1
DIY how to build your own Bio Filter system for Kio pond
DIY how to build your own Bio Filter system for Kio pond
DATE: 2013/12/29::
2
Trickle filter for aquaponics / aquaculture.. A moving bed bio filter mod..
Trickle filter for aquaponics / aquaculture.. A moving bed bio filter mod..
DATE: 2014/05/31::
3
My Dumb Projects: A Bio-Filter Better Than Any Sold In Stores
My Dumb Projects: A Bio-Filter Better Than Any Sold In Stores
DATE: 2011/01/28::
4
Aquaponic Bio filter ,drumfilter and swirl filter .. System update.
Aquaponic Bio filter ,drumfilter and swirl filter .. System update.
DATE: 2013/12/13::
5
BioFilter Video copy
BioFilter Video copy
DATE: 2011/11/23::
6
How to make a homemade bio filter for your pond that really works! No UV
How to make a homemade bio filter for your pond that really works! No UV
DATE: 2010/07/08::
7
Aquarium Filter Media: Biofilter Media Review
Aquarium Filter Media: Biofilter Media Review
DATE: 2014/04/11::
8
Homemade Aquaponics Biofilter
Homemade Aquaponics Biofilter
DATE: 2013/02/05::
9
XTREME BIO FILTER - KOI FISH POND & WATER GARDEN
XTREME BIO FILTER - KOI FISH POND & WATER GARDEN
DATE: 2009/02/25::
10
Homemade Biofilter
Homemade Biofilter
DATE: 2009/06/14::
11
De bouw van een biofilter
De bouw van een biofilter
DATE: 2015/02/05::
12
Raising Tilapia - Update on K1 Kaldness Biofilter
Raising Tilapia - Update on K1 Kaldness Biofilter
DATE: 2014/11/03::
13
Moving Bed Biofilter & ap update 14th March 2014
Moving Bed Biofilter & ap update 14th March 2014
DATE: 2014/03/15::
14
Kaldnes DIY 5 Minute Bio Filter
Kaldnes DIY 5 Minute Bio Filter
DATE: 2013/01/22::
15
home made pond bio filter
home made pond bio filter
DATE: 2011/05/26::
16
Aquaponics Bio Filter 1.0.
Aquaponics Bio Filter 1.0.
DATE: 2012/09/11::
17
How to make a aquaponic biofilter for 10 dollars from Missions of Love School of Aquaponics
How to make a aquaponic biofilter for 10 dollars from Missions of Love School of Aquaponics
DATE: 2011/06/22::
18
Homemade koi pond with bio filter
Homemade koi pond with bio filter
DATE: 2013/07/05::
19
AquaLab: Ex 08 DIY Aquarium Biofilter
AquaLab: Ex 08 DIY Aquarium Biofilter
DATE: 2010/10/08::
20
AWESOME DIY Aquarium Filter (Flask BIO-Filter)
AWESOME DIY Aquarium Filter (Flask BIO-Filter)
DATE: 2014/02/01::
21
Biofiltration -- clean water for everyone: Uzair Mohammed at TEDxUCSD
Biofiltration -- clean water for everyone: Uzair Mohammed at TEDxUCSD
DATE: 2014/06/20::
22
Pond Filters | Filter für Teich | Teichfilter | Vorfilter | Biofilter | Pflanzenfilter.wmv
Pond Filters | Filter für Teich | Teichfilter | Vorfilter | Biofilter | Pflanzenfilter.wmv
DATE: 2011/08/04::
23
Xtreme BioFilter -  Refitting A VBead Filter-01
Xtreme BioFilter - Refitting A VBead Filter-01
DATE: 2013/03/01::
24
Backwash for Single Barrel BioFilter
Backwash for Single Barrel BioFilter
DATE: 2014/12/04::
25
DIY Biofilter for aquariums
DIY Biofilter for aquariums
DATE: 2013/04/03::
26
Hot Tub Aquaponics: New Bio Filter Design And Plumbing
