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|Bhadrakālī (Good Kali, Mahamaya Kali)|
|Sanskrit Transliteration||भद्र कालि|
|Tamil script||பத்ர காளி|
|Mantra||oṁ glauṁ bhadrakālyai namaḥ|
Bhadrakālī (Sanskrit: भद्रकाली, Tamil: பத்ரகாளி, Telugu: భద్రకాళి, Malayalam: ഭദ്രകാളി, Kannada: ಭದ್ರಕಾಳಿ), (literally "Good Kali,") is a Hindu goddess popular in Southern India. She is one of the fierce forms of the Great Goddess (Devi) mentioned in the Devi Mahatmyam. Bhadrakali is the popular form of Devi worshipped in Kerala as Sri Bhadrakali and Kariam Kali Murti Devi. In Kerala she is seen as the auspicious and fortunate form of Kali who protects the good. It is believed that Bhadrakāli was a local deity that was assimilated into the mainstream Hinduism, particularly into Shaiva mythology. She is represented with three eyes, and four, twelve or eighteen hands. She carries a number of weapons, with flames flowing from her head, and a small tusk protruding from her mouth. Her worship is also associated with the Tantric tradition of the Matrikas as well as the tradition of the ten Mahavidyas and falls under the broader umbrella of Shaktism.
In Sanskrit, Bhadra means good. A major religious interpretation of this name is that Bhadra comes from 'Bha' and 'dra', The letter 'Bha' means 'delusion' or 'Maya' in Devanagiri and 'dra' is used as a superlative i.e. meaning 'the most/the greatest e.t.c' which makes the meaning of Bhadra as Maha Maya. The Sanskrit word 'Bhadra Kali' therefore can be translated to Hindi as 'Mahamaya Kali'.
There are at least three traditional versions regarding the origin-incarnations or avatar of Bhadrakali. The first version is from Devi Mahatmyam and basically a part of Shaktism, and it was during the battle between Raktabija and Shakti, according to this tradition. The second is associated with the Daksha and Dakshayaga, from the more Shaivism related tradition, and glimpses of this version can be seen in some Puranas. The third and the equally most famous one is her divine birth as the daughter of Shiva to liberate the world from demon Daruka.
According to Tantra Rahasya, she arose from the North (Uttaramnaya) face (Amnayas) of Shiva, which is blue in color and with three eyes.
According to her Keralan devotees, the events described in the Markandeya Purana associated with Bhadrakali (her slaying of the demon Daruka to liberate the universe from the evil) took place in Kerala, near Madayi in the Kannur District. Bhadrakali temples in Kerala commemorate this event during traditional festivals and Bhadrakali is worshipped as the daughter of Lord Shiva, from whose third eye she sprung to defeat the demon. According to the Markandeya Purana, her worship purifies the devotee and grants liberation from the cycle of birth and death. She is seen to protect the honour of women and to bestow all spiritual knowledge. In Kerala, she called Virabhadra her "brother" and refused to be treated by him when she was attacked by the deity Vasoorimala, who had marked her face with smallpox. She said that a brother must not touch the face of his sister. Thus, mild pockmarks are sometimes visible on her face in some Keralan depictions of her.
Among the people of the neighboring states, especially in Tamil Nadu, this form of Shakti is known as 'Malayala Bhagavathy' or 'Malayala Bhadrakali', who provides protection to her devotees irrespective of caste and religion.
In Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and the Southern Travancore area of Kerala, especially in the city of Thiruvananthapuram, the Tamil, Kannada and Telugu speaking communities worship a form of Mahakali as 'Ujjaini Mahakali', and they consider Emperor Vikramaditya as their first teacher in this spiritual tradition as having established the tradition in the South.
In other parts of India, the Tantric name 'Kali' or 'Mahakali' is generally more popular as the consort of Shiva in his form of Rudra or Mahakala, and Bhadrakali is identified as Durga's daughter who helped her during the battle with Raktabija. Other sources state that she is the sister of Virabhadra, who was himself born of the wrath of Shiva as Rudra, and that she is the consort of a form of Mahakala or Bhairava. The deeply Tantric-influenced traditions mostly consider 'Kali' as the consort of Shiva.
It is believed Bhadrakali protects the practitioners of Kalarippayattu, a traditional martial arts form. In Malabar, it is believed that all the victories of Thacholi Othenan and other martial artists were due to the blessings of Bhadrakali of the Lokanarkavu Temple, also known as 'The Shaolin Temple of Malayalees'. Most traditional villages in Kerala have their own Kalari, the ancient martial arts schools and local temples dedicated to Bhadrakali associated with them. Among Tamils, Bhadrakali is equally important as the patron deity of traditional martial arts and a guardian of all law abiding citizens.
Some communities, like the Kodavas and Nairs, worship this deity as family deity. They worship certain weapons at their temples which they believe to be the weapons used by the goddess. Bhadrakali is also the tutelary deity of the Nadar community of Tamil Nadu.
MULLUTHARA DEVI TEMPLE (SREE BHADRA KALI DEVI & KARIAM KALI MOORTHI DEVI MULLUTHARA SREE BHADRA - KARIAM KALI MOORTHI TEMPLE,ADOOR,MALAMEKKARA,PATHANAMTHITTA
Mullutharayil kalari was Re- Organised as Mulluthara Sree Bhadra- Kariam Kali moorthi Temple(Mullutharadevitemple) after its Pura Prathishta in the past ie....600 yers before, the kala Kalarippyattu(Martial Art) were on - going under the leader ship of the Kalari Assan.They ware workshiping sree Kariam kalimoorthi as their Kula Dheyam.There after Sree Bhadrakali was appeared in front of the Kalari Assan and asked him to allows her to site insupport to the Kariam Kali Moorthi in Mullutharayil Kalari and allowed them Assan.The Devotees are workshping these two Gods along with others as their Desha Devads............
According to legends, the famous Indian Sanskrit poet Kalidasa became what he was thanks to the divine will of Bhadrakali. Another legend states that the emperor Vikramaditya and his brother Bhatti were also ardent devotees of Bhadrakali, whose blessings resulted in all the success showered upon them. Vikramaditya also helped to establish small wayside Bhadrakali temples and prayer centers for pilgrims in many parts of Southern India, especially in Tamil Nadu. The devotional traditions focused around these small temples exist even today.
Kerala has a tradition of folk artist rituals and dances associated with worship of Devi in the form of Bhadrakali. These rituals are performed in places of worship called Kavu (roughly translated as grove) or in small temples. Besides the general welfare of the village, these rituals aim at warding off of such calamities like smallpox and other epidemic diseases. The ritual themes generally revolve around the triumph of Bhadrakali over the demon Daruka and other evil characters.
The dance forms are:
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