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Bernice Robinson Happy Mothers Day
Bernice Robinson Happy Mothers Day
Published: 2015/05/11
Channel: Talk Time with Addison Witt
Healthbreak: Bernice Robinson-Bennett, MD - Gynecologic Cancer
Healthbreak: Bernice Robinson-Bennett, MD - Gynecologic Cancer
Published: 2012/01/10
Channel: Reading Health System
Bernice Robinson-Bennett, MD
Bernice Robinson-Bennett, MD
Published: 2017/08/14
Channel: Reading Health System
Bernice Robinson at The Mosley Family Reunion
Bernice Robinson at The Mosley Family Reunion
Published: 2016/09/19
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Bernice Robinson BTC Shops
Bernice Robinson BTC Shops
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: Shop With Geoff
Bernice Robinson
Bernice Robinson
Published: 2014/05/12
Channel: Carl Faison
Graduation 2011-Valedictorian Bernice Robinson, Faculty of Science & Agriculture
Graduation 2011-Valedictorian Bernice Robinson, Faculty of Science & Agriculture
Published: 2011/10/31
Channel: uwistaugustine
OBM - Track Athlete - Bernice Robinson
OBM - Track Athlete - Bernice Robinson
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: Our Best Moments
YOU HAVE TO BE RETARDED TO BE RACIST
YOU HAVE TO BE RETARDED TO BE RACIST
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: The Brilliant Idiots
1454 Robinson Pl Innisfil Ontario Barrie Real Estate Tours HD Video Tour
1454 Robinson Pl Innisfil Ontario Barrie Real Estate Tours HD Video Tour
Published: 2015/06/20
Channel: Barrie RealEstateTours
Welcome Home (Vinyl LP) - The Angelic Gospel Singers,"Margaret,Josephine & Bernice"
Welcome Home (Vinyl LP) - The Angelic Gospel Singers,"Margaret,Josephine & Bernice"
Published: 2013/01/05
Channel: Pannellctp Traditional Gospel Music
2016 Dolphins High School Media Day - Jackson coach Bernice Brunson
2016 Dolphins High School Media Day - Jackson coach Bernice Brunson
Published: 2016/08/06
Channel: HeraldHighSchools
Your Narrative is Your Super Power | Brandy Robinson | TEDxPortlandCommunityCollegeRockCreek
Your Narrative is Your Super Power | Brandy Robinson | TEDxPortlandCommunityCollegeRockCreek
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: TEDx Talks
Bernie Mac - I Ain
Bernie Mac - I Ain't Scared Of You Mutha****!
Published: 2014/04/19
Channel: Willie D. Washington
Bernice Burgos Snapchat Compilation 80
Bernice Burgos Snapchat Compilation 80
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: SnapchatDaily2
Robinson-Ward Family Reunion, Gary, IN,  Lucinda Weston
Robinson-Ward Family Reunion, Gary, IN, Lucinda Weston's Decedents for the Saturday night Talent
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: JacquelineD BrodieDavis
Oak Grove vs Bernice 1992
Oak Grove vs Bernice 1992
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: 14-0 Productions
Bernice Gibbs
Bernice Gibbs
Published: 2017/08/01
Channel: Post and Courier
Smokey Robinson Performs "Abraham, Martin and John" | In Performance at the White House
Smokey Robinson Performs "Abraham, Martin and John" | In Performance at the White House
Published: 2014/01/14
Channel: Yaroooh! for Kids | News - Magazine
Me flying on a broomstick
Me flying on a broomstick
Published: 2013/08/04
Channel: Bernice Robinson
"How Excellent"  Dwell Gods Elect & Judah Praise
"How Excellent" Dwell Gods Elect & Judah Praise
Published: 2012/09/10
Channel: Kisp2
Unique Hospital: The Surgery Results
Unique Hospital: The Surgery Results
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: Above Average
ROBINSONS HOMES INC. (HOUSES) [contact: 09279744803]
ROBINSONS HOMES INC. (HOUSES) [contact: 09279744803]
Published: 2008/03/20
Channel: robinsonshousing
Copy of Copy of Me flying on a broomstick
Copy of Copy of Me flying on a broomstick
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: Bernice Robinson
161
161
Published: 2009/06/02
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Belle Pointe Dance Wellness Challenge
Belle Pointe Dance Wellness Challenge
Published: 2015/05/13
Channel: Jennifer Hiltz
Crying Saucer!!!!
Crying Saucer!!!!
Published: 2009/06/02
Channel: Bernice Robinson
COLORS!
COLORS!
Published: 2009/06/02
Channel: Bernice Robinson
baby got back
baby got back
Published: 2007/07/31
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Music That Inspired the Movement Student Workshop
Music That Inspired the Movement Student Workshop
Published: 2010/02/10
Channel: The Obama White House
tibby makes gravy
tibby makes gravy
Published: 2006/11/24
Channel: Bernice Robinson
L.A.
L.A.
Published: 2008/07/26
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Rickey Smiley Morning Show 8-18-17
Rickey Smiley Morning Show 8-18-17
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Rickey Smiley Morning Show
Harry
Harry's 1st time in Door Bouncer
Published: 2012/01/30
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Flipper!
Flipper!
Published: 2009/06/02
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Central Park
Central Park
Published: 2012/04/08
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Kentucky Derby
Kentucky Derby
Published: 2009/06/02
Channel: Bernice Robinson
wacky
wacky
Published: 2006/11/27
Channel: Bernice Robinson
James plays Ode to Joy on clarinet
James plays Ode to Joy on clarinet
Published: 2012/04/23
Channel: Bernice Robinson
The American Express Prepaid Card
The American Express Prepaid Card
Published: 2012/08/12
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Abi plays God Save the Queen 2012
Abi plays God Save the Queen 2012
Published: 2012/05/30
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Back pockets @ the contemporary
Back pockets @ the contemporary
Published: 2011/11/13
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Brilliant Idiots ANDREW SCHULZ on The Loopy Show: BERNICE BURGOS NATE ROBINSON & AYESHA CURRY.......
Brilliant Idiots ANDREW SCHULZ on The Loopy Show: BERNICE BURGOS NATE ROBINSON & AYESHA CURRY.......
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: 2 threezone
Spàrkey-My spoiled son.
Spàrkey-My spoiled son.
Published: 2016/08/31
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Harry at Frankie n Bennys - say cheese :-)
Harry at Frankie n Bennys - say cheese :-)
Published: 2013/05/20
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Olympic torch arrives in Clee Hill, Shropshire 2012
Olympic torch arrives in Clee Hill, Shropshire 2012
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Bernice Robinson
December 29, 2010 8:55 PM
December 29, 2010 8:55 PM
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: Bernice Robinson
Harry
Harry's first taste of ketchup - Frankie and Bennys
Published: 2013/05/20
Channel: Bernice Robinson
DirPic2012BerniceR
DirPic2012BerniceR
Published: 2012/12/09
Channel: Rick Reese royalvortex
arcade fire
arcade fire
Published: 2007/05/03
Channel: Bernice Robinson
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Bernice Robinson
Bernice Robinson.jpg
Born Bernice Violanthe Robinson
(1914-02-07)February 7, 1914
Charleston, Charleston County, South Carolina
Died September 3, 1994(1994-09-03) (aged 80)
Charleston, South Carolina
Nationality American
Occupation cosmetologist, civil rights activist
Years active 1936-1982
Known for establishing Citizenship Schools and registering voters throughout the American South

