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Dr. Ben Carson talks HUD agenda, Democratic obstruction
Dr. Ben Carson talks HUD agenda, Democratic obstruction
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: Fox News
Morgan Freeman and Ben Carson both think
Morgan Freeman and Ben Carson both think 'Poverty Is a State of Mind'
Published: 2017/05/25
Channel: Mark F
FNN: Ben Carson Confirmation Hearing, Trump Housing & Urban Development (HUD) Secretary
FNN: Ben Carson Confirmation Hearing, Trump Housing & Urban Development (HUD) Secretary
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: FOX 10 Phoenix
CNN
CNN's Angela Rye Reminds Ben Carson That "We Built This Joint for Free"
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Angela Rye
Ben Carson’s Message To Poor People: It’s Your Fault
Ben Carson’s Message To Poor People: It’s Your Fault
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: The Young Turks
HUD Secretary Ben Carson On The State Of Housing And Health Care | CNBC
HUD Secretary Ben Carson On The State Of Housing And Health Care | CNBC
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: CNBC
No, Ben Carson, Slaves Weren
No, Ben Carson, Slaves Weren't "Immigrants": The Daily Show
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: The Daily Show with Trevor Noah
A New Interview with Dr Ben Carson! Secretary of HUD!
A New Interview with Dr Ben Carson! Secretary of HUD!
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: Rshill7
Sen. Elizabeth Warren TAKES ON Ben Carson at Confirmation Hearing for HUD Secretary
Sen. Elizabeth Warren TAKES ON Ben Carson at Confirmation Hearing for HUD Secretary
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: FOX 10 Phoenix
Dr. Ben Carson on "The Value of Common Sense"
Dr. Ben Carson on "The Value of Common Sense"
Published: 2016/12/12
Channel: WF Buckley Jr Program
Ben Carson
Ben Carson's First Address to HUD Employees (Full Speech)
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Right Side Broadcasting Network
Samuel L. Jackson Defends His Dr. Ben Carson Tweet
Samuel L. Jackson Defends His Dr. Ben Carson Tweet
Published: 2017/03/09
Channel: The Late Late Show with James Corden
Ben Carson Just Discovered A Massive Fraud At HUD of $ 1/2 Trillion!
Ben Carson Just Discovered A Massive Fraud At HUD of $ 1/2 Trillion!
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: Culture Shock TV
WATCH: HUD Secretary Ben Carson addresses employees:  "Slaves were hardworking IMMIGRANTS"
WATCH: HUD Secretary Ben Carson addresses employees: "Slaves were hardworking IMMIGRANTS"
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: DONALD TRUMP SPEECHES & PRESS CONFERENCE
HUD Secretary Nominee Dr. Ben Carson Opening Statement (C-SPAN)
HUD Secretary Nominee Dr. Ben Carson Opening Statement (C-SPAN)
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: C-SPAN
Ben Carson Fends Off Every Attack By Elizabeth Warren To Undermine Donald Trump
Ben Carson Fends Off Every Attack By Elizabeth Warren To Undermine Donald Trump
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: Amicus Humani Generis
Ben Carson: Don
Ben Carson: Don't Make Public Housing Too Comfortable
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: Secular Talk
On BEN CARSON Referring To SLAVES As  "IMMIGRANTS" xenophobia???
On BEN CARSON Referring To SLAVES As "IMMIGRANTS" xenophobia???
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: SHYDUX MEDIA
Ben Carson Destroys Elizabeth Warren!
Ben Carson Destroys Elizabeth Warren!
Published: 2017/06/19
Channel: To Tell The Truth
Dr. Benjamin Carson
Dr. Benjamin Carson's Amazing Speech at the National Prayer Breakfast with Obama Present
Published: 2013/02/07
Channel: FreedomsLighthouse
WATCH: Roland Martin Blasts HUD Secretary Dr. Ben Carson For Saying Slaves Were Immigrants
WATCH: Roland Martin Blasts HUD Secretary Dr. Ben Carson For Saying Slaves Were Immigrants
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Roland Martin
DL HUGHLEY TO BEN CARSON: "YOUR ANCESTORS WERE CHAINED TO BOTTOM OF SLAVE SHIPS"
DL HUGHLEY TO BEN CARSON: "YOUR ANCESTORS WERE CHAINED TO BOTTOM OF SLAVE SHIPS"
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: MoorInfo
Ben Carson Thinks Slaves Were Immigrants
Ben Carson Thinks Slaves Were Immigrants
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Justinj1232
Bill O
Bill O'Reilly to Ben Carson: 'Are You Really a Creationist?'
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: Fox News Insider
BREAKING: Dr. Ben Carson  DROPPED a SLEDGEHAMMER - Gave His Opinion of  Leader
BREAKING: Dr. Ben Carson DROPPED a SLEDGEHAMMER - Gave His Opinion of Leader's Faith.
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: MLordandGod
Housing Sec. Ben Carson: Don
Housing Sec. Ben Carson: Don't Let Poor Get Too Cozy | The View
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: The View
Ben Carson Refers To Slaves As
Ben Carson Refers To Slaves As 'Immigrants' During Speech - Donkey of the Day
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Breakfast Club Power 105.1 FM
Ben Carson: An Extraordinary Life - Conversations from Penn State
Ben Carson: An Extraordinary Life - Conversations from Penn State
Published: 2010/03/08
Channel: wpsu
Ben Carson Wants To Put Something Inside Your Head
Ben Carson Wants To Put Something Inside Your Head
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: The Late Show with Stephen Colbert
Ben Carson: Slaves Were "Immigrants" | The View
Ben Carson: Slaves Were "Immigrants" | The View
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: The View
Ben Carson gets trapped in elevator
Ben Carson gets trapped in elevator
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: CNN
Dr. Ben Carson: on life, religion and politics
Dr. Ben Carson: on life, religion and politics
Published: 2016/05/30
Channel: Danny Shelton
Ben Carson Testifies at Confirmation Hearing for Housing Secretary
Ben Carson Testifies at Confirmation Hearing for Housing Secretary
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: Bloomberg Politics
Ben Carson: Poverty
Ben Carson: Poverty 'To A Large Extent' Is 'A State Of Mind'
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Secular Talk
Ben Carson: Owning a home is not a Republican or Democrat issue
Ben Carson: Owning a home is not a Republican or Democrat issue
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: Fox Business
Ben Carson: Poverty Is A
Ben Carson: Poverty Is A 'State Of Mind' | Hardball | MSNBC
Published: 2017/05/25
Channel: MSNBC
Dr. Ben Carson Gifted Hands documentary
Dr. Ben Carson Gifted Hands documentary
Published: 2013/04/05
Channel: Cal Covert
Ben Carson
Ben Carson's 'Immigrants' Comment About Slaves: ‘That’s Just Dumb’ | Morning Joe | MSNBC
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: MSNBC
Say What?! Ben Carson Says ‘Poverty Is a State of Mind’
Say What?! Ben Carson Says ‘Poverty Is a State of Mind’
Published: 2017/05/25
Channel: Roland Martin
Ben Carson Unhinged! Dismantles Obama! Amazing! I Love This Man!
Ben Carson Unhinged! Dismantles Obama! Amazing! I Love This Man!
Published: 2016/09/05
Channel: ProjectClarity
WATCH: Swearing-In of Ben Carson (FNN)
WATCH: Swearing-In of Ben Carson (FNN)
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: FOX 10 Phoenix
Dr Ben Carson VS Evolution
Dr Ben Carson VS Evolution
Published: 2015/06/15
Channel: Three Angels Messages
Pathological: Most Of Ben Carson’s Life Is A Lie
Pathological: Most Of Ben Carson’s Life Is A Lie
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: The Young Turks
Dr. Ben Carson DROPPED A SLEDGEHAMMER
Dr. Ben Carson DROPPED A SLEDGEHAMMER
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: 24h News
Anderson Cooper Takes On Ben Carson Saying "Slaves Were Immigrants"
Anderson Cooper Takes On Ben Carson Saying "Slaves Were Immigrants"
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Freedom of Press
Ben Carson: Gay People Don
Ben Carson: Gay People Don't Deserve 'Extra' Rights
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: The Young Turks
Dr. Ben Carson vs. Dr. Ken Carson: The Doctors Debate: The Daily Show
Dr. Ben Carson vs. Dr. Ken Carson: The Doctors Debate: The Daily Show
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: The Daily Show with Trevor Noah
Ben Carson "Millennials Will Now Have Game Changing Circumstances That Encourage Home Ownership"
Ben Carson "Millennials Will Now Have Game Changing Circumstances That Encourage Home Ownership"
Published: 2017/06/10
Channel: wwwMOXNEWScom
Ben Carson:
Ben Carson: 'It Doesn't Matter' If Donald Trump Sexual Assault Accusers Lie | Morning Joe | MSNBC
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: MSNBC
Ben Carson:
Ben Carson: 'Slaves Were Immigrants Who Worked Really Hard For Less’
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: Complex News
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Ben Carson
Ben Carson official portrait as HUD secretary.jpg
17th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Assumed office
March 2, 2017
President Donald Trump
Deputy Pam Patenaude (nominee)
Preceded by Julian Castro
Personal details
Born Benjamin Solomon Carson
(1951-09-18) September 18, 1951 (age 65)
Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
Political party Republican (1981–1999, 2014–present)[1]
Other political
affiliations
Independent (1999–2014)
Democratic (before 1981)
Spouse(s) Candy Rustin (m. 1975)
Children 3 sons
Education Yale University (BA)
University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor
(MD)
Net worth $29 million (2016)[2]
Awards Presidential Medal of Freedom

