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Lição 5 – O sacrifício pelo pecado – EBD Betel 1tri2018
Lição 5 – O sacrifício pelo pecado – EBD Betel 1tri2018
Published: 2018/02/01
Channel: EBD Betel
Betel Leaves: Benefits and Uses
Betel Leaves: Benefits and Uses
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: Ryan Taylor
Lição 6 – O sacrifício pela culpa – EBD Betel 1tri2018
Lição 6 – O sacrifício pela culpa – EBD Betel 1tri2018
Published: 2018/02/09
Channel: EBD Betel
Lição 7 – O altar sempre aceso – EBD Betel 1tri2018
Lição 7 – O altar sempre aceso – EBD Betel 1tri2018
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: EBD Betel
Lição 3 – A oferta de manjares – EBD Betel 1tri2018
Lição 3 – A oferta de manjares – EBD Betel 1tri2018
Published: 2018/01/18
Channel: EBD Betel
Gilberto Barros: TV Leão Vai a Betel entrevistar as TJ # completo(parte 1,2,3)
Gilberto Barros: TV Leão Vai a Betel entrevistar as TJ # completo(parte 1,2,3)
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: O Publicador do Reino
You Know Me (LIVE) - Steffany Gretzinger | The Loft Sessions
You Know Me (LIVE) - Steffany Gretzinger | The Loft Sessions
Published: 2012/04/17
Channel: Bethel Music
How to Betel Nuts (槟榔) in Taiwan
How to Betel Nuts (槟榔) in Taiwan
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: Best Ever Food Review Show
BATTLE NiuBlock Shuffle vs RELIX brother crew  @KFC Pondok Gede
BATTLE NiuBlock Shuffle vs RELIX brother crew @KFC Pondok Gede
Published: 2012/06/01
Channel: Medy Hamsa
Massive Monkees vs Jinjo Crew | R16 BBOY Battle 2012 | YAK FILMS
Massive Monkees vs Jinjo Crew | R16 BBOY Battle 2012 | YAK FILMS
Published: 2012/07/10
Channel: YAKbattles
Tv Leão - #Reportagem - Gilberto Barros em Visita à Betel
Tv Leão - #Reportagem - Gilberto Barros em Visita à Betel
Published: 2017/07/22
Channel: Gilberto Barros
Vamos todos a Betel - JW Broadcasting
Vamos todos a Betel - JW Broadcasting
Published: 2017/02/13
Channel: Vídeos Teocráticos
BETEL LEAF PLANT at home | How to Grow Betel plant: Paan Plant Care Tips and Propagation in English
BETEL LEAF PLANT at home | How to Grow Betel plant: Paan Plant Care Tips and Propagation in English
Published: 2018/01/04
Channel: GARDEN TIPS
Coro Bautista Betel volumen 1
Coro Bautista Betel volumen 1
Published: 2016/10/08
Channel: juan romero
Renascer Praise | CD Vol.20 Betel 2017 (Album Completo)
Renascer Praise | CD Vol.20 Betel 2017 (Album Completo)
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: Lemoss Gospel
The Betel Leaf
The Betel Leaf
Published: 2013/03/21
Channel: Samadrusti Televisions
Caleb y Sofia visitan Betel
Caleb y Sofia visitan Betel
Published: 2014/09/02
Channel: JW Colombia
EATING BETEL NUTS | ADDICTIVE PLANT IN INDONESIA | TRAVEL VLOG
EATING BETEL NUTS | ADDICTIVE PLANT IN INDONESIA | TRAVEL VLOG
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: Mike Corey
MBETTEL EPISODE 1
MBETTEL EPISODE 1
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: Okay.africa
7 Amazing Health Benefits Of Betel Leaf + Different Ways To Use It
7 Amazing Health Benefits Of Betel Leaf + Different Ways To Use It
Published: 2017/10/24
Channel: Healthveins
EBD - LIÇÃO 05 (BETEL DOMINICAL) "O sacrifício pelo pecado"
EBD - LIÇÃO 05 (BETEL DOMINICAL) "O sacrifício pelo pecado"
Published: 2018/01/31
Channel: TV AD Bauru
SOSIS BETEL ROYAL JON !
SOSIS BETEL ROYAL JON !
Published: 2018/02/18
Channel: TAMPAN GAMING
Chewing Betel Nut Sulawesi Indonesia
Chewing Betel Nut Sulawesi Indonesia
Published: 2015/11/03
Channel: The Travelaholics
JEHOVÁ RESUCITARÁ A QUIENES HAN MUERTO.  DISCURSO EN BETEL. JW
JEHOVÁ RESUCITARÁ A QUIENES HAN MUERTO. DISCURSO EN BETEL. JW
Published: 2017/10/07
Channel: DISCURSOS T.J.
Video de Betel de México
Video de Betel de México
Published: 2015/11/26
Channel: Guillermo Díaz
Betel de México (Centro América) 2016
Betel de México (Centro América) 2016
Published: 2016/01/25