Bernice Robinson (1914-1994) was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement and education proponent who helped establish adult Citizenship Schools in South Carolina. Becoming field supervisor of adult education for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), she led political education workshops throughout the south, in Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and other states to teach adult reading skills so that blacks would be able to pass literacy tests to vote. Between 1970 and 1975, Robinson worked for the South Carolina Commission for Farm Workers, supervising VISTA workers and directing day care centers. In both 1972 and 1974, she unsuccessfully ran for the South Carolina House of Representatives, becoming the first African American woman to run for a political office in the state.

Early life[edit]

Bernice Violanthe Robinson was born on February 7, 1914 in Charleston, South Carolina to Martha Elizabeth (née Anderson) and James C. Robinson.[1][2][3] Martha, sister to Septima Clark′s mother, was a seamstress and James was a bricklayer. Robinson was the ninth and youngest child in the family and attended Simonton Elementary School.[4][5] She went on to further her education at the segregated Burke Industrial School, completing the ninth grade, the maximum education allowed for African Americans at that time.[4][6] In 1929, she moved to Harlem to join an older sister, who was living there[5] and the following year married Thomas Leroy Robinson.[1] She completed her high school education at the Wadleigh High School for Girls and dreamed of continuing her education at the Boston Conservatory of Music. When her sister became ill and unable to support them, the girls returned to Charleston, where Robinson had a daughter and divorced before returning to New York in 1936.[5]

Career[edit]