Benjamin Solomon Carson Sr. (born September 18, 1951) is an American neurosurgeon, author, and politician who is the 17th and current United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, under the Trump Administration. Prior to his cabinet position, he was a candidate for President of the United States in the Republican primaries in 2016.

Born in Detroit, Michigan, and a graduate of Yale University and the University of Michigan Medical School, Carson has authored numerous books on his medical career and political stances. He was the subject of a television drama film in 2009.

He was the Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Maryland from 1984 until his retirement in 2013. As a pioneer in neurosurgery, Carson's achievements include performing the only successful separation of conjoined twins joined at the back of the head, pioneering the first successful neurosurgical procedure on a fetus inside the womb, performing the first completely successful separation of type-2 vertical craniopagus twins, developing new methods to treat brain-stem tumors, and reviving hemispherectomy techniques for controlling seizures.[3][4][5] He became the youngest chief of pediatric neurosurgery in the country at age 33.[6] He has received more than 60 honorary doctorate degrees, dozens of national merit citations, and written over 100 neurosurgical publications.[7] In 2008, he was bestowed the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States.[8]

Carson's widely publicized speech at the 2013 National Prayer Breakfast catapulted him to conservative fame for his views on social and political issues.[9] On May 4, 2015, he announced he was running for the Republican nomination in the 2016 presidential election at a rally in his hometown of Detroit.[10] In March 2016, following the Super Tuesday primaries, he suspended his campaign and announced he would be the new national chairman of My Faith Votes, a group that encourages Christians to exercise their civic duty to vote.[11][12] He then endorsed the candidacy of Donald Trump.[13]

On March 2, 2017, Carson was confirmed by the United States Senate as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in a 58–41 vote.[14]

Early life and education[edit]

Carson was born in Detroit, Michigan, to Robert Solomon Carson Jr. (December 27, 1914 – August 29, 1992), a World War II U.S. Army veteran, and his wife Sonya Carson (née Copeland). Robert Carson was a Baptist minister, but later a Cadillac automobile plant laborer.[15] Both of his parents came from large families in rural Georgia, and they were living in rural Tennessee when they met and married.[16] Carson's mother was thirteen and his father was 28 when they married, and after his father finished his military service, they moved from Chattanooga, Tennessee to Detroit,[16][17] where they lived in a large house in the Indian Village neighborhood.[18] Carson's older brother, Curtis, was born in 1949, when his mother was twenty.[19] In 1950, Carson’s parents purchased a new 733-square foot single-family detached home on Deacon Street in the Boynton neighborhood in southwest Detroit.[20][21][22]

Carson's Detroit Public Schools education began in 1956 with kindergarten at the Fisher School, and continued through first, second, and the first half of third grade, during which time he was an average student.[23][24] When Carson was five, his mother learned that his father had a prior family and had not divorced his first wife.[25] In 1959, when Carson was eight, his parents separated and he moved with mother and brother to live for two years with his mother’s Seventh-day Adventist older sister and her sister’s husband in multi-family dwellings in the Dorchester and Roxbury neighborhoods of Boston.[25][26] In Boston, Carson's mother attempted suicide, had several psychiatric hospitalizations for depression, and for the first time began working outside the home as a domestic worker,[25] while Carson and his brother attended a two-classroom school at the Berea Seventh-day Adventist church where two teachers taught eight grades and the vast majority of time was spent singing songs and playing games.[23]

In 1961, when Carson was ten, he moved with his mother and brother back to southwest Detroit, where they lived in a multi-family dwelling in a primarily white neighborhood (Springwells Village) across the railroad tracks from the Delray neighborhood, while renting out their house on Deacon Street which his mother received in a divorce settlement.[20][25][27] When they returned to Detroit public schools, Carson and his brother’s academic performance initially lagged far behind their new classmates, having essentially lost a year of school by attending a Seventh-day Adventist church school in Boston,[23][25][28] but both improved when their mother limited their time watching television and required them to read and write book reports on two library books per week.[29] Carson attended the predominantly white Higgins Elementary School for fifth and sixth grades and the predominantly white Wilson Junior High School for seventh and the first half of eighth grade.[24][30] In 1965, when Carson was thirteen, he moved with his mother and brother back to their house on Deacon Street.[31] He attended the predominantly black Hunter Junior High School for the second half of eighth grade.[24][31] When he was eight, Carson had dreamed of becoming a missionary doctor, but five years later he aspired to the lucrative lifestyles of psychiatrists portrayed on television, and his brother bought him a subscription to Psychology Today for his thirteenth birthday.[32][33]