Channel: Enrique Santacruz
Betel do Brasil Cesário Lange SP
Betel do Brasil Cesário Lange SP
Published: 2009/07/25
Channel: Dagoberto Betel
Pedro e Sofia Visitam Betel !
Pedro e Sofia Visitam Betel !
Published: 2014/09/02
Channel: Jeová é o Rei!
RAYO FUGAZ | ANDREA Y NICOLÁS I BETHEL TELEVISIÓN
RAYO FUGAZ | ANDREA Y NICOLÁS I BETHEL TELEVISIÓN
Published: 2016/01/16
Channel: Bethel Televisión
Pré-aula EBD Betel - Lição 07 - O altar sempre aceso
Pré-aula EBD Betel - Lição 07 - O altar sempre aceso
Published: 2018/02/14
Channel: Alpha Omega
Benefits of Betel Leaf (Paan ) ka patta ka istemal , unknown facts about Betel Leaf or paan ka patta
Benefits of Betel Leaf (Paan ) ka patta ka istemal , unknown facts about Betel Leaf or paan ka patta
Published: 2017/04/22
Channel: knowledgeguru zero.O
El peligro de mascar betel
El peligro de mascar betel
Published: 2015/07/27
Channel: afpes
Helena Raquel - De Volta a Betel
Helena Raquel - De Volta a Betel
Published: 2016/07/22
Channel: Pastora Helena Raquel
Discurso sobre la masturbación y homosexualidad en betel. Testigos de Jehová. Jw.org Crecer#58
Discurso sobre la masturbación y homosexualidad en betel. Testigos de Jehová. Jw.org Crecer#58
Published: 2018/01/29
Channel: Crecer como testigo de Jehová
¡Franco obliga a Betel a besar a Francisco! | La niñita de mamá | La Rosa de Guadalupe
¡Franco obliga a Betel a besar a Francisco! | La niñita de mamá | La Rosa de Guadalupe
Published: 2017/05/25
Channel: La Rosa de Guadalupe
- Musica Cristiana Para el Alma -  Radio Betel FM
- Musica Cristiana Para el Alma - Radio Betel FM
Published: 2014/06/10
Channel: -Una Voz Que Clama en el Desierto - Cristo Vive
3 Lições de Betel e a História de Jacó
3 Lições de Betel e a História de Jacó
Published: 2016/02/12
Channel: Canal Jesus e a Bíblia
EBD - LIÇÃO 04 (BETEL DOMINICAL) "O sacrifício pacífico"
EBD - LIÇÃO 04 (BETEL DOMINICAL) "O sacrifício pacífico"
Published: 2018/01/23
Channel: TV AD Bauru
Paan recipe and chewing of betel and areca nut
Paan recipe and chewing of betel and areca nut
Published: 2017/07/29
Channel: Sandrina
Betel Nut (Areca Palm) Review - Weird Fruit Explorer Ep. 100
Betel Nut (Areca Palm) Review - Weird Fruit Explorer Ep. 100
Published: 2015/08/17
Channel: Weird Explorer
7 Health Benefits Of Betel Leaf
7 Health Benefits Of Betel Leaf
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: Everyday Simple Health Tips
Vamos a betel
Vamos a betel
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: isaac r132
Festival de pipa betel dia 03/07/2016
Festival de pipa betel dia 03/07/2016
Published: 2016/07/04
Channel: Apaixonados Por PIPA
Betel Nut Documentary - Taiwan Chewing Gum
Betel Nut Documentary - Taiwan Chewing Gum
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: Steven Domjancic
Betel, testemunhas de Jeová
Betel, testemunhas de Jeová
Published: 2016/03/20
Channel: Dicas Incríveis - Universidade Aberta
GILBERTO BARROS É AMEAÇADO POR REPORTAGEM FEITA EM BETEL!!!
GILBERTO BARROS É AMEAÇADO POR REPORTAGEM FEITA EM BETEL!!!
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: GoldeN NewS
How To Chew Betel Nut - Moma, Ifugao (BecomingFilipino)
How To Chew Betel Nut - Moma, Ifugao (BecomingFilipino)
Published: 2016/10/04
Channel: Kyle Jennermann
EBD - LIÇÃO 02 (BETEL DOMINICAL) "O sacrifício da expiação"
EBD - LIÇÃO 02 (BETEL DOMINICAL) "O sacrifício da expiação"
Published: 2018/01/09
Channel: TV AD Bauru
How to chew betel nut in Papua New Guinea
How to chew betel nut in Papua New Guinea
Published: 2010/07/21
Channel: Roberto Rocha
வெற்றிலை மாலை |  Betel Leaf Garland for Hanuman
வெற்றிலை மாலை | Betel Leaf Garland for Hanuman
Published: 2017/09/29
Channel: Kalpana's Lifestyle
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Betel
Piper betle plant.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Piperales
Family: Piperaceae
Genus: Piper
Species: P. betle
Binomial name
Piper betle
L.

