentary
::2013/11/12::
Play Video
25
Heroes & Generals - FIRST PERSIAN SHOOTER [Ep 3] | GamesWise
Heroes & Generals - FIRST PERSIAN SHOOTER [Ep 3] | GamesWise
::2014/09/21::
Play Video
26
Rome 2 TW : Leonidas 300 Unit Pack + Persian Empire Mod (Immortals)
Rome 2 TW : Leonidas 300 Unit Pack + Persian Empire Mod (Immortals)
::2013/10/18::
Play Video
27
Total War: Rome II Historical Battle -The Battle of Thermopylae - 300
Total War: Rome II Historical Battle -The Battle of Thermopylae - 300
::2014/07/11::
Play Video
28
War commander operation:  Flood Gates Waves 1,2,3,4,5 ,6,7,8,9,10
War commander operation: Flood Gates Waves 1,2,3,4,5 ,6,7,8,9,10
::2014/03/13::
Play Video
29
Heavens Gate - Livin
Heavens Gate - Livin' in Hysteria (Live 1999)
::2013/05/21::
Play Video
30
Gods of Valhalla | Epic Viking War Anthem | Battle Cry War Marching Music | Phil Johnson 2013 [HQ]
Gods of Valhalla | Epic Viking War Anthem | Battle Cry War Marching Music | Phil Johnson 2013 [HQ]
::2013/10/13::
Play Video
31
Total War Rome 2 Siege Battle
Total War Rome 2 Siege Battle
::2013/09/03::
Play Video
32
300 (2/5) Movie CLIP - This Is Where We Fight (2006) HD
300 (2/5) Movie CLIP - This Is Where We Fight (2006) HD
::2011/05/26::
Play Video
33
Prince of Persia [Two Thrones] FULL WALKTHROUGH
Prince of Persia [Two Thrones] FULL WALKTHROUGH
::2012/05/21::
Play Video
34
Epic Music: Audiomachine - Guardian at the Gates
Epic Music: Audiomachine - Guardian at the Gates
::2013/09/17::
Play Video
35
The Battle of Thermopylae Cinematic Trailer
The Battle of Thermopylae Cinematic Trailer
::2014/07/09::
Play Video
36
Quincy & Karlie   Kitten Bengal 4m & Persian Maine Coon Mix 3m
Quincy & Karlie Kitten Bengal 4m & Persian Maine Coon Mix 3m
::2014/03/28::
Play Video
37
Spartan: The Gates of Troy (Expansion)
Spartan: The Gates of Troy (Expansion)
::2008/06/15::
Play Video
38
Battle of Thermopylae | History in Minutes #13
Battle of Thermopylae | History in Minutes #13
::2014/04/22::
Play Video
39
Sasha
Sasha's Epic Super High Kill (Through the Gate and Over the Wall in One Jump)
::2013/11/28::
Play Video
40
The Forgotten War of 1812.
The Forgotten War of 1812.
::2013/01/27::
Play Video
41
Running Man - Heavens Gate [Alter Ego Records]
Running Man - Heavens Gate [Alter Ego Records]
::2013/06/17::
Play Video
42
The GRECO PERSIAN WARS 3D Anim Battle Serie [preview 1]
The GRECO PERSIAN WARS 3D Anim Battle Serie [preview 1]
::2009/12/07::
Play Video
43
Prince of Persia: The King and His Sons - Soundtrack #4
Prince of Persia: The King and His Sons - Soundtrack #4
::2010/06/01::
Play Video
44
Greatest American Battleship - USS New Jersey (BB-62)
Greatest American Battleship - USS New Jersey (BB-62)
::2013/04/01::
Play Video
45
Greco-Persian Wars Part 2
Greco-Persian Wars Part 2
::2014/01/09::
Play Video
46
Gates of Babylon (acustic cover in orient style)
Gates of Babylon (acustic cover in orient style)
::2014/01/08::
Play Video
47
BBC NEWS SAS iranian Embassy Siege 80s op nimrod
BBC NEWS SAS iranian Embassy Siege 80s op nimrod
::2008/06/01::
Play Video
48
Lost In Music Gates Of Babylon
Lost In Music Gates Of Babylon
::2013/08/14::
Play Video
49
[Hack/Mod] Prince of Persia The Persian Secret Passage - Level 2
[Hack/Mod] Prince of Persia The Persian Secret Passage - Level 2
::2014/01/04::
Play Video
50
Greco Persian Wars Mod: Thermopylae [1/2]
Greco Persian Wars Mod: Thermopylae [1/2]
::2010/04/03::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Battle of the Persian Gate
Part of the Wars of Alexander the Great
Map of the Persian Gate
Date 20 January 330 BC
Location Persian Gate, near Persepolis
Result Macedonian victory
Territorial
changes
Alexander consolidates control of half of Persia, capturing its capital.
Belligerents
Macedonia
Greece
Persia
Commanders and leaders
Alexander III
Parmenion
Philotas
Ariobarzanes 
Strength
17,000[1]
More than 14,000
300-700[2]
Casualties and losses
Heavy 300