High school[edit]

By ninth grade, the family's financial situation had improved, his mother surprising neighbors by paying cash to buy a new Chrysler car,[34] and the only government assistance they still relied on was food stamps.[35] Carson attended the predominantly black Southwestern High School for ninth through twelfth grades, graduating third in his class academically.[24][36][37][38] In high school he played the baritone horn in the band, and participated in forensics (public speaking),[39] chess club,[40][41] and the U.S. Army Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (JROTC) program where he reached its highest rank—cadet colonel.[36] Carson served as a laboratory assistant in the high school's biology, chemistry, physics school laboratories beginning in tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade, respectively,[42] and worked as a biology laboratory assistant at Wayne State University the summer between eleventh and twelfth grades.[43]

In his book Gifted Hands, Carson relates that as youth as he had a violent temper. "As a teenager, I would go after people with rocks, and bricks, and baseball bats, and hammers," Carson told NBC's Meet the Press in October 2015.[44] He said he once tried to hit his mother on the head with a hammer over a clothing dispute, while in the ninth grade he tried to stab a friend who had changed the radio station. Fortunately, the blade broke in his friend's belt buckle.[45][46][47] Carson said that the intended victim, whose identity he wants to protect, was a classmate, a friend, or a close relative.[48][49] After this incident, Carson said that he began reading the Book of Proverbs and applying verses on anger. As a result, he states he "never had another problem with temper".[50][51][52] In his various books and at campaign events, he repeated these stories and said he once attacked a schoolmate with a combination lock. Nine friends, classmates, and neighbors who grew up with him told CNN in 2015 they did not remember the anger or violence he has described.[53] In response, Carson posted on Facebook a 1997 Parade Magazine issue, in which his mother verified the stabbing incident. He then questioned the extent of the effort CNN had exerted in the investigation.[48]

He has said that he protected white students in a biology lab after a race riot broke out at his high school in response to the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968. The Wall Street Journal confirmed the riot but could not find anyone who remembered Carson sheltering white students.[54][55]

College[edit]

Carson’s SAT college admission test scores ranked him somewhere in the low ninetieth percentile, which according to him resulted in a Detroit Free Press article "Carson Gets Highest SAT Scores in Twenty Years" of any student in Detroit public schools.[37][38][56][57] He wanted to attend college farther away than his brother who was at the University of Michigan.[58] Carson says he narrowed his college choices to Harvard or Yale, but could only afford the $10 application fee to apply to one of them.[38][59] He said he decided to apply to Yale after seeing a team from Yale defeat a team from Harvard on the G.E. College Bowl television show.[60][61][62][63][64][65] Carson was accepted by Yale and offered a full scholarship covering tuition, room and board.[66][67] Carson graduated with a B.A. in psychology from Yale in 1973 "with a fairly respectable grade point average, although far from the top of the class."[68][69]

Carson does not say in his books if he received a college student deferment during the Vietnam War. He does say that his older brother, then a student at the University of Michigan, received a low number (26) in the first draft lottery in 1969 and was able to enlist in the Navy for four years instead of being drafted,[70] whereas he received a high number (333) in the second draft lottery in 1970.[71] Carson said he would have readily accepted his responsibility to fight had he been drafted,[71] but he "identified strongly with the antiwar protesters and the revolutionaries" and enthusiastically voted for antiwar Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern in 1972.[72] In his book, America the Beautiful (2012), Carson said: "The Vietnam War was, in retrospect, not a noble conflict. It brought shame to our nation because of both the outcome and the cause."[73]

In the summers following his high school graduation until his second year in medical school, Carson worked at a variety of jobs: as a clerk in the payroll office of Ford Motor Company, supervisor of a six-person crew picking up trash along the highway under a federal jobs program for inner-city students, a clerk in the mailroom of Young & Rubicam Advertising, assembling fender parts and inspecting back window louvers on the assembly line at Chrysler, a crane operator at Sennett Steel, and finally a radiology technician taking X-rays.[74] At Yale, Carson had a part-time job on campus as a student police aide.[75]

In his autobiography, Carson said he had been offered a scholarship to West Point. Politico reported that West Point has no record of his ever seeking admission. The academy does not award scholarships to anyone;[76] cadets receive a free education and room and board in exchange for a commitment to serve in the military for at least five years after graduation.[76] Carson also said the University of Michigan had offered him a scholarship. His staff later said that the described scenario was similar to that of West Point, as he never actually applied for entry to the University of Michigan.[77]

In his autobiography, Gifted Hands, Carson recounted that exams for a Yale psychology course he took his junior year, "Perceptions 301", were inexplicably burned, forcing students to retake the exam. Carson said that other students walked out in protest when they discovered the retest was significantly harder than the original examination, but he alone finished the test. On doing so, Carson said he was congratulated by the course instructor who told him the retest was a hoax intended to find "the most honest student in the class". Carson said the professor awarded him $10, and that a photographer for the Yale Daily News was present to take his picture, which appeared in the student newspaper with a story about the experiment. Doubts were raised about this story in 2015 during Carson's presidential campaign. The Wall Street Journal attempted to verify Carson's account, reporting that Yale undergraduate courses were identified with only two digits in the early 1970s, and that Yale offered no course called "Perceptions 301" at that time and that Carson's photo never appeared in the Yale Daily News.[54] Carson, while acknowledging the class number was not correct, said: "You know, when you write a book with a co-writer and you say that there was a class, a lot of [the] time they’ll put a number or something just to give it more meat. You know, obviously, decades later, I’m not going to remember the course number."[78]

Medical school[edit]

Carson entered the University of Michigan Medical School in 1973, and at first struggled academically, doing so poorly on his first set of comprehensive exams that his faculty adviser recommended he drop out of medical school or take a reduced academic load and take longer to finish.[79] He continued with a regular academic load, and his grades improved to average in his first year of medical school. By his second year of medical school, Carson began to excel academically by seldom attending lectures and instead, studying textbooks and lecture notes from 6 a.m. to 11 p.m.[80] Carson graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School with an M.D. in 1977, and was elected to the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society.[69]

Carson was then accepted by the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine neurosurgery program, where he served one year as a surgical intern and five years as a neurosurgery resident, completing the final year as chief resident in 1983.[81] He then spent one year (1983–1984) as a Senior Registrar in neurosurgery at the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Nedlands, a suburb of Perth, Western Australia.[82]

Surgeon[edit]

Carson during his career as a surgeon

After medical school, Carson completed his residency in neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland.[83] Around this time, as Carson later related to Karen Hunter of Sirius XM, he was held at gunpoint at a Popeyes restaurant in Baltimore. Armstrong Williams, Carson's campaign business manager, later told Wolf Blitzer of CNN that several people in the neighborhood chased the robber down the street. Neither the Baltimore police department nor Popeyes could corroborate Carson's story, since no police report had been made.[84]