The betel (Piper betle) is the leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and kava. Betel leaf is mostly consumed in Asia, and elsewhere in the world by some Asian emigrants, as betel quid or in paan, with Areca nut and/or tobacco.

In India and Sri Lanka a sheaf of betel leaves is traditionally offered as a mark of respect and auspicious beginnings. Occasions include, greeting elders at wedding ceremonies, New Year, offering payment to Ayurvedic physicians and astrologers where usually money and/or areca nut are kept on top of the sheaf of leaves and offered to the elders for their blessings.

The betel plant is an evergreen perennial, with glossy heart-shaped leaves and white catkin. The betel plant originated in South and South East Asia.

Etymology[edit]

Betel, derived from the Tamil/Malayalam word vettila, via Portuguese.[1][2]

Cultivation[edit]

Betel leaf and Areca nut consumption in the world.

The betel leaf is cultivated mostly in South and Southeast Asia, from Pakistan[3] to Papua New Guinea.[4] It needs a compatible tree or a long pole for support. Betel requires well-drained fertile soil. Waterlogged, saline and alkali soils are unsuitable for its cultivation.[5]

In Bangladesh, farmers called barui[6] prepare a garden called a barouj in which to grow betel. The barouj is fenced with bamboo sticks and coconut leaves. The soil is plowed into furrows of 10 to 15 metres' length, 75 centimetres in width and 75 centimetres' depth. Oil cakes, manure, and leaves are thoroughly incorporated with the topsoil of the furrows and wood ash. The cuttings are planted at the beginning of the monsoon season.

Betel Plant cultivation in Bangladesh

Proper shade and irrigation are essential for the successful cultivation of this crop. Betel needs constantly moist soil, but there should not be excessive moisture. Irrigation is frequent and light, and standing water should not remain for more than half an hour.

