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Benjamin of Tudela Jewish History Lecture by Dr. Henry Abramson
Benjamin of Tudela Jewish History Lecture by Dr. Henry Abramson
Published: 2012/11/12
Channel: Henry Abramson
Benjamin of Tudela
Benjamin of Tudela
Published: 2016/08/06
Channel: WikiWikiup
"Benjamin of Tudela: eight centuries later"
"Benjamin of Tudela: eight centuries later"
Published: 2009/06/26
Channel: Alberto Pérez Puyal
Lip Dup -IES Benjamín de Tudela- orla 2015
Lip Dup -IES Benjamín de Tudela- orla 2015
Published: 2015/04/08
Channel: Erika Garcia
The Travels of Benjamin of Tudela Through Three Continents in the Twelfth Century
The Travels of Benjamin of Tudela Through Three Continents in the Twelfth Century
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: beri marcos
Heather Altfeld reads Psalm for the Last Benjamin of Tudela
Heather Altfeld reads Psalm for the Last Benjamin of Tudela
Published: 2010/06/25
Channel: Tim Kahl
Conferencia: "Benjamín de Tudela a Bagdad: Ciudad de la paz"
Conferencia: "Benjamín de Tudela a Bagdad: Ciudad de la paz"
Published: 2014/02/03
Channel: Casa Árabe
LEKHA ELI
LEKHA ELI
Published: 2012/10/19
Channel: anidavid1
Benjamin von Tudela
Benjamin von Tudela
Published: 2016/06/20
Channel: WikiTubia
Benjamin of Tudela see
Benjamin of Tudela see's the Franks
Published: 2017/09/14
Channel: Jacob Ross
OBM - Explorer - Benjamin of Tudela
OBM - Explorer - Benjamin of Tudela
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Our Best Moments
kingdrop 2016 | Prester John #18 | Exilarch David VI Soslan of Georgia, Benjamin of Tudela
kingdrop 2016 | Prester John #18 | Exilarch David VI Soslan of Georgia, Benjamin of Tudela
Published: 2016/12/28
Channel: 432 The Drop Radio
How to Pronounce Benjamin Of Tudela
How to Pronounce Benjamin Of Tudela
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: Dictionary Voice
BENJAMIN DE TUDELE
BENJAMIN DE TUDELE
Published: 2014/07/22
Channel: creaxionclip
BENJAMIN DE TUDELE
BENJAMIN DE TUDELE
Published: 2013/09/09
Channel: Micheline Abergel
orla benjamin de tudela 2009 3
orla benjamin de tudela 2009 3
Published: 2009/04/29
Channel: tudelanika1991
Benjamin Tudela
Benjamin Tudela
Published: 2014/12/17
Channel: Samuel Grossman
grease orla benjamin de tudela 2009
grease orla benjamin de tudela 2009
Published: 2009/04/25
Channel: beneded16
capea 09 benjamin de tudela
capea 09 benjamin de tudela
Published: 2009/06/16
Channel: maria palacios
Religions of the Hebrew: Jewish Diaspora by denominations (part 1)
Religions of the Hebrew: Jewish Diaspora by denominations (part 1)
Published: 2017/08/01
Channel: גור פלד
From Dark to Light
From Dark to Light
Published: 2014/06/23
Channel: Eden Sands - Topic
Carretera trampa del Instituto Benjamin de Tudela
Carretera trampa del Instituto Benjamin de Tudela
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: rulamano
Incubadora de sondeos Ies benjamin de Tudela
Incubadora de sondeos Ies benjamin de Tudela
Published: 2016/06/30
Channel: Davian99
POURQUOI  FRANÇAIS 360p
POURQUOI FRANÇAIS 360p
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: IES Benjamín Tudela
Cto. CyL benjamin - alevin 2011 Tenis de Mesa - TUDELA
Cto. CyL benjamin - alevin 2011 Tenis de Mesa - TUDELA
Published: 2011/06/28
Channel: CDVALLADOLIDTM
Benjamin de Tudela 11 13 febrero  video
Benjamin de Tudela 11 13 febrero video