In 1983, at the suggestion of an Australian colleague, he accepted the position of senior registrar at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (in Perth, Western Australia), spending one year there.[85] Upon returning to Johns Hopkins in 1984, Carson was appointed the university's Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery.[86] As a surgeon, he specialized in traumatic brain injuries, brain and spinal cord tumors, achondroplasia, neurological and congenital disorders, craniosynostosis, epilepsy, and trigeminal neuralgia.[87] He has said that his hand–eye coordination and three-dimensional reasoning made him a gifted surgeon.[88]

While at Johns Hopkins, Carson figured in the revival of the hemispherectomy, a drastic surgical procedure in which part or all of one hemisphere of the brain is removed to control severe pediatric epilepsy. Encouraged by John M. Freeman,[89] he refined the procedure in the 1980s and performed it many times.[90][91]

In 1987, Carson was the lead neurosurgeon of a 70-member surgical team that separated conjoined twins, Patrick and Benjamin Binder, who had been joined at the back of the head (craniopagus twins); the separation surgery held promise in part because the twin boys had separate brains.[92] Both boys entered the hospital "giggling and kicking" in preparation for surgery without which the seven-month-old twins would never have been able to crawl, walk, or even turn over.[92] The Johns Hopkins surgical team rehearsed the surgery for weeks, practising on two dolls secured together by Velcro.[92] Although follow-up stories were few following the Binder twins' return to Germany seven months after the operation,[92] both twins were reportedly "far from normal" two years after the procedure, with one in a vegetative state.[92][93][94][95] "I will never get over this . . . Why did I have them separated?" said their mother, Theresia Binder, in a 1993 interview.[92] Neither twin was ever able to talk or care for himself, and both would eventually become institutionalized wards of the state.[92] Patrick Binder died sometime during the last decade, according to his uncle, who was located by the Washington Post in 2015.[92] The Binder surgery served as blueprint for similar twin separations, a procedure that was refined in subsequent decades.[92] Carson participated in four subsequent high-risk conjoined twin separations, including a 1997 operation on craniopagus Zambian twins, Joseph and Luka Banda, which resulted in a normal neurological outcome.[92] Two sets of twins died, including Iranian twins Ladan and Laleh Bijani; another separation resulted in the death of one twin and the survival of another, who is legally blind and struggles to walk.[96]

According to the Washington Post, the Binder surgery "launched the stardom" of Carson, who "walked out of the operating room that day into a spotlight that has never dimmed", beginning with a press conference that was covered worldwide, which created name recognition leading to publishing deals and a motivational speaking career.[92] On the condition the film would have its premiere in Baltimore,[92] Carson agreed to a cameo appearance as "head surgeon" in the 2003 Farrelly brothers' comedy Stuck on You, starring Matt Damon and Greg Kinnear as conjoined twins who, unhappy after their surgical separation, continue life attached to each other by Velcro.[92][97]

In March 2013, Carson announced he would retire as a surgeon, saying he would "much rather quit when I'm at the top of my game."[98] His retirement became official on July 1, 2013.[99]

Articles, books, business relationships, media posts[edit]

Carson has written many articles in peer-reviewed journals[100] and six bestselling books[101] published by Zondervan, an international Christian media and publishing company. The first book was an autobiography published in 1992. Two others are about his personal philosophies of success, which include focused, high-quality work and what he sees as the stabilizing influence of religion.[102][103]

On August 7, 2002, Carson underwent surgery for prostate cancer.[104] Interviewed in the following November, he said the surgery had successfully removed all cancerous tissue and he was completely cured of the disease.[105] In 2004, in a speech at a Mannatech, Inc. event, he credited the company's products with the disappearance of his cancer symptoms.[106][107] According to CNN, Carson had an "extensive relationship" from 2004 to 2014 with Mannatech, a multi-level marketing company that produces dietary supplements made from substances such as aloe vera extract and larch-tree bark.[106][107][108] Carson gave four paid speeches at company events. He has denied being paid by Mannatech to do anything else, saying he has been a "prolific speaker" who has addressed many groups.[109] The nature of this relationship became an issue in 2015 during Carson's presidential campaign. Carson's relationship with Mannatech continued after the company paid $7 million in 2009 to settle a deceptive-marketing lawsuit, in Texas, over claims that its products could cure autism and cancer.[106][110][111] His most recent paid speech for the company was in 2013, for which he was paid $42,000. His image appeared on the corporation's website in 2014,[106] and in the same year he praised their "glyconutrient" supplements in a PBS special that was subsequently featured on the site.[112]

Carson delivered the keynote address at a Mannatech distributor convention in 2011, during which he said the company had donated funds to help him obtain a coveted endowed chair post at Johns Hopkins Medicine: "... three years ago I had an endowed chair bestowed upon me and uh, it requires $2.5 million to do an endowed chair and I'm proud to say that part of that $2.5 million came from Mannatech." In October 2015, Carson's campaign team said "there was no contribution from Mannatech to Johns Hopkins", and his statement had been "a legitimate mistake on his part. Confusion. He had been doing some fundraising for the hospital and some other chairs about that time, and he simply got things mixed up."[113]

During the CNBC GOP debate on October 28, 2015, Carson was asked about his relationship with Mannatech. He replied, "That's easy to answer. I didn't have any involvement with Mannatech. Total propaganda. I did a couple speeches for them. I did speeches for other people—they were paid speeches. It is absolutely absurd to say I had any kind of relation with them. Do I take the product? Yes. I think it is a good product."[114] Politifact rated Carson's denial of any involvement as "false", pointing to his paid speeches for Mannatech and his appearances in promotional videos in which he favorably reviewed its products, despite not being "an official spokesman or sales associate".[108] When the CNBC moderator commented that Carson was on Mannatech's website, Carson replied that he had not given his permission. Earlier, he had said that he was unaware of the company's legal history.[115]

On November 3, 2015, Mannatech said on its website that for compliance with Federal campaign finance regulations the company had removed all references to Carson before he announced his bid for the presidency.[116]

In July 2013, Carson was hired by The Washington Times as a weekly opinion columnist.[117] In October 2013, Fox News hired Carson as a contributor, to provide analysis and commentary across Fox News Channel's daytime and primetime programming, a relationship which lasted to the end of 2014.[118]

In financial disclosure forms, Carson and his wife reported income of between $8.9 million and $27 million from January 2014 to May 3, 2015, when he announced his presidential campaign.[119] Over that period, Carson received over $4 million from 141 paid speeches; between $1.1 million and $6 million in book royalties; between $200,000 to $2 million as a contributor to the Washington Times and Fox News; and between $2 million and $10 million as a member of the boards of Kellogg Co. and Costco Wholesale Corp.[119] He resigned from Costco's board in mid-2015, after serving on it for more than 16 years.[120] Carson was Chairman of the Baltimore-based biotechnology company Vaccinogen from August 2014[121] until the announcement of his US presidential bid in May 2015.[122] Carson had previously served on Vaccinogen's Medical Advisory Board.[123]