Dried leaves and wood ash are applied to the furrows at fortnightly intervals and cow dung slurry is sprinkled. Application of different kinds of leaves at monthly intervals is believed advantageous for the growth of the betel. In 3 to 6 months the vines reach 150 to 180 centimeters in height and they will branch. Harvest begins, with the farmer plucking the leaf and its petiole with his right thumb. The harvest lasts 15 days to one month. Betel plant has made its way to research labs of many Bangladesh chemical and food nutrition companies.

The harvested leaves are consumed locally and exported to other parts of Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the Americas. Betel is grown and cultivated as an important crop in rural Bangladesh.[citation needed]

Usage and cultural significance[edit]

The primary use of betel leaf is as a wrapper for the chewing of areca nut or tobacco where it is mainly used to add flavour. It may also be used in cooking, usually raw, for its peppery taste.

A phoenix wing shaped- betel leaf plate in Vietnam.
Betel bag, New Guinea, nineteenth century MHNT

Health effects[edit]

Some reports may suggest that betel leaf by itself has adverse health effects, in part because of tannins delivered by the leaf and for reasons currently not fully understood.[7] For example, one research paper studied[8] chromosome damaging effect of betel leaf in human leukocyte cultures. These researchers report an increase in the frequency of chromatid aberrations when the leaf extract was added to cultures. Another scientific study from Japan[9] indicates that the lab rats that ate a mixture of betel leaf and areca nuts all had severe thickening of the upper digestive tract whereas after undergoing a diet of betel leaves alone, only one laboratory rat ended up having a forestomach papilloma.

Economics[edit]

Betel in Bangladesh

Betel vines are cultivated throughout southeast Asia in plots whose area is typically 20 to 2000 square metres (0.005 to 0.5 acre).

Malaysian farmers cultivate four types of betel plants: sirih India, sirih Melayu, sirih Cina and sirih Udang. The harvest is then sold in bundles of 10 leaves, each bundle costing in 2011 between MYR 0.30 to 0.50 ($0.07 to $0.12 per bundle).

In Sri Lanka, betel is grown all over the country but the commercial production of betel, with bigger leaves with dark green colour combined with thickness, known as “kalu bulath” is confined to a few districts such as Kurunagala, Gampaha, Kegalle, Kalutara and Colombo.[5] These are sold at a whole seller lots of 1000 leaves. In a report published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),[10] a successful betel farm in Sri Lanka can provide a supplemental income to a farmer by providing six days of work every six months and net income when the leaf prices are attractive. The FAO study found the successful farm’s yield to be 18,000 leaves per 150 square feet (14 m2). The additional salary and income to the Sri Lankan betel grower, assuming he or she provides all needed labor and keeps all net profit, to be SL Rs. 1635 per 150 square feet (14 m2) of betel farm every 6 months ($90 per "decimal" per year, or $9000 per acre per year). If the farmer hires outside labor to tend the betel vines, and harvest the crop, the FAO found the net income to the betel farm owner to be SL Rs. 735 per 150 square feet (14 m2) of betel farm every 6 months ($40 per decimal per year, or $4000 per acre per year). According to FAO, the market prices for betel leaves vary with wet and dry season in Sri Lanka, and in 2010 averaged SL Rs. 200–400 per 1000 leaves ($1.82 to $3.64 per 1000 leaves).[11] The FAO study assumes no losses from erratic weather, and no losses during storage and transportation of perishable betel leaves. These losses are usually between 35% to 70%.[12]

In Bangladesh, betel leaf farming yields vary by region and vine variety. In one region where betel leaf cultivation is the main source of income for farmers, a total of 2,825 hectares of land is dedicated to betel vine farming.[13] The average production cost for these betel farms in Bangladesh are about Tk 300,000 per hectare ($4000 per hectare, $16 per decimal), and the farm owners can earn a profit of over Tk 100,000 per hectare ($1334 per hectare, $5.34 per decimal).

In India, a 2006 research reported[12] betel vines being cultivated on about 55000 hectares of farmland, with an annual production worth of about IN Rs. 9000 million ($200 million total, averaging $1455 per acre). The betel farming industry, the report claims, supports about 400,000 – 500,000 agricultural families.