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: BKZ Navarra Aventura
Orla IES Benjamin de Tudela 2010. sala de profesores
Orla IES Benjamin de Tudela 2010. sala de profesores
Published: 2010/04/24
Channel: WakaFilms
Medieval Explorers and Travelers
Medieval Explorers and Travelers
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: Costas Melas
Presentacion del comic Benjamin de Tudela
Presentacion del comic Benjamin de Tudela
Published: 2012/10/26
Channel: TvLaRibera
orla Benjamin de tudela 2009
orla Benjamin de tudela 2009
Published: 2009/04/26
Channel: tudelanika1991
baile orla 2010 benjamin de tudela
baile orla 2010 benjamin de tudela
Published: 2010/04/24
Channel: WakaFilms
orla benjamin de tudela 2009 2
orla benjamin de tudela 2009 2
Published: 2009/04/26
Channel: tudelanika1991
paris amsterdam 2008 benjamin de tudela
paris amsterdam 2008 benjamin de tudela
Published: 2008/03/26
Channel: sefo3
elaboración aceite ies benjamin tudela
elaboración aceite ies benjamin tudela
Published: 2013/02/17
Channel: VideosIESBenjamin
final orla 2010 benjamin de tudela. DISCO STU!!!!
final orla 2010 benjamin de tudela. DISCO STU!!!!
Published: 2010/04/25
Channel: WakaFilms
Amloma Danza 2010 - Tudela - I.Benjamin.mpg
Amloma Danza 2010 - Tudela - I.Benjamin.mpg
Published: 2011/06/08
Channel: Amlomaoruat
4º Centanario publicación II parte Don Quijote  1º Bach.-B IES Benjamin de Tudela
4º Centanario publicación II parte Don Quijote 1º Bach.-B IES Benjamin de Tudela
Published: 2015/04/29
Channel: Francisco Abadía
Jota benjamín de Tudela en Corella // Bidasoako Erraldoiak 💪
Jota benjamín de Tudela en Corella // Bidasoako Erraldoiak 💪
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: Unai323 Gomez
IES Benjamin Rua Promocion de Ciclos Formativos
IES Benjamin Rua Promocion de Ciclos Formativos
Published: 2016/05/06
Channel: Departamento Electrónica
Wallachian paganism in XII century
Wallachian paganism in XII century
Published: 2010/02/21
Channel: oceanospotamos
Final Individual Cross Tudela 2015 Benjamin Masculino
Final Individual Cross Tudela 2015 Benjamin Masculino
Published: 2015/02/20
Channel: Hiru Herri Atletiko Taldea
"LOS HERALDOS DE ESPERANZA - JUNTO A BENJAMIN BUSTOS Y SAMUEL TUDELA"
"LOS HERALDOS DE ESPERANZA - JUNTO A BENJAMIN BUSTOS Y SAMUEL TUDELA"
Published: 2016/12/15
Channel: Benjamín Bustos Molina
Rally Fotografico Ciudad de Tudela 2013
Rally Fotografico Ciudad de Tudela 2013
Published: 2013/05/13
Channel: CulTudela
jota de benjamin bailada por los gigantes de sauducelai y villava
jota de benjamin bailada por los gigantes de sauducelai y villava
Published: 2015/06/27
Channel: animate yt
TEATRO 3ºC BENJAMÍN DE TUDELA
TEATRO 3ºC BENJAMÍN DE TUDELA
Published: 2010/03/30
Channel: cuentake945
campeonato nacional kyokushinkay en tudela ,benjamin FINAL
campeonato nacional kyokushinkay en tudela ,benjamin FINAL
Published: 2010/04/07
Channel: Joaquin Nebot
Mor Karbasi (Teatro Gaztambide. Tudela, Spain) - October 2013
Mor Karbasi (Teatro Gaztambide. Tudela, Spain) - October 2013
Published: 2013/10/10
Channel: Gibraltar Productions
Eti Tudela
Eti Tudela
Published: 2012/05/04
Channel: GoLDeN BOoy
Diario de claudia
Diario de claudia
Published: 2007/04/27
Channel: sefo3
AIRAM_HERE I GO AGAIN(WHITESNAKE)
AIRAM_HERE I GO AGAIN(WHITESNAKE)
Published: 2007/03/24
Channel: ainhoamr
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Map of route