2016 presidential campaign[edit]

Carson speaking at a campaign event in August 2015

Background and increasing political visibility[edit]

Carson, who had been registered as a Republican, changed his registration to independent in the 1990s after watching Republicans impeach President Clinton for perjury and obstruction of justice regarding an extramarital affair with Monica Lewinsky. "I just saw so much hypocrisy in both parties", he said.[124] In February 2013, Carson said he was not a member of any political party.[125]

In his book America the Beautiful (2013), he wrote: "I believe it is a very good idea for physicians, scientists, engineers, and others trained to make decisions based on facts and empirical data to get involved in the political arena."[126][127]

Carson was the keynote speaker at the National Prayer Breakfast on February 7, 2013.[128] The speech garnered Carson considerable attention because the event is normally apolitical in nature, and the speech was critical of the philosophy and policies of President Barack Obama, who was sitting 10 feet away.[129]

About the speech, Carson said: "I don't think it was particularly political... You know, I'm a physician".[130] Regarding the policies of President Obama, he said: "There are a number of policies that I don't believe lead to the growth of our nation and don't lead to the elevation of our nation. I don't want to sit here and say all of his policies are bad. What I would like to see more often in this nation is an open and intelligent conversation".[130]

Carson's sudden popularity among conservatives led to his being invited as a featured speaker at the 2013 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC). He tied for seventh place in the Washington Times/CPAC 2013 Straw Poll with 4% of the 3,000 ballots cast.[131][132] In the 2014 CPAC straw poll, he was in third place with 9% of the vote, behind senators Ted Cruz of Texas (with 11%) and Rand Paul of Kentucky (31%).[133] In the presidential straw poll at the 2013 Values Voter Summit he and Rick Santorum polled 13%, with winner Ted Cruz polling 42%, and in 2014 he polled 20% to Cruz's winning 25%.[134][135]

On November 4, 2014, the day of the 2014 midterms, he rejoined the Republican Party, saying it was "truly a pragmatic move" because he was considering running for president in 2016.[124]

In January 2015, The Weekly Standard reported that the Draft Carson Committee had raised $13 million by the end of 2014, shortly after Carson performed well in a CNN/ORC poll of potential candidates in December 2014, coming second in two different versions. He polled 10% to Mitt Romney's 20%, but in the same poll with Romney removed from the list, Carson polled 11% to Jeb Bush's 14%.[136][137] The Wall Street Journal mentioned that the Draft Carson Committee had chairmen in all of Iowa's 99 counties, and that Carson had recently led two separate Public Policy polls for the state of Pennsylvania.[138][139]

Announcement of campaign[edit]

On May 2, 2015, Carson proclaimed that in two days, he was going to make a major announcement on his decision on whether to enter the Presidential Race.[140] In an interview with a Cincinnati TV station WKRC (AM) on May 3, 2015, Carson accidentally confirmed his candidacy for president.[141] The interview was also broadcast live on WPEC.[142] The next day, May 4, 2015, at the Music Hall Center for the Performing Arts in his home town of Detroit,[10] he officially announced his run for the Republican nomination in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. The announcement speech was preceded by a choir singing "Lose Yourself" with Carson sitting in the audience. After the song, Carson took the stage and announced his candidacy alongside a speech on his rags to riches life story, at one point stating: "I remember when our favorite drug dealer was killed."[143]

Surge in polls[edit]

Carson taking a photo with a supporter at a rally in August 2015

In October 2015, the Super PAC supporting Carson, The 2016 Committee (formerly the Draft Carson Committee) announced it had received donations in mostly $100 increments from more than 200 small businesses around the country over the course of one week. Fox Business reported that "Carson's outsider status is growing his small business support base." Ben Walters, a fundraiser for The 2016 Committee expressed optimism about Carson's small business support base: "It's unbelievable the diversity of businesses that we are bringing on. We are seeing everything from doctors’ offices and folks in the healthcare profession to motorcycle repair shops and bed and breakfasts."[144]

In October, it was noted that Carson's "improbable" political career had surged in polls and fundraising, while he continued to participate in nationally televised Republican debates.[145][146]

Decline in polls[edit]

Carson speaking before the Nevada caucuses in February 2016

The campaign brought considerable attention to Carson's past. CBS News described Carson's narrative of "overcoming impossible odds as a child growing up in an impoverished, single-parent household to reach international prominence as a pediatric neurosurgeon" as "a key part of his presidential campaign." [147] The Wall Street Journal said the narrative came under "the harsh scrutiny of presidential politics, where rivals and media hunt for embellishments and omissions that can hobble a campaign."[148] CNN characterized the core narrative as "acts of violence as an angry young man," followed by a spiritual epiphany that transformed Carson into the "composed figure" he now portrays.[53] Media challenges to a number of Carson's statements included allegations of discrepancies between documented facts and certain assertions in his autobiography Gifted Hands—allegations dismissed by Carson as a media "witch hunt".[76] In November 2015, the Detroit Free Press republished an article from 1988 "to try to bring some clarity to the claims currently being brought into question."[149]

In November 2015, Carson's campaign aired a 60-second TV advertisement in which excerpts from Carson's stump speech were intercut with a rap by an artist named Aspiring Mogul.[150] They spent $150,000 on the ads, which were aired in Atlanta, Detroit and Miami.[151] Carson initially weakly defended the ad, saying "Well, there are people in the campaign who felt that was a good way to do things ... I support them in doing that, but I probably would have taken a little different approach."[150] He then later said the advertisement was done without his knowledge, that "it was done by people who have no concept of the black community and what they were doing", and that he was "horrified" by it.[152] A reporter pointed out that the advertisement contained an explicit approval statement from Carson, and he replied "Well, obviously. But you notice no more of those kind of ads coming out now."[152]

Statements that Carson made regarding foreign policy called into doubt his familiarity with the domain. The New York Times reported in 2015, "Carson has acknowledged being something of a novice on foreign affairs". Regarding the Ukrainian crisis, Carson would send arms to Ukraine to aid it in its fight against pro-Russian rebels. He also believes the Baltic states should "get involved in NATO" (apparently unaware that they are NATO members).[153]

In a November 2015 Republican debate, Carson declared his intentions to make ISIS "look like losers" as he would "destroy their caliphate". Carson also advocated capturing a "big energy field" outside of Anbar, Iraq, which he said could be accomplished "fairly easily". Regarding the Middle East, he also claimed that "the Chinese are there"; while in contrast, The Guardian reported that "there are no known members of the Chinese armed forces currently engaged in any conflict in the Middle East".[154]

Carson said that he is not opposed to a Palestinian state, but questioned why it needs "to be within the confines of Israeli territory […] Is that necessary, or can you sort of slip that area down into Egypt?"[155]

Withdrawal from campaign[edit]

