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What actually does Becquerel mean?
What actually does Becquerel mean?
Published: 2015/09/29
Channel: GRS | Deutschland
Radioactivity ~ Henri Becquerel, Marie & Pierre Curie
Radioactivity ~ Henri Becquerel, Marie & Pierre Curie
Published: 2013/04/29
Channel: Dap Dapple
Henri Becquerel
Henri Becquerel's Contribution to Radioactivity
Published: 2014/03/20
Channel: Tabitha Whatley-Moose
Was ist eigentlich ein Becquerel?
Was ist eigentlich ein Becquerel?
Published: 2015/08/04
Channel: GRS | Deutschland
La Radiactividad - Marie Curie Pierre Curie Henri Becquerel - Física
La Radiactividad - Marie Curie Pierre Curie Henri Becquerel - Física
Published: 2012/07/14
Channel: Moisés López Caeiro
[Histoire des sciences] La découverte de la radioactivité
[Histoire des sciences] La découverte de la radioactivité
Published: 2014/09/15
Channel: CEA Recherche
Descoberta da Radioatividade - Roentgen, Becquerel e Marie Curie
Descoberta da Radioatividade - Roentgen, Becquerel e Marie Curie
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: ADVEST
Radioaktivität Becquerel und Curie Meilensteine der Naturwissenschaft und Technik.
Radioaktivität Becquerel und Curie Meilensteine der Naturwissenschaft und Technik.
Published: 2012/11/07
Channel: SuperAtomus
Aula de Química - O experimento de Becquerel
Aula de Química - O experimento de Becquerel
Published: 2014/05/22
Channel: Aula de Química com Prof. Alex Dias
the nuclear medicine "hot lab", handling over 1 giga-becquerel of radioactive technetium 99m.
the nuclear medicine "hot lab", handling over 1 giga-becquerel of radioactive technetium 99m.
Published: 2011/08/26
Channel: bionerd23
Curie, Becquerel, and Radioactivity
Curie, Becquerel, and Radioactivity
Published: 2012/12/21
Channel: Michaela Roberts
How to pronounce Becquerel
How to pronounce Becquerel
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: Emma Saying
Henry Becquerel
Henry Becquerel
Published: 2011/06/06
Channel: Vero Morejon
Atomphysik - Becquerel, Curie, Rutherford, Thomson, Röntgen, Hahn und Oppenheimer
Atomphysik - Becquerel, Curie, Rutherford, Thomson, Röntgen, Hahn und Oppenheimer
Published: 2016/07/31
Channel: Lehrerschmidt
Henri Becquerel
Henri Becquerel
Published: 2013/12/24
Channel: simple science
Marie & Pierre Curie, Henri Becquerel. The Discovery of Radioactivity and Radioactive Elements.
Marie & Pierre Curie, Henri Becquerel. The Discovery of Radioactivity and Radioactive Elements.
Published: 2016/03/19
Channel: 20th Century Time Machine
Becquerel Meaning
Becquerel Meaning
Published: 2015/04/13
Channel: SDictionary
Experimento de Becquerel y los Curie "RADIACTIVIDAD"
Experimento de Becquerel y los Curie "RADIACTIVIDAD"
Published: 2014/06/22
Channel: Camila Fernandez
Nature of Science Henri Becquerel
Nature of Science Henri Becquerel
Published: 2015/05/04
Channel: Daniela Seczon
Nuclear Physics 2 Properties of Becquerel Rays
Nuclear Physics 2 Properties of Becquerel Rays
Published: 2014/04/05
Channel: Brendon Beard
Henri Becquerel
Henri Becquerel
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: Cole Avery
Nuclear Physics 8: Properties of Becquerel Rays
Nuclear Physics 8: Properties of Becquerel Rays
Published: 2008/04/22
Channel: stevebd1
Nuclear Physics 8: Properties of Becquerel Rays
Nuclear Physics 8: Properties of Becquerel Rays
Published: 2007/08/15
Channel: stevebd1
Inspiring Stories Everyday - Henri Becquerel
Inspiring Stories Everyday - Henri Becquerel
Published: 2014/03/01
Channel: Vikatan TV
CATS - The Becquerel Style
CATS - The Becquerel Style
Published: 2013/05/29
Channel: TheYetiMr