Benjamin of Tudela (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה‎, pronounced [binjaˈmin mituˈdela]; Arabic: بنيامين التطيلي‎;‎ Tudela, Kingdom of Navarre, 1130 – Castile, 1173) was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 12th century. His vivid descriptions of western Asia preceded those of Marco Polo by a hundred years. With his broad education and vast knowledge of languages, Benjamin of Tudela is a major figure in medieval geography and Jewish history.

The Travels of Benjamin is an important work not only as a description of the Jewish communities, but also as a reliable source about the geography and ethnography of the Middle Ages. Some modern historians credit Benjamin with giving accurate descriptions of everyday life in the Middle Ages. Originally written in Hebrew, his itinerary was translated into Latin and later translated into most major European languages. It received much attention from Renaissance scholars in the 16th century.

While the aim of his journey cannot be known, one could postulate that the “tacit agenda” of his account was to showcase the various Jewish communities around the world. Thus portraying a potentially fictitious narrative of a connected Jewish community, similar to Ibn Battuta’s account of dar al-Islam[1]

Early Life[edit]

Little is known of his early life, apart from the fact that he was from the Navarrese town of Tudela in what is now Spain.[2] Today, a street in the aljama (former Jewish quarter) is named after him.

Journey[edit]

Benjamin of Tudela in the Sahara (Author : Dumouza, 19th-century engraving)

There is no consensus among scholars as to Benjamin of Tudela's exact route, although most scholars believe from his itinerary that he travelled on a popular route frequented by travelers at the time.[3] Benjamin set out on his journey from the northeast Iberian Peninsula around 1165, in what may have begun as a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.[4] It has been suggested he may have had a commercial motive as well as a religious one. Several times the subject shows an interest in the coral trade, perhaps as a professional gem-merchant.[5] On the other hand, he may have intended to catalog the Jewish communities en route to the Land of Israel to provide a guide where hospitality could be found for Jews traveling to the Holy Land, or for those fleeing oppression elsewhere.[6] He stopped frequently, meeting people, visiting places, describing occupations, and giving a demographic count of Jews in each town and country that he visited. [7] Benjamin provided his own evaluations of various cultures he encountered and, sometimes, drew parallels between customs he encountered.[8]

His journey began in Zaragoza, further down the valley of the Ebro to Tarragona, Barcelona, and Girona, whence he proceeded north to France, then set sail from Marseilles. After visiting Genoa, Lucca, Pisa, and Rome, he went to Greece and Constantinople, then set off across Asia. He visited Syria, Lebanon, the Land of Israel, and northern Mesopotamia (which he called Shinar) before reaching Baghdad. There is also evidence that suggests that Benjamin made it as far as Iraq and Palestine.[9]From there he went to Persia, then cut back across the Arabian Peninsula to Egypt and North Africa, returning to the Iberian Peninsula in 1173.[4] In his travels, he described a significant Jewish community somewhere around modern-day Ethiopia. While it appears clear that such a community exists, scholars still struggle to decide where in Africa he actually visited-- a lack of uniform spelling makes it hard to distinguish what places Benjamin and other contemporary writer travel writers are actually referencing.[1]

His visit to the ruins outside Mosul is one of the earliest accurate descriptions of the site of ancient Nineveh.[10] He visited 300 cities in all, including many of importance in Jewish history, such as Susa, Sura, and Pumbedita. In addition, he gathered information on many more areas that he heard about in his travels, including China and Tibet. He recorded details on cultures such as that of Al-Hashishin, the hemp smokers, introducing Western Europeans to people and places far beyond their experience.

He described his years abroad in a book, The Travels of Benjamin (מסעות בנימין, Masa'ot Binyamin, also known as ספר המסעות, Sefer ha-Masa'ot, The Book of Travels), which describes the countries he visited, with an emphasis on the Jewish communities, including their total populations and the names of notable community leaders. He also described the customs of the local population, both Jewish and non-Jewish, with an emphasis on urban life. In his accounts, Benjamin of Tudela describes Baghdad with great enthusiasm, making particular note of the virtuosity of the Caliph. He often writes of the respect and intermingle that he encounters between Judaism and Islam.[11] He gave detailed descriptions of sites and landmarks passed along the way, as well as important buildings and marketplaces. Although Benjamin is noted for citing sources and is generally regarded by historians as trustworthy, some of his claims are faulted as relying on earlier writers. For instance, Benjamin's identification of Laish (Tel Dan) with Baniyas along with Philostorgius, Theodoret, and Samuel ben Samson is incorrect.[12] Eusebius of Caesarea, conversely, locates Dan/Laish more accurately in the vicinity of Paneas at the fourth mile on the route to Tyre.[13]

Translations of his work[edit]

  • Benjamin of Tudela. The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Travels in the Middle Ages. Trans. Marcus Nathan Adler. Introductions by Michael A. Signer, Marcus Nathan Adler, and A. Asher. Published by Joseph Simon/Pangloss Press, 1993. ISBN 0-934710-07-4
  • The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela. trans. Marcus Nathan Adler. 1907: includes map of route (p. 2) and commentary.
  • Works by Benjamin of Tudela at Project Gutenberg
  • Sefer Masaot Benjamin MiTudela Tri-lingual edition in Basque, Spanish and Hebrew published in Pamplona, 1994 by the Government of Navarra. Xabier Kintana translated Sefer Masaot into Basque language and Jose Ramon Magdalena Nom de Deu translated into Spanish. This trilingual special edition of Benjamin MiTudela book has an introduction by the president of Navarra, Juan de la Cruz Alli Aranguren ISBN 9788423512867 [1]
  • Tudelalı Benjamin ve Ratisbonlu Petachia, Ortaçağ’da İki Yahudi Seyyahın Avrupa, Asya ve Afrika Gözlemleri [trans. by Nuh Arslantas, from Marmara University, Istanbul] Kaknüs: İstanbul 2001 ISBN 975-6698-21-7 → (Second ed. M.Ü. İlahiyat Fakültesi Vakfı Yayınları: İstanbul 2009 ISBN 978-975-548-227-9