The Battle of the Persian Gate was a military conflict between Achaemenid Persian army, commanded by the satrap of Persis, Ariobarzanes, and the invading Macedonian army, commanded by Alexander the Great. In the winter of 330 BC, Ariobarzanes led a last stand of the outnumbered Persian forces[3][4] and held the Macedonian army for a month. Alexander eventually found a path to the rear of the Persians from the captured prisoners of war or a local shepherd.

Background[edit]

The Persian Empire suffered a series of defeats against the Macedonian forces at Issus and Gaugamela, and by the end of 331 BC Alexander had advanced to Babylon and Susa. A Royal Road connected Susa (the first Iranian capital city in Elam) with the more eastern capitals of Persepolis and Pasargadae in Persis, and was the natural venue for Alexander's continued campaign. Meanwhile, King Darius was building a new army at Ecbatana[citation needed] (western province of Hamadan in present-day Iran). Ariobarzanes was charged with preventing the Macedonian advance into Persis, and to this effect he relied heavily on the terrain Alexander needed to pass through. There were only a few possible routes through the Zagros Mountains, all of which were made more hazardous by winter's onset.

After the conquest of Susa, Alexander split the Macedonian army into two parts. Alexander's general, Parmenion, took one half along the Royal Road, and Alexander himself took the route towards Persis. Passing into Persis required traversing the Persian Gates, a narrow mountain pass that lent itself easily to ambush.[5]

During his advance, Alexander subdued the Uxians, a local hill-tribe which had demanded the same tribute from him they used to receive from the Persian kings for safe passage.[6] As he passed into the Persian Gates he met with no resistance. Believing that he would not encounter any more enemy forces during his march, Alexander neglected to send scouts ahead of his vanguard, and thus walked into Ariobarzanes' ambush.

The valley preceding the Persian Gate, called the Tang'e Meyran, is initially very wide, allowing the Macedonian army to enter the mountains at full march. Ariobarzanes occupied a position near the modern-day village of Cheshmeh Chenar. The road curves to the southeast (to face the rising sun) and narrows considerably at that point, making the terrain particularly treacherous. (And thus well suited for Ariobarzanes's purposes.) According to historian Arrian, Ariobarzanes had a force of 4000 infantry and 700 cavalry who faced a Macedonian force of over 10,000. Encyclopædia Iranica suggests a number of defenders of just 700 (or 2000 elsewhere) men.[7]

Battle[edit]

The Persian Gate was only a couple of meters wide at the point of ambush. Once the Macedonian army had advanced sufficiently into the narrow pass, the Persians rained down boulders on them from the northern slopes. From the southern slope, Persian archers launched their projectiles. Alexander's army initially suffered heavy casualties, losing entire platoons at a time.[8] The Macedonians attempted to withdraw, but the terrain and their still-advancing rear guard made an orderly retreat impossible. Alexander was forced to leave his dead behind to save the rest of his army—a great mark of disgrace to the Greeks and Macedonians who valued highly the recovery and proper burial of their fallen.[9]

Ariobarzanes had some reason to believe that success here could change the course of the war. Preventing Alexander's passage through the Persian Gates would force the Macedonian army to use other routes to invade Persia proper, all of which would allow Darius more time to field another army, and possibly stop the Macedonian invasion altogether.

