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|Bhadrakālī (Good Kali, Mahamaya Kali)|
|Sanskrit Transliteration||भद्र कालि|
|Tamil script||பத்ர காளி|
|Mantra||oṁ glauṁ bhadrakālyai namaḥ|
|Weapon||Trident, Scimitar, Sword, Cleaver, Discus, Conch Shell, Spear, Mace, Vajra, Shield, Waterpot, Drinking Bowl, Goad, Dagger, Demon head|
Bhadrakālī (Sanskrit: भद्रकाली, Tamil: பத்ரகாளி, Telugu: భద్రకాళి, Malayalam: ഭദ്രകാളി, Kannada: ಭದ್ರಕಾಳಿ, Kodava: ಭದ್ರಕಾಳಿ) (literally "Good Kali,") is a Hindu goddess popular in Southern India. She is one of the fierce forms of the Great Goddess (Devi) mentioned in the Devi Mahatmyam. Bhadrakali is the popular form of Devi worshipped in Kerala as Sri Bhadrakali and Kariam Kali Murti Devi. In Kerala she is seen as the auspicious and fortunate form of Kali who protects the good. It is believed that Bhadrakāli was a local deity that was assimilated into the mainstream Hinduism, particularly into Shaiva mythology. She is represented with three eyes, and four, twelve or eighteen hands. She carries a number of weapons, with flames flowing from her head, and a small tusk protruding from her mouth. Her worship is also associated with the Tantric tradition of the Matrikas as well as the tradition of the ten Mahavidyas and falls under the broader umbrella of Shaktism.
In Sanskrit, Bhadra means good. A major religious interpretation of this name is that Bhadra comes from 'Bha' and 'dra', The letter 'Bha' means 'delusion' or 'Maya' in Devanagiri and 'dra' is used as a superlative i.e. meaning 'the most/the greatest e.t.c' which makes the meaning of Bhadra as Maha Maya. The Sanskrit word 'Bhadra Kali' therefore can be translated to Hindi as 'Mahamaya Kali'.
There are at least three traditional versions regarding the origin-incarnations or avatar of Bhadrakali. The first version is from Devi Mahatmyam and basically a part of Shaktism, and it was during the battle between Raktabija and Shakti, according to this tradition. The second is associated with the Daksha and Dakshayaga, from the more Shaivism related tradition, and glimpses of this version can be seen in some Puranas. The third and the equally most famous one is her divine birth as the daughter of Shiva to liberate the world from demon Daruka.
According to Tantra Rahasya, she arose from the North (Uttaramnaya) face (Amnayas) of Shiva, which is blue in color and with three eyes.
The demon Darika, after intense ascetic penances and practices, secured a boon from Lord Brahma that he would be invincible and would not get killed by any man. He began to harass the world and commit numerous crimes. When Lord Shiva came to know about the misdeeds of demon Darika, he became infuriated and created the Goddess Bhadrakali to kill the demon. Full of wrath, he opened his fiery third eye and the massive flaming form of Bhadrakali emerged. She was huge, wore a ferocious look and had countless heads, hands and legs. When Shiva requested Bhadra Kali to destroy Darika, she went through a forest and sought the help of bloodthirsty ghosts and spirits who lived there. When Darika saw Bhadrakali and her largely female army coming, he laughed and dismissed her, forgetting that his boon of invincibility did not pervent his being killed by a woman. After a fierce battle, Bhadrakali and her assistants finally finished him off, and the Goddess began to return home from Kailash, full of wrath and excitement and holding the head of Darika in her left hand. When she reached Kailash, her father Shiva tempted to calm her wrath by dancing naked before her and offering her worship. She was satisfied and henceforth began to receive offerings from devotees as a boon from Shiva.
According to her Keralan devotees, the events described in the Markandeya Purana associated with Bhadrakali (her slaying of the demon Daruka to liberate the universe from the evil) took place in Kerala, near Madayi in the Kannur District. Bhadrakali temples in Kerala commemorate this event during traditional festivals and Bhadrakali is worshipped as the daughter of Lord Shiva, from whose third eye she sprung to defeat the demon. According to the Markandeya Purana, her worship purifies the devotee and grants liberation from the cycle of birth and death. She is seen to protect the honour of women and to bestow all spiritual knowledge. In Kerala, she called Virabhadra her "brother" and refused to be treated by him when she was attacked by the deity Vasoorimala, who had marked her face with smallpox. She said that a brother must not touch the face of his sister. Thus, mild pockmarks are sometimes visible on her face in some Keralan depictions of her.
Among the people of the neighboring states, especially in Tamil Nadu, this form of Shakti is known as 'Malayala Bhagavathy' or 'Malayala Bhadrakali', who provides protection to her devotees irrespective of caste and religion.
In Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and the Southern Travancore area of Kerala, especially in the city of Thiruvananthapuram, the Tamil, Kannada and Telugu speaking communities worship a form of Mahakali as 'Ujjaini Mahakali', and they consider Emperor Vikramaditya as their first teacher in this spiritual tradition as having established the tradition in the South.
In other parts of India, the Tantric name 'Kali' or 'Mahakali' is generally more popular as the consort of Shiva in his form of Rudra or Mahakala, and Bhadrakali is identified as Durga's daughter who helped her during the battle with Raktabija. Other sources state that she is the sister of Virabhadra, who was himself born of the wrath of Shiva as Rudra, and that she is the consort of a form of Mahakala or Bhairava. The deeply Tantric-influenced traditions mostly consider 'Kali' as the consort of Shiva.
It is believed Bhadrakali protects the practitioners of Kalarippayattu, a traditional martial arts form. In Malabar, it is believed that all the victories of Thacholi Othenan and other martial artists were due to the blessings of Bhadrakali of the Lokanarkavu Temple, also known as 'The Shaolin Temple of Malayalees'. Most traditional villages in Kerala have their own Kalari, the ancient martial arts schools and local temples dedicated to Bhadrakali associated with them. Among Tamils, Bhadrakali is equally important as the patron deity of traditional martial arts and a guardian of all law abiding citizens.
Some communities, like the Kodavas and Nairs, worship this deity as family deity. They worship certain weapons at their temples which they believe to be the weapons used by the goddess. The Kuladevata or community deity of Kudumbi community is Kodungalluramma,the mother goddess of kodungallur. Kodungallur Bhagavathy Temple is one of the most famous temples in Kerala, dedicated to Bhadrakali. During the 'thalappoli' festival, which is celebrated mainly on Makar Sankranti, kudumbi people from all over the state (especially South Kerala) come to the temple. Bhadrakali is also the tutelary deity of the Nadar community of Tamil Nadu.
According to legends, the famous Indian Sanskrit poet Kalidasa became what he was thanks to the divine will of Bhadrakali. Another legend states that the emperor Vikramaditya and his brother Bhatti were also ardent devotees of Bhadrakali, whose blessings resulted in all the success showered upon them. Vikramaditya also helped to establish small wayside Bhadrakali temples and prayer centers for pilgrims in many parts of Southern India, especially in Tamil Nadu. The devotional traditions focused around these small temples exist even today.
Kerala has a tradition of folk artist rituals and dances associated with worship of Devi in the form of Bhadrakali. These rituals are performed in places of worship called Kavu (roughly translated as grove) or in small temples. Besides the general welfare of the village, these rituals aim at warding off of such calamities like smallpox and other epidemic diseases. The ritual themes generally revolve around the triumph of Bhadrakali over the demon Daruka and other evil characters.
The dance forms are:
The Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple is a highly famous revered shrine in Kerala, India. The shrine is in Mullassery. It is 1.5 kilometres (0.93 miles) from Karakulam. It is 12.5 kilometres (7.8 miles) from Thiruvananthapuram. The temple is managed by Pathiyanadu sree Bhadrakali Kshetram Trust.
The temple enshrines Goddess Bhadrakali as the presiding Deity. The idol stands for Goddess Bhadrakali, the daughter of Lord Shiva. Goddess Kali is situated toward the north (vadakke nada). The idol is known in the local Malayalam language as Thirumudi. The idol of the Goddess in the Pathiyanadu temple is one of the largest among the idols of Kerala Kali temples. The idol is four and a half feet in height as well as width. Other deities worshipped at the Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple called Upadevatha's temples include Lord MahaGanapathy and Nagaraja. The temple also has a small sub-temple where another deity Madan Thampuran is enshrined.
Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple Festival held every year, usually between February and March. But the Dikkubali Mahotsavam held on every three years and Paranettu Mahotsavam held on every six years. These Festivals begins in Malayalam month of Kumbham and the nakshatra Bharani, So all these festivals called Kumbhabharani Mahotsavam.
This pooja is held on the Festival time i.e. on the Third day of Festival, On that day girls above 18 came here and participate in this pooja to remove their Dhoshas on their marriage, and get married soon and also get good groom. On that day Trikalayanam( marriage of goddess Bhadrakali, based on Chilapathikaram )takesplaces. There are thousands and thousands of people came here to see this pooja and participate Trikalayanam and to get goddess blessings.
It is the pooja which is seen only in this temple in kerala. It is on the Festival days many people participate in this pooja to remove Durdevadas from their house and get Lekshmi Devi's blessings to their house.