Hot Tub Aquaponics: New Bio Filter Design And Plumbing
DATE: 2014/06/19::
27
Pond Homemade Bio Filter Part 1
Pond Homemade Bio Filter Part 1
DATE: 2010/01/17::
28
DIY Biofilter
DIY Biofilter
DATE: 2011/11/10::
29
Biofilter Basics
Biofilter Basics
DATE: 2012/06/11::
30
Cleaning DIY bio filter (55 gallons) for koi pond
Cleaning DIY bio filter (55 gallons) for koi pond
DATE: 2013/04/23::
31
MarinePure Bio Filter Media flow demonstration
MarinePure Bio Filter Media flow demonstration
DATE: 2013/03/24::
32
CY Cyclone Bio-Filter Overview and Installation
CY Cyclone Bio-Filter Overview and Installation
DATE: 2008/08/19::
33
The Backyard Farmer Aquaponics. Duckweed beds, bio filter, worm motel, and compost bin
The Backyard Farmer Aquaponics. Duckweed beds, bio filter, worm motel, and compost bin
DATE: 2012/05/27::
34
DIY Bio Filter for an Aquaponic system, pond, or aquarium
DIY Bio Filter for an Aquaponic system, pond, or aquarium
DATE: 2014/07/12::
35
Instructions for mounting a DIY bio filter for ponds using 55 gallons drum1
Instructions for mounting a DIY bio filter for ponds using 55 gallons drum1
DATE: 2013/06/25::
36
Building a Bio-Filter (Greywater Recycling System)
Building a Bio-Filter (Greywater Recycling System)
DATE: 2012/03/06::
37
Ecoflo Biofilter Septic System: A worldwide success trusted by 80,000 families!
Ecoflo Biofilter Septic System: A worldwide success trusted by 80,000 families!
DATE: 2014/11/27::
38
Easy Cheap Clear Pond Bio Filter Media
Easy Cheap Clear Pond Bio Filter Media
DATE: 2010/08/04::
39
Pond Homemade Bio Filter Part 5
Pond Homemade Bio Filter Part 5
DATE: 2010/01/31::
40
HOME MADE POND BIO FILTER
HOME MADE POND BIO FILTER
DATE: 2011/04/03::
41
Aquaponic BioFilter 2 - Homemade BioFilter For Aquaponic Systems
Aquaponic BioFilter 2 - Homemade BioFilter For Aquaponic Systems
DATE: 2014/03/20::
42
Biofilter Marsh for Pond Filtration DIY
Biofilter Marsh for Pond Filtration DIY
DATE: 2014/11/18::
43
XTREME BIO FILTER-TOM SMITH-Happy Pond Owner/Pond Tour
XTREME BIO FILTER-TOM SMITH-Happy Pond Owner/Pond Tour
DATE: 2010/10/25::
44
Aquaponic Bio Filter 1 - Homemade Bio Filter For Aquaponic Systems
Aquaponic Bio Filter 1 - Homemade Bio Filter For Aquaponic Systems
DATE: 2014/03/19::
45
DIY Pond Bio Filter Design Template
DIY Pond Bio Filter Design Template
DATE: 2012/08/19::
46
Biofilter materials for Aquaculture
Biofilter materials for Aquaculture
DATE: 2009/05/12::
47
Boyu bio-filter Waterfall style 300 l/h  | Equipamiento
Boyu bio-filter Waterfall style 300 l/h | Equipamiento
DATE: 2014/12/16::
48
BioFilter Building - HerevLeet
BioFilter Building - HerevLeet
DATE: 2008/06/08::
49
Aquaponics DIY swirl/bio-filter, system update
Aquaponics DIY swirl/bio-filter, system update
DATE: 2014/05/11::
50
DIY aquarium fish tank BIO FILTER
DIY aquarium fish tank BIO FILTER
DATE: 2008/09/20::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Biosolids composting plant biofilter mound - note sprinkler visible front right to maintain proper moisture level for optimum functioning

Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using living material to capture and biologically degrade process pollutants. Common uses include processing waste water, capturing harmful chemicals or silt from surface runoff, and microbiotic oxidation of contaminants in air.

Examples of biofiltration include;

Control of air pollution[edit]

When applied to air filtration and purification, biofilters use microorganisms to remove air pollution.[1] The air flows through a packed bed and the pollutant transfers into a thin biofilm on the surface of the packing material. Microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi are immobilized in the biofilm and degrade the pollutant. Trickling filters and bioscrubbers rely on a biofilm and the bacterial action in their recirculating waters.

The technology finds greatest application in treating malodorous compounds and water-soluble volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Industries employing the technology include food and animal products, off-gas from wastewater treatment facilities, pharmaceuticals, wood products manufacturing, paint and coatings application and manufacturing and resin manufacturing and application, etc. Compounds treated are typically mixed VOCs and various sulfur compounds, including hydrogen sulfide. Very large airflows may be treated and although a large area (footprint) has typically been required—a large biofilter (>200,000 acfm) may occupy as much or more land than a football field—this has been one of the principal drawbacks of the technology. Engineered biofilters, designed and built since the early 1990s, have provided significant footprint reductions over the conventional flat-bed, organic media type.

Air cycle system at biosolids composting plant. Large duct in foreground is exhaust air into biofilter shown in next photo

One of the main challenges to optimum biofilter operation is maintaining proper moisture throughout the system. The air is normally humidified before it enters the bed with a watering (spray) system, humidification chamber, bioscrubber, or biotrickling filter. Properly maintained, a natural, organic packing media like peat, vegetable mulch, bark or wood chips may last for several years but engineered, combined natural organic and synthetic component packing materials will generally last much longer, up to 10 years. A number of companies offer these types or proprietary packing materials and multi-year guarantees, not usually provided with a conventional compost or wood chip bed biofilter.

Although widely employed, the scientific community is still unsure of the physical phenomena underpinning biofilter operation, and information about the microorganisms involved continues to be developed. A biofilter/bio-oxidation system is a fairly simple device to construct and operate and offers a cost-effective solution provided the pollutant is biodegradable within a moderate time frame (increasing residence time = increased size and capital costs), at reasonable concentrations (and lb/hr loading rates) and that the airstream is at an organism-viable temperature. For large volumes of air, a biofilter may be the only cost-effective solution. There is no secondary pollution (unlike the case of incineration where additional CO2 and NOx are produced from burning fuels) and degradation products form additional biomass, carbon dioxide and water. Media irrigation water, although many systems recycle part of it to reduce operating costs, has a moderately high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and may require treatment before disposal. However, this "blowdown water", necessary for proper maintenance of any bio-oxidation system, is generally accepted by municipal publicly owned treatment works without any pretreatment.

Biofilters are being utilized in Columbia Falls, Montana at Plum Creek Timber Company's fiberboard plant.[2] The biofilters decrease the pollution emitted by the manufacturing process and the exhaust emitted is 98% clean. The newest, and largest, biofilter addition to Plum Creek cost $9.5 million, yet even though this new technology is expensive, in the long run it will cost less overtime than the alternative exhaust-cleaning incinerators fueled by natural gas (which are not as environmentally friendly). The biofilters use trillions of microscopic bacteria that cleanse the air being released from the plant.

Water treatment[edit]

A typical complete trickling filter system for treating wastewaters.[3]
Image 1: A schematic cross-section of the contact face of the bed media in a trickling filter.

Biofilter[4] was first introduced in England in 1893 as a trickling filter for wastewater treatment and has since been successfully used for the treatment of different types of water. Biological treatment has been used in Europe to filter surface water for drinking purposes since the early 1900s and is now receiving more interest worldwide. Biofiltration is also common in wastewater treatment, aquaculture and greywater recycling as a way to minimize water replacement while increasing water quality.

Biofiltration process

Biofilter installation at a commercial composting facility.

A biofilter is a bed of media on which microorganisms attach and grow to form a biological layer called biofilm. Biofiltration is thus usually referred to as a fixed–film process. Generally, the biofilm is formed by a community of different microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, yeast, etc.), macro-organisms (protozoa, worms, insect’s larvae, etc.) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (Flemming and Wingender, 2010). The aspect of the biofilm[5] is usually slimy and muddy.

Water to be treated can be applied intermittently or continuously over the media, upflow or downflow. Typically, a biofilter has two or three phases, depending on the feeding strategy (percolating or submerged biofilter):

1.a solid phase (media);

2.a liquid phase (water);

3.a gaseous phase (air).

Organic matter and other water components diffuse into the biofilm where the treatment occurs, mostly by biodegradation. Biofiltration processes are usually aerobic, which means that microorganisms require oxygen for their metabolism. Oxygen can be supplied to the biofilm, either concurrently or counter currently with water flow. Aeration occurs passively by the natural flow of air through the process (three phases biofilter) or by forced air supplied by blowers.

Microorganisms' activity is a key-factor of the process performance. The main influencing factors are the water composition, the biofilter hydraulic loading, the type of media, the feeding strategy (percolation or submerged media), the age of the biofilm, temperature, aeration, etc.

Types of filtering media

Originally, biofilter was developed using rock or slag as filter media, but different types of material are used today. These materials are categorized as inorganic media (sand, gravel, geotextile, different shapes of plastic media, glass beads, etc.) and organic media (peat, wood chips, coco shell fragments, compost, etc.)