Ariobarzanes held the pass for a month, but Alexander succeeded in encircling the Persian army in a pincer attack with Philotas and broke through the Persian defenses. Alexander and his elite contingent then attacked the force of Ariobarzanes from above in a surprise attack until the Persians could no longer block the pass.[10] Accounts of how he did so vary widely. Curtius and Arrian both report that prisoners of war led Alexander through the mountains to the rear of the Persian position, while a token force remained in the Macedonian camp under the command of Craterus.[11]

"[The Persians]...Fought a memorable fight... Unarmed as they were, they seized the armed men in their embrace, and dragging them down to the ground... Stabbed most of them with their own weapons."[12]

Diodorus and Plutarch generally concur with this assessment, although their numbers vary widely. Modern historians W. Heckel and Stein also lend credence to this argument. Although precise figures are unavailable, some historians[who?] say that this engagement cost Alexander his greatest losses during his campaign to conquer Persia.[4]

According to some accounts, Ariobarzanes, and his surviving companions were trapped, but rather than surrender, they charged straight into the Macedonian lines.[4] One account states that Ariobarzanes was killed in the last charge while another version by Arrian reports that Ariobarzanes escaped to the north where he finally surrendered to Alexander with his companions.[4] Modern Historian J. Prevas maintains that Ariobarzanes and his forces retreated to Persepolis, where they found the city gates closed by Tiridates, a Persian noble and guardian of the royal treasury under Darius III, who had been in secret contact with Alexander the Great.[10] Tiridates realized the futility of trying to resist Alexander's forces, and so allowed Alexander to massacre Ariobarzanes and his troops right outside the city walls of Persepolis rather than fight against Alexander.[10]

A few historians regard the Battle of the Persian Gate as the most serious challenge to Alexander's conquest of Persia.[13][14] Michael Wood has called the battle decisive[15] and A. B. Bosworth refers to it as a "complete and decisive victory for Alexander".[16]

Aftermath[edit]

One of the monuments for Ariobarzanes, in Yasuj, Iran

Similarities between the battle fought at Thermopylae and the Persian Gates have been recognized by ancient and modern authors.[17] The Persian Gates played the role "of a Persian Thermopylae and like Thermopylae it fell."[18] The Battle of the Persian Gates served as a kind of reversal of the Battle of Thermopylae, fought in Greece in 480 BC in an attempt to hold off the invading Persian forces.[9] Here, on Alexander's campaign to exact revenge for the Persian invasion of Greece, he faced the same situation from the Persians. There are also accounts that an Iranian shepherd led Alexander's forces around the Persian defenses, just as a local Greek showed the Persian forces a secret path around the pass at Thermopylae.[9][19]