It is the pooja which is seen only in this temple in kerala. It is on the Festival days many people participate in this pooja to remove Dhosham like (black magic etc.) from their house.
It is the pooja hels on the fifth day of festival, it is performed by priest of the temple performs some trance like dances until he is unconscious. It is done to remove Dhosham like Drishti dhosham, Vilidhosham, Black Magict etc. It believed that on this pooja the presiding deity's bhoothaganams remove these dhosham from the people who participated in this pooja and also to the people who watching this pooja.
It is performed by the Kshetra thantri, on Festival day. This pooja is conducted to remove Sarppadhoshas.
Kalamkaval is a famous customs practiced at the temple premises and nearby places during festival. It is believed that the Goddess Bhadrakali searches her enemy demon, Daaruka in all directions before putting him to death. Devotees commemorate this legend by seeing this unique Kalamkaval. Kalamkaval is the ritual in which chief priest, carries the idol on his head and performs some trance like dances until he is unconscious. During kalamkaval, chief priest wears anklet and thiruvabharam (traditional gold ornaments of goddess that includes kappu, vanki, odyanam, paalakka mala, pichi mottu mala, muthu mala etc.). All people believe that the priest gets strength to carry on the trance with the idol on his head, due to the blessings of the Devi enshrined in the temple.
It is believed that Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali searches her enemy demon, Daaruka in all four directions before putting him to death.The four directions are East, South, West, North and also in each of these direction Kalamkaval and Gurusi takesplace.
It is believed that a fight erupted between Devi and the demon Darikan in sky. The fight is enacted on a specially erected stage, about 100 feet high and is conducted at night known as Paranettu.
Nilathilporu that marks the conclusion of the Kumbhabharani Paranettu festival at Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple. During the climactic moment of this ceremony, the demon Daarika (the man with the symbolic crown in the foreground) weeps and begs for mercy from the Goddess. Subsequently the Goddess beheads the demon.
The festival, ended with a grand procession knows as Aaraattu. During Aaraattu the Idol is cleaned using water collected from 101 pots. Aaraattu is conducted at Pathiyanadu Ambalakkadavu. Girls below ten years of age, along with chief priest performs the function.
Pongala at Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple is celebrated during the Festival of Malayalam month of Kumbham on the Punartham Nakshatram (Punarvasu Nakshatra). Pongala is the rice cooked with jaggery, ghee, coconut as well as other ingredients in the open in small pots by women to please the Goddess. In Pathiyanadu Sree Bhadrakali Temple Pongal Thousands and Thousands of Women from different places came and put pongala to makes their wishes true.
Akathu Nivedhyam, Kumkumaarchana, Ikyamathyarchana, Vidhyaasooktham, Rakthapushpaarchana, Bhaagyasooktharchana, Saraswathymantrarchana, Shatruthaasamhararchana, Swayamvaraarchana, Muttirakku (only on Sundays), Kumkumabhishekam(only on Sundays), Manjalabhishekam(only on Sundays), ManjalPara(only on Sundays), Swayamavara homam (specific months), Ganapathy homam, Mahaganapathy homam (on swayamvarahomam days and on vinayaka chathurthi),Chandika Homam (once in a year),Guruthi Pushpanjali (only on Sundays), Thattam pooja(with all fruits), Nagarchana, Ayilya Pooja, Thulaabhaaram, Kunjoonu, Aazhcha Pooja, Visheshal Pooja etc.
The Temple opens on every Tuesday (03:30pm –07:30pm), Friday (04:00pm–07:30pm), Sunday (07:30am–01:00pm). First day of all Malayalam months, temple will open at morning 5.30am and close at 12.00pm and open at evening 04:00pm and close at 07:00pm(On all first day of Malayalam Month, Annadhanam is there). And also Temple opens on all Hindu Festivals.
There are many cultural programmes held on Festival days, Karkkidakavavu bali, etc. On the Festival days Samskaarika Sammelanam takes place. On that occasion several awards are given to the talented people. Awards like the sadhchitra award, Kalamadhyamasreshtta Puraskaaram, and also awards for the students who are talented in several arts and also in studies. The Kalamadhyamasreshtta Puraskaaram is given to the people who show talent in the fields of Films, Media, etc. In 2011, the Kalamadhyamasreshtta Puraskaaram was given to the actress Chippi; in 2012 it was given to cinema serial actress Indhulekha; In 2013 to Actor Madhu, in 2014 to Sugathakumari teacher, and in 2015 to Kavaalam Narayana Panicker
The famous Bhadrakali temple located in Kadinamkulam and The festival starts on the shivrathri day of every year.
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