On March 2, following the Super Tuesday, 2016 primaries, Carson announced that he did "not see a political path forward" and would not attend the next Republican debate in Detroit.[11] He said, "this grassroots movement on behalf of 'We the People' will continue," indicating that he would give more details later in the week.[11] He suspended his campaign on March 4 and announced he would be the new national chairman of My Faith Votes, a group that encourages Christians to exercise their civic duty to vote.[11][12]

In total, Ben Carson's campaign spent $58 million. However, most of the money went to political consultants and fundraising rather than advertising. Carson questioned whether his campaign was economically sabotaged from within.[156][157][158]

Further activities during 2016 election[edit]

On March 11, 2016, a week after Carson ended his presidential campaign, he endorsed Trump, calling him part of "the voice of the people to be heard."[159] Carson's subsequent comments that Americans would only have to sustain Trump for four years if he was not a good president drew criticism and he admitted that he would have preferred another candidate though thought Trump had the best chance of winning the general election.[160] On the other hand, at the press conference Carson stated that Trump had a "cerebral" side.[13]

On April 16, Carson spoke favorably of the possibility of abolishing the Electoral College, believing it disregards "the will of the people".[161] Later that month, on April 25, Carson expressed opposition to Harriet Tubman replacing Andrew Jackson on the $20 bill, the day after dubbing the replacement "political expediency", though he indicated interest in Tubman having another tribute.[162] In late April, Carson wrote to the Nevada Republican Party, requesting the two delegates he won in Nevada be released and free to support whoever they want.[163]

On May 4, after Trump wrapped up the Republican nomination, he hinted that Carson would be among those who would vet his vice-presidential pick.[164] The same day, Carson in an interview expressed interest in Ted Cruz serving as either Attorney General of the United States, a position that Carson said would allow Cruz to prosecute Hillary Clinton, or a Supreme Court Justice in a Trump administration.[165] On May 6, Carson said in interview that Trump would consider a Democrat as his running mate, conflicting with Trump's asserting that he would not. A Carson spokesperson later said Carson expected Trump to select a Republican.[166] Carson was said by aide Armstrong Williams in a May 10 interview to have withdrawn from the Trump campaign's vetting team, though the campaign confirmed he was still involved.[167] Later that month, Carson revealed a list of potential vice-presidential candidates in an interview with the Washington Post.[168] On May 16, Carson said the media could not keep opinion out of reporting and cited Walter Cronkite as a fair journalist that was in his words a "left-wing radical."[169]

During the Republican National Convention, Carson appeared with former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani in support of the pro-Donald Trump Great America PAC at an event in Cleveland.[170]

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development[edit]

Nomination and confirmation[edit]

After Donald Trump's win in the 2016 election, Carson joined Trump's transition team as Vice Chairman. Carson was also offered a cabinet position in the administration. He declined, in part because of his lack of experience, with an aide stating, "The last thing he would want to do was take a position that could cripple the presidency."[171] Although it was reported that the position was for Secretary of Health and Human Services, Carson's business manager has disputed this, stating, "Dr. Carson was never offered a specific position, but everything was open to him."[171] He was eventually offered the position of Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, which he accepted.[172]

On December 5, 2016, Trump announced that he would nominate Carson to the position of Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.[173] During the confirmation process, Carson was scrutinized by some housing advocates for what they perceived as his lack of relevant experience, and because he has been one the most hostile critics of HUD's role in enforcing anti-discrimination laws.[174] During the confirmation hearing, Carson "would not commit definitively to avoid directing tax dollars to Trump businesses."[175]

On January 24, 2017, the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs voted unanimously to approve the nomination.[176] On March 2, 2017, Carson was confirmed by the Senate by a 58-41 vote.[175]

Tenure[edit]

On March 6, his first day as secretary, while addressing Housing and Urban Development (HUD) employees, Carson saluted the work ethic of immigrants, and during his comments appeared to compare slaves to voluntary immigrants. A HUD spokesman said that no one present thought Carson "was equating voluntary immigration with involuntary servitude."[177] In the same speech, Carson inaccurately said that the human brain "was incapable of forgetting and could be electrically stimulated into perfect recall."[178]

Under the federal budget proposed by Trump in 2017, HUD's budget for fiscal year 2018 would be cut by $6.2 billion (13%) and the Community Development Block Grant, a program which Carson praised in a trip to Detroit as HUD secretary, would be eliminated.[179][180] Carson issued a statement supporting the proposed cuts.[181] Carson suggested that federal funds for housing in Detroit could be part of an expected infrastructure bill.[179]

On April 3, while speaking in Washington at the National Low Income Housing Coalition conference, Carson reported housing funding's inclusion in an upcoming infrastructure bill from the Trump administration.[182]

Carson Scholars Fund[edit]

In 1994, Carson and his wife started the Carson Scholars Fund, which awards scholarships to students in grades 4–11 for "academic excellence and humanitarian qualities".[183] They founded it after reading that U.S. students ranked second to last in terms of math and science testing among 22 countries. They also noticed that schools awarded athletes with trophies, whereas honor students only received "a pin or certificate."

Recipients of the Carson Scholars Fund receive a $1,000 scholarship towards their college education. It has awarded 6,700 scholarships.[183][184] In recognition for his work with the Carson Scholars Fund and other charitable giving throughout his lifetime, Carson was awarded the William E. Simon Prize for Philanthropic Leadership in 2005.[185]

Personal life[edit]

Carson and his wife, Lacena "Candy" Rustin, met in 1971 as students at Yale University. They married in 1975 and lived in Howard County, Maryland,[186] before moving in 2001 to West Friendship, Maryland, where they had purchased a 48-acre property.[187] Together, the couple have three sons (Rhoeyce, Benjamin Jr., and Murray), as well as several grandchildren. Their youngest son, Murray, was born in Perth, Australia, while Carson was undertaking a residency there.[85]

In 2013, Carson, his wife, and Carson's mother moved to West Palm Beach, Florida.[188][189]

Religion[edit]

Carson speaking at a church service in Des Moines, Iowa

Carson and his wife are members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA).[190][191] Carson was baptized at Burns Seventh-day Adventist Church on Detroit's eastside. A few years later, he told the pastor at a church he was attending in Inkster, Michigan that he had not fully understood his first baptism and wanted to be baptized again, so he was.[192] He has served as a local elder and Sabbath School teacher in the Seventh-day Adventist Church.[193] His mother is a devout Seventh-day Adventist.[194] Although Carson is an Adventist, the church has officially cautioned church employees to remain politically neutral.[195]

In keeping with his Seventh-day Adventist faith Carson announced in 2014 his belief, "that the United States will play a big role" in the coming apocalypse. He went on to say, "I hope by that time I'm not around anymore."[196]

In an interview with Katie Couric, Carson said that Jesus Christ came to Earth to redeem the world through his atoning sacrifice and that all people are sinners and need his redemption.[197][198]

Carson has stated he does not believe in hell as understood by some Christians: "You know, I see God as a very loving individual. And why would he torment somebody forever who only had a life of 60 or 70 or 80 years? Even if they were evil. Even if they were only evil for 80 years?". This is fully in line with Adventist teaching, which promotes annihilationism.[199]