Upon her return to New York, Robinson found work in the garment district, working during the day as a seamstress and attending night school at the Poro School of Cosmetology.[4] She eventually opened her own beauty salon and though Robinson worked long hours, enjoyed the financial independence the shop offered. The shop became a meeting place for neighbors and led to her meeting politicians and activists. She registered to vote and became politically active for the first time, mailing flyers for a local assemblyman.[6] In 1945, Robinson took real estate courses while in New York.[1]

In 1947, Robinson returned to Charleston to care for her aging parents. She opened another beauty shop and along with her mother took in sewing for extra money.[6] She joined the local National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) branch and worked with them as a secretary and the Chair of Membership.[4] She used her shop as the center of her activism, not only to make contacts, but allowing her clients to have mail sent to the shop so that postal carriers would not be aware of their private business.[7] In 1955, the United Nations held a workshop on school desegregation, which Robinson attended. Esau Jenkins and her cousin, Septima Clark were inspired by the meeting, and began to make plans of how they could increase activism on Johns Island.[8] The workshop opened Robinson's eyes for the first time to the problem of illiteracy and the limitations of being able to only register voters who could read.[9] Jenkins and Clark convinced a reluctant Robinson that she was the perfect person to run an experimental education program because she did not have formal training as a teacher and would not have preconceived notions of structure or curriculum.[10] Beauticians were also highly regarded in civil rights work because they had community respect as entrepreneurs and activists,[11] but were also known as good listeners and were unlikely to face backlash from white employers since they were self-employed. It also helped that Robinson had a fairly good knowledge of Gullah, the creole language spoken on the island.[12]

After very little training at the Highlander Folk School on basic human rights, a room was hired and Robinson held her first class on January 7, 1957. Discarding materials for children's education, she taught the students how to read labels on canned goods, how to fill out paperwork, read newspapers, and other tasks they needed for their daily lives. After three months of instruction, the final exam was for the students to register to vote. Eighty percent of her students passed. The schools became known as Citizenship Schools and sprang up throughout the southern United States,[13][14] after the program was transferred from Highlander to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).[4] Robinson continued giving volunteer instruction and training others as teachers.[4][13] She taught classes in states like Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee and became the supervisor of the Low Country Citizenship Schools.[4][15] In 1967, she enrolled in a correspondent course in Community Development through the University of Wisconsin–Madison and later completed a similar course in interior design.[1]

In 1970, Robinson left the SCLC and went to work for the South Carolina Commission for Farm Workers (SCCFW), supervising VISTA volunteers. The work centered on development of day care and childhood development centers for communities on Edisto Island, Johns Island, Wadmalaw Island, and Yonges Island. Between 1971 and 1973, she directed the creation of the Yonges Island Day Care Center.[4] In both 1972 and 1974, she launched unsuccessful bids for the state House of Representatives, but became the first African American woman to vie for public office.[4][16] In 1975, Robinson returned to the SCCFW to direct programs for migrant workers' day care. She became a loan and relocation officer at the Charleston County Community Development Department in 1979 and retained that position until her 1982 retirement.[4]

Death and legacy[edit]

Robinson died September 3, 1994 in Charleston, South Carolina.[16] In 1991, Eliot Wigginton published Refuse to Stand Silently by: An Oral History of Grass Roots Social Activism in America, 1921-1964, which included oral history from Robinson and other activists involved in the Civil Rights Movement. Robinson's personal archive of papers was donated in 1989 to the Avery Research Center at the College of Charleston.[4] In 2011, a critical review of the career of Robinson was made by Clare Russell. In her essay, A beautician without teacher training: Bernice Robinson, citizenship schools and women in the Civil Rights Movement, Russell argues that Robinson has been inadequately studied and her legacy misrepresented. Rather than an untrained teacher, Russell evaluates Robinson based on her broad education and work experience.[17]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Library of Congress 2015.
  2. ^ U. S. Census 1920, p. 13A.
  3. ^ The Post and Courier 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Spelbring 2013.
  5. ^ a b c Charron 2009, p. 232.
  6. ^ a b c Gillespie 2008, p. 48.
  7. ^ Gillespie 2008, p. 49.
  8. ^ Blunden 2016, pp. 182-183.
  9. ^ Charron 2009, p. 234.
  10. ^ Gillespie 2008, p. 50.
  11. ^ Gill 2010, p. 1.
  12. ^ Charron 2009, p. 250.
  13. ^ a b Blunden 2016, p. 183.
  14. ^ Gillespie 2008, p. 51.
  15. ^ Charron 2009, p. 257.
  16. ^ a b Simpson 2016.
  17. ^ Russell 2011.

Bibliography[edit]


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