London 2016 Proud to BE Becquerel
London 2016 Proud to BE Becquerel
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: Instituto Becquerel
Daguerreotip pel mètode Becquerel
Daguerreotip pel mètode Becquerel
Published: 2015/10/30
Channel: mnactec
Experimento de Becquerel 2ª A
Experimento de Becquerel 2ª A
Published: 2013/11/01
Channel: Wesley Henrique
COREOGRAFÍA SEXTOS CURSOS 2013 COLEGIO BECQUEREL
COREOGRAFÍA SEXTOS CURSOS 2013 COLEGIO BECQUEREL
Published: 2012/10/28
Channel: clubambiental
Becquerel y sus experimentos (calpulli)
Becquerel y sus experimentos (calpulli)
Published: 2015/11/03
Channel: Daniels MK
Secondaire 4 Québec science SCP-4010-2 : unité nucléaire : Sievert, rem, becquerel, rad, gray
Secondaire 4 Québec science SCP-4010-2 : unité nucléaire : Sievert, rem, becquerel, rad, gray
Published: 2014/01/10
Channel: henseignant
The Phantom of the Opera Musical Play - Makati Science High School - Becquerel 2015-2016
The Phantom of the Opera Musical Play - Makati Science High School - Becquerel 2015-2016
Published: 2017/05/12
Channel: Tin-tin G
Daguerrotipo Becquerel
Daguerrotipo Becquerel
Published: 2013/05/09
Channel: Taller Panoptico
Mars: Movie in 3D - Flight over Becquerel Crater
Mars: Movie in 3D - Flight over Becquerel Crater
Published: 2014/12/18
Channel: FUBPlanetarySciences
Daguerrotipo | Becquerel | Primera Parte
Daguerrotipo | Becquerel | Primera Parte
Published: 2013/02/06
Channel: simone choulle
Présentation du Centre Henri-Becquerel
Présentation du Centre Henri-Becquerel
Published: 2016/01/07
Channel: Centre Henri-Becquerel
Chapter 06: Becquerel
Chapter 06: Becquerel
Published: 2014/03/26
Channel: Kelly Foster
Rouen : découverte scientifique du centre H. Becquerel pour le traitement du cancer du sein
Rouen : découverte scientifique du centre H. Becquerel pour le traitement du cancer du sein
Published: 2016/06/06
Channel: France 3 Normandie
Física Nuclear - 2/6 - Propriedades dos raios de Becquerel
Física Nuclear - 2/6 - Propriedades dos raios de Becquerel
Published: 2011/10/31
Channel: Prof. Perdigão
El experimento de Becquerel
El experimento de Becquerel
Published: 2015/11/03
Channel: Mario Alberto Huerta Esquivel
antoine henri becquerel
antoine henri becquerel
Published: 2009/04/04
Channel: alex
Clip du Centre Henri-Becquerel
Clip du Centre Henri-Becquerel
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: Centre Henri-Becquerel
Rule of Nature goes with everything - Becquerel
Rule of Nature goes with everything - Becquerel's Prototyping
Published: 2014/11/24
Channel: Terrabalt
Matemáticas Solidarias - Becquerel 2016
Matemáticas Solidarias - Becquerel 2016
Published: 2016/11/25
Channel: Alberto Andocilla
Nuclear Physics 2 Properties of Becquerel Rays
Nuclear Physics 2 Properties of Becquerel Rays
Published: 2014/06/25
Channel: Carlos F. Banegas
Coreografia SEXTOS 2013 Colegio Becquerel
Coreografia SEXTOS 2013 Colegio Becquerel
Published: 2012/10/22
Channel: Alejandro Garcia
Coreografia Sexto Curso Becquerel 2011
Coreografia Sexto Curso Becquerel 2011
Published: 2011/10/31
Channel: Marcos Manosalvas
profes del colegio becquerel
profes del colegio becquerel
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: Mundo Scout
Centre Henri Becquerel - Pose d
Centre Henri Becquerel - Pose d'une chambre implantable
Published: 2015/12/22
Channel: Centre Henri-Becquerel
III-Becquerel Nutri-Jingle
III-Becquerel Nutri-Jingle
Published: 2012/07/26
Channel: Jonathan Del Castillo
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Becquerel
Unit system SI derived unit
Unit of Radioactivity
Symbol Bq 
Named after Henri Becquerel
In SI base units s−1