Carson endorsed Seventh-day Adventist theology, which includes belief in a literal reading of the first chapters of Genesis.[200] In a 2013 interview with Adventist News Network, Carson said "You know, I’m proud of the fact that I believe what God has said, and I’ve said many times that I’ll defend it before anyone. If they want to criticize the fact that I believe in a literal, six-day creation, let's have at it because I will poke all kinds of holes in what they believe."[201] Carson's Adventism was raised as an issue by his then-primary rival Donald Trump.[202] Some Adventists have argued that Carson's political positions on gun rights and religious liberty conflict with historic Adventist teachings in favor of nonviolence, pacifism, and the separation of church and state.[195][203]

Vegetarianism[edit]

Consistent with the practice of many Adventists, Carson is a lacto-ovo vegetarian (he will eat dishes containing milk, eggs, or cheese, and occasionally, poultry).[204][205][206] He has said his main reason for becoming vegetarian was health concerns, including avoiding parasites and heart disease, and he emphasizes the environmental benefits of vegetarianism.[205] His transition was made easier because he had eaten little meat for aesthetic reasons as a child,[205] and he readily adopted his wife's vegetarianism because she does much of the cooking in their household.[205][206] Speaking in 1990, he said that with the increasing availability of meat substitutes, "It might take 20 years. But eventually there will no longer be a reason for most people to eat meat. And animals will breathe a sigh of relief."[205] To avoid causing others discomfort, he is willing to occasionally eat chicken or turkey, although he finds eating pork highly unpleasant.[206]

Awards and honors[edit]

Carson at the White House in 2008 for the Presidential Medal of Freedom

Carson is a member of the American Academy of Achievement,[207] Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society,[208] and the Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans.[209] Carson has been awarded 38 honorary doctorate degrees and dozens of national merit citations.[210] Detroit Public Schools opened the Dr. Benjamin Carson High School of Science and Medicine[211] for students interested in pursuing healthcare careers. The school is partnering with Detroit Receiving Hospital and Michigan State University.[212]

Books by Carson[edit]

  • Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story. Zondervan. 1992. ISBN 978-0-310-54651-1.  (with Cecil Murphey)
  • Think Big: Unleashing Your Potential for Excellence. Zondervan. 1996. ISBN 0-310-21459-9. 
  • The Big Picture: Getting Perspective on What's Really Important in Life. Zondervan. 2000. ISBN 978-0-310-22583-6.  (with Gregg Lewis)
  • Take the Risk: Learning to Identify, Choose, and Live with Acceptable Risk. Zondervan. 2009. ISBN 0-310-25973-8. 
  • America the Beautiful: Rediscovering What Made This Nation Great. Thomas Nelson. 2013. ISBN 0-310-33091-2.  (with Candy Carson)
  • One Nation: What We Can All Do to Save America's Future. Sentinel. 2014. ISBN 1-59523-112-9.  (with Candy Carson), on the New York Times bestsellers list for 20 straight weeks, with 5 weeks as #1[136]
  • One Vote: Make Your Voice Heard. Tyndale House. 2014. ISBN 1-4964-0632-X.  (with Candy Carson)
  • You Have a Brain: A Teen's Guide to T.H.I.N.K. B.I.G. 2015. ISBN 0-310-74599-3.  (with Gregg Lewis, Deborah Shaw Lewis)
  • My Life: Based on the Book Gifted Hands. Zondervan. 2015. ISBN 0-310-34451-4.  (with Cecil Murphey)
  • A More Perfect Union: What We the People Can Do to Reclaim Our Constitutional Liberties. 2015. ISBN 978-0-698-19500-4.  (with Candy Carson)