The defeat of Ariobarzanes's forces at the Persian Gate removed the last military obstacle between Alexander and Persepolis. Upon his arrival at the city of Persepolis, Alexander appointed a general named Phrasaortes as successor of Ariobarzanes. Alexander seized the treasury of Persepolis, which at the time held the largest concentration of wealth in the world, and guaranteed himself financial independence from the Greek states.[20] Four months later, Alexander allowed the troops to loot Persepolis, kill all its men and enslave all its women, perhaps as a way to fulfill the expectations of his army and the Greek citizens, or perhaps as a final act of vengeance towards the Persians.[21] This destruction of the city can be viewed as unusual as its inhabitants surrendered without a fight and Alexander had earlier left Persian cities he conquered, such as Susa, relatively untouched.[22] In May 330 BC, Alexander ordered the terrace of Persepolis, including its palaces and royal audience halls, to be burned before he left to find Darius III.[23] Sources disagree as to why he ordered the destruction: it could have been a deliberate act of revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Greco-Persian War, an impulsive, drunken act, or it could have been out of Alexander's supposed anger over not being recognized as the legitimate successor to Darius III.[23][24]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ D. W. Engels: Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army, University of California Press, Berkeley and London, 1978, ISBN 0-520-04272-7, pp. 72f. (fn. 7)
  2. ^ Aryo Barzan, Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  3. ^ Robinson, Cyril Edward (1929). A History of Greece. Methuen & Company Limited. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d Farrokh, Kaveh (2007-04-24). Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing. pp. 106–. ISBN 9781846031083. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  5. ^ For the identification, see Henry Speck, "Alexander at the Persian Gates. A Study in Historiography and Topography" in: American Journal of Ancient History n.s. 1.1 (2002) 15-234; more....
  6. ^ D. W. Engels: Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army, University of California Press, Berkeley and London, 1978, ISBN 0-520-04272-7, pp. 72f.
  7. ^ "Alexander historians give Ariobarzanes a large army (40,000 infantry and 700 cavalry in Arrian, Anabasis 3.18.2; 25,000 infantry in Curtius 5.3.17 and Diodorus 17.68.1; the latter adds 300 horsemen), and their modern successors follow them unreservedly (e.g., Th. Doge, Alexander, Boston and New York, 1890, p. 401; J. F. C. Fuller, The Generalship of Alexander the Great, London, 1958, pp. 228ff.; N. G. L. Hammond, *Alexander the Great: King, Commander and Statesman, London, 1981, p. 185). However, Greek estimates for Persian infantries were generally valueless (C. Hignett, Xerxes’ Invasion of Greece, Oxford, 1962, pp. 350f.), and Ariobarzanes could hardly have mustered more troops than he had taken to Gaugamela. Arrian's 700 can thus be interpreted as indicating the total strength of Ariobarzanes. Against them Alexander led an army of well over 10,000 men, for having sent Parmenion with the baggage train and heavier-armed troops down the carriage road, he himself took the Macedonian infantry, the lancers and archers through the mountainous track (Arrian, Anabasis 3.18.1; Curtius 5.3.16f.; Diodorus 17.68.1; Stein, op. cit., pp. 19f.)"
  8. ^ Quintus Curtius Rufus
  9. ^ a b c Prevas 17
  10. ^ a b c Prevas 18
  11. ^ Arrian 3.18.5-6; Curtius 5.4.29
  12. ^ Curtius 5.3.31-2
  13. ^ Berve, Das Alexanderreich II, p. 61; A. B. Bosworth
  14. ^ A Historical Commentary on Arrian's History of Alexander I, Oxford, 1980, p. 326
  15. ^ Wood, Michael (1997). In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia. University of California Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-520-21307-4. 
  16. ^ Bosworth, A.B. (1993). Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-521-40679-6. 
  17. ^ Heckel, p. 171
  18. ^ (Burn, 1973, p. 121)
  19. ^ Sarathi Bose, Partha (2003). Alexander the Great's Art of Strategy. Gotham. p. 134. ISBN 1-59240-053-1. 
  20. ^ Prevas 19
  21. ^ Prevas 23
  22. ^ Prevas 27
  23. ^ a b Prevas 33
  24. ^ Prevas, John (2005). Envy of the Gods: Alexander the Great's Ill-fated Journey Across Asia. Da Capo Press. pp. 38–. ISBN 9780306814426. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Ariobarzanes: An Article by Jona Lendering.
  • Pharnabazus, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006.
  • King Darius III: A Research Article on Darius-III Codomannus
  • Gabae: The name of two places in Persia and Sogdiana.
  • Persian Gates: Photos of the battlefield.
  • [1]: ARIOBARZANES, Greek form of an Old Iranian proper name AÚrya-bráza

Coordinates: 30°42′30″N 51°35′55″E / 30.70833°N 51.59861°E / 30.70833; 51.59861

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014