A March 2011 report claims that betel farming is on a decline in India.[14] While in ideal conditions, some farms may gross annual incomes after expenses of over IN Rs. 26,000 per 10 decimal farm ($5,780 per acre), a betel farm income is highly erratic from year to year, because of rainfall patterns, temperature, and spoilage rates of 35% to 70% during transport over poor infrastructure.[12] Simultaneously, the demand for betel leaves has been dropping in India because of acceptance of gutkha (chewing tobacco) by consumers over betel leaf-based ‘‘paan’’ preparation;[15] the report cites betel leaf trading has dropped by 65% from 2000 to 2010, and created an over supply. As a result, the report claims Indian farmers do not find betel farming lucrative anymore.[14]

Names in different languages[edit]

The betel leaf is known as Pan in Bengali and Paan in Urdu and Hindi, Tambula and Nagavalli in Sanskrit, and Tanbul in Persian. Some of the names in the regions in which it is consumed are: "ម្លូរ" (Mlou) in Cambodian, Vetrilai (Tamil வெற்றிலை), (vettrilai – வெற்றி(vettri, "victory") + இலை (ilai, "leaf") (Leaf of victory,- Plant has only leaf with rudimentary flowers)),Tamalapaku తమలపాకు (Telugu), विड्याचे पान or "नागलीचे पान"(Marathi), નાગરવેલ ના પાન or Naagarvel na paan (Gujarati), veelyada yele ವೀಳ್ಯದ ಎಲೆ (Kannada), Vettila "വെറ്റില" (Malayalam), Kun (ကွမ်း) in Burmese, Plū (Mon), Malus (Tetum), Maluu (Khmer), Plū (Thai: พลู), Bulath බුලත් (Sinhalese), Malu (Tokodede), Bileiy (Dhivehi: ބިލެތް), bulung samat (Kapampangan), daun sirih (Malaysian), daun sirih/suruh (Indonesian), Kebui (Palauan), Pupulu (Chamorro), Ikmo (Tagalog), Gawed (Ilokano), Pu (ພູ) in Lao, and Trầu (Vietnamese), Gaweud/Gawed in (Kalinga), Buyo (Bikol).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "betel". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^ Portuguese Vocables in Asiatic Languages: From the Portuguese Original of M S R Dalgado. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. 1988. ISBN 812060413X. 
  3. ^ "Betel-leaf farming in coastal area". Dawn (newspaper). 13 May 2002. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  4. ^ Cassey, Brian (9 November 2013). "Chewing over a betel ban". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Government of Sri Lanka. "Betel – Piper Betle L". 
  6. ^ Karim, ASM Enayet (2012). "Pan1". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 
  7. ^ Morton, J. F. (1992). Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories (pp. 739–765). Springer USA
  8. ^ Sadasivan, G.; Rani, Gulab; Kumari, C.Kusuma (1978). "Chromosome-damaging effect of betel leaf". Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 57 (2): 183–5. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(78)90266-X. PMID 661839. 
  9. ^ Mori, H.; Matsubara, N.; Ushimaru, Y.; Hirono, I. (1979). "Carcinogenicity examination of betel nuts and piper betel leaves". Experientia. 35 (3): 384–5. doi:10.1007/BF01964368. PMID 446629. 
  10. ^ Jan B. Orsini. "Success Case Replication – A Manual for Increasing Farmer Household Income, see case study 12 in the report". 
  11. ^ "Life in the hill country of Sri Lanka". The Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. 
  12. ^ a b c P. Guha (2006). "Betel Leaf – The neglected green gold of India" (PDF). 19 (2): 87–93. 
  13. ^ "Betel-leaf farming benefiting farmers". The Independent. Dhaka. 6 May 2011. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. 
  14. ^ a b "Too costly to grow". CSE. 
  15. ^ "Paan loses flavour". CSE. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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