Biographical works about Carson[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Solomon, John. Ben Carson officially changes political parties, rejoins GOP, The Washington Times (November 4, 2014).
  2. ^ Peterson-Withorn, Chase (December 22, 2016). "Here's What Each Member Of Trump's $4.5 Billion Cabinet Is Worth". Forbes. 
  3. ^ Library, C. N. N. "Ben Carson Fast Facts – CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved July 20, 2016. 
  4. ^ Burger, Peter C; Khandji, Alexander G; Tihan, Tarik; Carson, Benjamin S; Canoll, Peter D; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Zacharia, Brad E; Mocco, J; Sughrue, Michael E (November 24, 2004). "Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma: A Review". Medscape General Medicine. 6 (4): 42. ISSN 1531-0132. PMC 1480592Freely accessible. PMID 15775869. 
  5. ^ Henig, Robin Marantz (June 8, 1993). "Scientist At Work: Benjamin S. Carson; For Many, Pediatric Neurosurgeon Is a Folk Hero". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 20, 2016. 
  6. ^ Belluck, Pam; Eder, Steve (November 22, 2015). "With Ben Carson, the Doctor and the Politician Can Vary Sharply". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 20, 2016. 
  7. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com. "Ben S. Carson". The Washington Times. Retrieved July 20, 2016. 
  8. ^ "5 Things You Should Know About Ben Carson". Retrieved July 20, 2016. 
  9. ^ Preston, Mark (December 3, 2014). "Ben Carson: Political phenomenon". CNN. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  10. ^ a b Katie, Glueck (April 14, 2015). "Ben Carson to announce 2016 intentions in Detroit on May 4". Politico. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c d Robert Costa; Ben Terris (March 2, 2016). "Ben Carson tells supporters he sees no ‘path forward’ for presidential campaign". The Washington Post. 
  12. ^ a b Kopan, Tal (March 4, 2016). "Ben Carson ends campaign, will lead Christian voter group". CNN. Atlanta, Georgia. Retrieved March 4, 2016. Earlier Friday, My Faith Votes announced Carson as its new national chairman, putting out a statement ahead of Carson's address to CPAC. 
  13. ^ a b Robert Costa; Brian Murphy (March 11, 2016). "Ben Carson backs Trump, saying combative billionaire has ‘cerebral’ side". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 7, 2017. 
  14. ^ "Senate roll call vote PN34". Retrieved 2017-03-02. 
  15. ^ National Archives and Records Administration (2005). "U.S. World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938–1946". Provo, Utah: Ancestry.com.  Robert Carson Jr., Enlistment date: 28 Aug 1944, Enlistment city: Camp Forrest, Enlistment state: Tennessee.
    U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (2011). "Beneficiary Identification Records Locator Subsystem (BIRLS) Death File, 1850–2010". Provo, Utah: Ancestry.com.  Robert Carson, Birth date: 27 Dec 1914, Death date: 29 Aug 1992, Enlistment date: 28 Aug 1944, Release date: 5 Aug 1946.
  16. ^ a b Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (2009). "Benjamin Carson". In Search of Our Roots: How 19 Extraordinary African Americans Reclaimed Their Past. New York: Crown Publishers. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-307-38240-5. 
  17. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  18. ^ Detroit Free Press staff (November 11, 2015). "'88 Free Press article helps clarify Ben Carson claims". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
    Martin, Antoinette (May 15, 1988). "Mind over matter: the triumph of Dr. Ben Carson". Detroit Free Press Magazine. 
  19. ^ Tankersley, Jim (October 30, 2015). "Carson's positions on poverty create tension with rags-to-riches life story". The Washington Post. p. A5. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  20. ^ a b Glover, Scott; Reston, Maeve (November 7, 2015). "A tale of two Carsons". CNN. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  21. ^ Bump, Philip (December 6, 2016). "Ben Carson did not grow up living in public housing". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  22. ^ Rubin, Neal (December 15, 2016). "The Detroit childhood that shaped Ben Carson". The Detroit News. Retrieved January 12, 2016. 
  23. ^ a b c Carson, Ben; Carson, Candy (2012). America the Beautiful: Rediscovering What Made This Country Great. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-310-33071-4. 
  24. ^ a b c d Detroit Board of Education (1972). Detroit Public Schools Directory. Detroit, Mich.: Board of Education. pp. 144–45, 148. 
    Fisher Primary, 2140 S. Bassett St. (Miami) 48217;
    Higgins El., 9200 Olivet St. (Woodmere) 48209;
    Hunter El.-Jr. High, 530 S. Colonial St. (Ormond) 48217;
    Southwestern High, 6921 W. Fort St. (Waterman) 48209;
    Wilson Jr. High, 7735 Lane St. (Central) 48209 [now Phoenix Multicultural Academy].
  25. ^ a b c d e Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (1992). "My Mother, Sonya Carson". Think Big: Unleashing Your Potential for Excellence. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 31–55. ISBN 0-310-57410-2. 
  26. ^ Johnson, Akilah (October 28, 2015). "For Ben Carson, bleak memories of his time in Boston. Candidate tells of long-ago blight and violence, but others from Dorchester, Roxbury look back more fondly". The Boston Globe. p. A1. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  27. ^ Carson, Ben; Carson, Candy (2014). One Nation: What We Can All Do to Save America's Future. New York: Sentinel. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-59523-112-3. 
  28. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (1992). Think Big: Unleashing Your Potential for Excellence. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 15. ISBN 0-310-57410-2. 
  29. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  30. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 29, 40. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  31. ^ a b Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  32. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  33. ^ Carson, Ben; Lewis, Gregg (1999). The Big Picture: Getting Perspective on What's Really Important in Life. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 46. ISBN 0-310-23834-X. 
  34. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (1992). Think huge: Unleashing Your Potential for Excellence. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 179. ISBN 0-310-57410-2. 
  35. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 48, 49–50. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  36. ^ a b Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 69, 72–74. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  37. ^ a b Carson, Ben (February 19, 2014). "Beyond Affirmative Action". Hermosa Beach, Calif.: Creators Syndicate. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  38. ^ a b c Carson, Ben; Lewis, Gregg; Lewis, Deborah Shaw (2015). You Have a Brain: A Teen's Guide to T.H.I.N.K. B.I.G. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-310-74599-0. 
  39. ^ Carson, Ben; Lewis, Gregg; Lewis, Deborah Shaw (2015). You Have a Brain: A Teen's Guide to T.H.I.N.K. B.I.G. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 61–64. ISBN 978-0-310-74599-0. 
  40. ^ Carson, Ben; Carson, Candy (2014). One Nation: What We Can All Do to Save America's Future. New York: Sentinel. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-59523-112-3. 
  41. ^ Carson, Ben; Carson, Candy (2015). A More Perfect Union: What We the People Can Do to Reclaim Our Constitutional Liberties. New York: Sentinel. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-0-698-19500-4. 
  42. ^ Carson, Ben; Lewis, Gregg; Lewis, Deborah Shaw (2015). You Have a Brain: A Teen's Guide to T.H.I.N.K. B.I.G. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-0-310-74599-0. 
  43. ^ Carson, Ben; Lewis, Gregg; Lewis, Deborah Shaw (2015). You Have a Brain: A Teen's Guide to T.H.I.N.K. B.I.G. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-0-310-74599-0. 
  44. ^ Bradner, Eric. "'s violent past: Bricks, bats, hammers". CNN. Retrieved November 13, 2015. 
  45. ^ Barbaro, Michael & Madigan, Nick & Phillips, Dave (November 6, 2015). "Ben Carson Resists Challenges to the Life Story He Rode to Political Prominence". The New York Times. 
  46. ^ Fritze, John (December 6, 2014). "In retirement, Ben Carson moving closer to 2016". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved February 9, 2015. 
  47. ^ "Biography: Ben Carson". YourDictionary.com. 
  48. ^ a b Campbell, Colin. "BEN CARSON: Here's the proof". Business Insider. Retrieved November 10, 2015. 
  49. ^ Resnick, Gideon (October 27, 2015). "Ben Carson's Stabbing Story Is Full of Holes". The Daily Beast. Retrieved November 7, 2015. 
  50. ^ "Benjamin Carson Interview". achievement.org. Archived from the original on February 14, 1997. Retrieved February 22, 2015. 
  51. ^ Ben Carson, M.D. (September 9, 2008). Gifted Hands. Zondervan. pp. 50–53. ISBN 978-0-310-29555-6. 
  52. ^ Lawton, Kim (January 11, 2008). "Dr. Ben Carson". Religion & Ethics Newsweekly. PBS. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  53. ^ a b Glover, Scott; Reston, Maeve (November 7, 2015). "A tale of two Ben Carsons". CNN. Retrieved November 7, 2015. 
  54. ^ a b Epstein, Reid J. (November 6, 2015). "Ben Carson's Past Faces Deeper Questions". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 7, 2015. 
  55. ^ Lowery, Wesley. "Ben Carson says it's ‘time to really move on’ from questions about his biography". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 9, 2015. 
  56. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  57. ^ Carson, Ben; Lewis, Gregg (1999). The Big Picture: Getting Perspective on What's Really Important in Life. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 182. ISBN 0-310-23834-X. 
  58. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  59. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  60. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2011) [1990]. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story, 20th Anniversary edition. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-310-54650-4. 
  61. ^ Carson, Ben; Lewis, Gregg (1999). The Big Picture: Getting Perspective on What's Really Important in Life. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 200. ISBN 0-310-23834-X. 
  62. ^ Carson, Ben; Lewis, Gregg (2008). Take the Risk: Learning to Identify, Choose, and Live with Acceptable Risk. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-310-25973-2. 
  63. ^ Carson, Ben; Lewis, Gregg; Lewis, Deborah Shaw (2015). You Have a Brain: A Teen's Guide to T.H.I.N.K. B.I.G. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-0-310-74599-0. 
  64. ^ Carson, Ben; Murphey, Cecil (2015). My Life: Based on the Book Gifted Hands. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-310-34451-3. 
  65. ^ . (November 22, 1968). "Yale, Harvard to Meet in Brainpower Contest". The New York Times. p. 58. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
    . (November 24, 1968). "Elis Dump Crimson on 'College Bowl'". The New York Times. p. 85. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
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