Commemoration[edit]

The name Benjamin of Tudela was adopted by a mid-19th-century traveler and author, known as Benjamin II.

One of the main works of Mendele Mocher Sforim, a major 19th-century Russian Jewish writer, is the 1878 Masoes Benyomen Hashlishi (מסעות בנימין השלישי) (The Wanderings of Benjamin III), which is considered something of a Jewish Don Quixote and whose title is clearly inspired by Benjamin of Tudela's book.

A street in Jerusalem's Rehavia neighborhood, Rehov Binyamin Mitudela (רחוב בנימין מטודלה), is named after him—as is a street in the former Jewish Quarter of his hometown Tudela.

The well-known Israeli poet Nathan Alterman wrote a poem about Benjamin of Tudela, which was set to music by Naomi Shemer and was often heard on the Israeli radio.[14]

Uri Shulevitz wrote and illustrated "The Travels of Benjamin of Tudela. Through three continents in the twelfth century" in 2005. ISBN 978-0-374-37754-0. [2]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier (2013). "Desperately Seeking the Jewish Kingdom of Ethiopia: Benjamin of Tudela and the Horn of Africa (Twelfth Century)". Speculum. 88 (2): 383–404. doi:10.2307/23488846. 
  2. ^ "Benjamin of Tudela". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2017-11-05. 
  3. ^ Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier (2013). "Desperately Seeking the Jewish Kingdom of Ethiopia: Benjamin of Tudela and the Horn of Africa (Twelfth Century)". Speculum. 88 (2): 383–404. doi:10.2307/23488846. 
  4. ^ a b Shatzmiller 1998, p. 338.
  5. ^ Roth, Cecil. (1972) "Benjamin (Ben Jonah) of Tudela" in Encyclopedia Judaica. 4. New York: Macmillan, pp. 535-538.
  6. ^ Shatzmiller 1998, p. 347.
  7. ^ Hess, Robert L. (1965). "The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: A Twelfth-Century Jewish Description of North-East Africa". The Journal of African History. 6 (1): 15–24. doi:10.2307/179644. 
  8. ^ copied Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier. "Desperately Seeking the Jewish Kingdom of Ethiopia: Benjamin of Tudela and the Horn of Africa (Twelfth Century)." Speculum 88, no. 2 (2013): 383-404. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23488846.
  9. ^ Hess, Robert L. "The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: A Twelfth-Century Jewish Description of North-East Africa." The Journal of African History 6, no. 1 (1965): 15-24. http://www.jstor.org/stable/179644..
  10. ^ Kramer 1963, p. 8.
  11. ^ Tudela, Benjamin (1987). Adler, Elkan, ed. Jewish Travellers in the Middle Ages. Dover Publications, Inc. 
  12. ^ Provan, Long & Longman 2003, pp. 181-183; Wilson 2004, p. 150; Saulcy & Warren 1854, pp. 417-418
  13. ^ Saulcy & Warren 1854, p. 418.
  14. ^ מכללת אורנים - המסע בעקבות בנימין מטודלה Archived February 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. (in Hebrew)

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Komroff, Manuel; Carpini, Giovanni di Plano, abp. of Antivari; Ruysbroeck, Willem van; Odorico, da Pordenone; Benjamin, of Tudela (1928). Contemporaries of Marco Polo, consisting of the travel records to the eastern parts of the world of William of Rubruck (1253-1255); the journey of John of Pian de Carpini (1245-1247); the journal of Friar Odoric (1318-1330) & the oriental travels of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela (1160-1173). New York: Boni & Liveright. OCLC 3974287. 
  • Jewish Virtual Library: "Benjamin of Tudela."
  • Anna K. Dulska: “Abrahamic Coexistence in the Twelfth-Century Middle East? Jews among Christians and Muslims in a Travel Account by a Navarrese Jew, Benjamin of Tudela”, Journal of Beliefs & Values, DOI: 10.1080/13617672.2017.1317520, http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/zWEMrqQ8q99rwvTpsQem/full

External links[edit]

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