The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity. One becquerel is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. The becquerel is therefore equivalent to an inverse second, s−1. The becquerel is named after Henri Becquerel, who shared a Nobel Prize in Physics with Pierre and Marie Curie in 1903 for their work in discovering radioactivity.[1]

Capitalization[edit]

As with every International System of Units (SI) unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (Bq). However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lowercase letter (becquerel)—except in a situation where any word in that position would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in material using title case.[2]

Definition[edit]

1 Bq = 1 s−1

A special name was introduced for the reciprocal second (s−1) to represent radioactivity to avoid potentially dangerous mistakes with prefixes. For example, 1 µs−1 could be taken to mean 106 disintegrations per second: 1·(10−6 s)−1 = 106 s−1.[3] Other names considered were hertz (Hz), a special name already in use for the reciprocal second, and fourier (Fr).[3] The hertz is now only used for periodic phenomena.[4] Whereas 1 Hz is 1 cycle per second, 1 Bq is 1 aperiodic radioactivity event per second.

The gray (Gy) and the becquerel (Bq) were introduced in 1975.[5] Between 1953 and 1975, absorbed dose was often measured in rads. Decay activity was measured in curies before 1946 and often in rutherfords between 1946[6] and 1975.

Prefixes[edit]

Like any SI unit, Bq can be prefixed; commonly used multiples are kBq (kilobecquerel, 103 Bq), MBq (megabecquerel, 106 Bq, equivalent to 1 rutherford), GBq (gigabecquerel, 109 Bq), TBq (terabecquerel, 1012 Bq), and PBq (petabecquerel, 1015 Bq). For practical applications, 1 Bq is a small unit; therefore, the prefixes are common. For example, the roughly 0.0169 g of potassium-40 present in a typical human body produces approximately 4,400 disintegrations per second or 4.4 kBq of activity.[7] The global inventory of carbon-14 is estimated to be 8.5×1018 Bq (8.5 EBq, 8.5 exabecquerel).[8] The nuclear explosion in Hiroshima (An explosion of 16 kt or 67 TJ) is estimated to have produced 8×1024 Bq (8 YBq, 8 yottabecquerel).[9]

Relationship to the curie[edit]

The becquerel succeeded the curie (Ci),[10] an older, non-SI unit of radioactivity based on the activity of 1 gram of radium-226. The curie is defined as 3.7·1010 s−1, or 37 GBq.[3]

Conversion factors:

1 Ci = 3.7×1010 Bq = 37 GBq
1 μCi = 37,000 Bq = 37 kBq
1 Bq = 2.7×10−11 Ci = 2.7×10−5 µCi
1 MBq = 0.027 mCi

Calculation of radioactivity[edit]

For a given mass (in grams) of an isotope with atomic mass (in g/mol) and a half-life of (in s), the amount of radioactivity can be calculated using:

With =6.022 141 79(30)×1023 mol−1, the Avogadro constant.

Since m/ma is the number of moles (n), the amount of radioactivity can be calculated by:

For instance, on average each gram of potassium contains 0.000117 gram of 40K (all other naturally occurring isotopes are stable) that has a of 1.277×109 years = 4.030×1016 s,[11] and has an atomic mass of 39.964 g/mol,[12] so the amount of radioactivity associated with a gram of potassium is 30 Bq.

Radiation-related quantities[edit]

Graphic showing relationships between radioactivity and detected ionizing radiation

The following table shows radiation quantities in SI and non-SI units.

Radiation related quantities view  talk  edit
Quantity Name Symbol Unit Year SI Quantity
Activity (A) curie Ci 3.7 × 1010 s−1 1953 3.7×1010 Bq
becquerel Bq s−1 1974 SI
rutherford Rd 106 s−1 1946 1,000,000 Bq
Exposure (X) röntgen R esu / 0.001293 g of air 1928 2.58 × 10−4 C/kg
Fluence (Φ) (reciprocal area) m−2 1962 SI
Absorbed dose (D) erg erg⋅g−1 1950 1.0 × 10−4 Gy
rad rad 100 erg⋅g−1 1953 0.010 Gy
gray Gy J⋅kg−1 1974 SI
Dose equivalent (H) röntgen equivalent man rem 100 erg⋅g−1 1971 0.010 Sv
sievert Sv J⋅kg−1 × WR 1977 SI

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BIPM - Becquerel". BIPM. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  2. ^ "SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI)". SI Brochure (8 ed.). BIPM. 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c Allisy, A. (1995), "From the curie to the becquerel", Metrologia, 32 (6): 467–479, Bibcode:1995Metro..31..467A, doi:10.1088/0026-1394/31/6/006 
  4. ^ "BIPM - Table 3". BIPM. Retrieved 2015-07-19. (d) The hertz is used only for periodic phenomena, and the becquerel is used only for stochastic processes in activity referred to a radionuclide. 
  5. ^ Harder, D (1976), "[The new radiologic units of measurement gray and becquerel (author's translation from the German original)]", Röntgen-Blätter, 29 (1): 49–52, PMID 1251122. 
  6. ^ Lind, SC (1946), "New units for the measurement of radioactivity", Science, 103 (2687): 761–762, Bibcode:1946Sci...103..761L, doi:10.1126/science.103.2687.761-a, PMID 17836457. 
  7. ^ Radioactive human body — Harvard University Natural Science Lecture Demonstrations - Accessed October 2013
  8. ^ G.R. Choppin, J.O.Liljenzin, J. Rydberg, "Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry", 3rd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7506-7463-8.
  9. ^ Michael J. Kennish, Pollution Impacts on Marine Biotic Communities , CRC Press, 1998, p. 74. ISBN 978-0-8493-8428-8.
  10. ^ It was adopted by the BIPM in 1975, see resolution 8 of the 15th CGPM meeting
  11. ^ "Table of Isotopes decay data". Lund University. 1990-06-01. Retrieved 2014-01-12. 
  12. ^ "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements". NIST. Retrieved 2014-01-12. 

External links[edit]

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