Advantages

Although biological filters have simple superficial structures, their internal hydrodynamics and the microorganisms' biology and ecology are complex and variable.[6] These characteristics confer robustness to the process. In other words, the process has the capacity to maintain its performance or rapidly return to initial levels following a period of no flow, of intense use, toxic shocks, media backwash (high rate biofiltration processes), etc.

The structure of the biofilm protects microorganisms from difficult environmental conditions and retains the biomass inside the process, even when conditions are not optimal for its growth. Biofiltration processes offer the following advantages: (Rittmann et al., 1988):

• Because microorganisms are retained within the biofilm, biofiltration allows the development of microorganisms with relatively low specific growth rates; • Biofilters are less subject to variable or intermittent loadings and to hydraulic shock;[7] • Operational costs are usually lower than for activated sludge; • Final treatment result is less influenced by biomass separation since the biomass concentration at the effluent is much lower than for suspended biomass processes; • Attached biomass becomes more specialized (higher concentration of relevant organisms) at a given point in the process train because there is no biomass return.[8]

Drawbacks

Because filtration and growth of biomass leads to an accumulation of matter in the filtering media, this type of fixed-film process is subject to clogging and flow channeling. Depending on the type of application and on the media used for microbial growth, clogging can be controlled using physical and/or chemical methods. Whenever possible, backwash steps can be implemented using air and/or water to disrupt the biomat and recover flow. Chemicals such as oxidizing (peroxide, ozone) or biocide agents can also be used.

For drinking water, biological water treatment involves the use of naturally occurring micro-organisms in the surface water to improve water quality. Under optimum conditions, including relatively low turbidity and high oxygen content, the organisms break down material in the water and thus improve water quality. Slow sand filters or carbon filters are used to provide a place on which these micro-organisms grow. These biological treatment systems effectively reduce water-borne diseases, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity and colour in surface water, improving overall water quality.

Drinking water[edit]

For drinking water, biological water treatment involves the use of naturally-occurring microorganisms in the surface water to improve water quality. Under optimum conditions, including relatively low turbidity and high oxygen content, the organisms break down material in the water and thus improve water quality. Slow sand filters or carbon filters are used to provide a support on which these microorganisms grow. These biological treatment systems effectively reduce water-borne diseases, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity and color in surface water, thus improving overall water quality.

Wastewater[edit]

Biofiltration is used to treat wastewater from a wide range of sources, with varying organic compositions and concentrations. Many examples of biofiltration applications are described in the literature. As a non-exhaustive list of applications, and notwithstanding the type of media, biofilters were developed and commercialized for the treatment of animal wastes,[9] landfill leachates,[10] dairy wastewater,[11] domestic wastewater.[12]

This process is versatile as it can be adapted to small flows (< 1 m3/d), such as onsite domestic wastewater[13] as well as to flows generated by a municipality (> 240 000 m3/d).[14] For decentralized domestic wastewater production, such as for isolated dwellings, it has been demonstrated that there are important daily, weekly and yearly fluctuations of hydraulic and organic production rates related to modern families' lifestyle.[15] In this context, a biofilter located after a septic tank constitutes a robust process able to sustain the variability observed without compromising the treatment performance.

Use in aquaculture[edit]

The use of biofilters are commonly used on closed aquaculture systems, such as recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Many designs are used, with different benefits and drawbacks, however the function is the same: reducing water exchanges by converting ammonia to nitrate. Ammonia (NH4+ and NH3) originates from the brachial excretion from the gills of aquatic animals and from the decomposition of organic matter. As ammonia-N is highly toxic, this is converted to a less toxic form of nitrite (by Nitrosomonas sp.) and then to an even less toxic form of nitrate (by Nitrobacter sp.). This "nitrification" process requires oxygen (aerobic conditions), without which the biofilter can crash. Furthermore, as this nitrification cycle produces H+, the pH can decrease which necessitates the use of buffers such as lime.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joseph S. Devinny, Marc A. Deshusses and Todd S. Webster (1999). Biofiltration for Air Pollution Control. Lewis Publishers. ISBN 1-56670-289-5. 
  2. ^ Lynch, Keriann (2008-10-26). "'Bug farm' a breath of fresh air". Spokesman Review. 
  3. ^ Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st Edition ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. LCCN 67019834. 
  4. ^ D.S. Chaudhary, S. Vigneswara, H.-H. Ngo, W.G. Shim and H. Moon (2003). Biofilter in water and wastewater treatment. The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol.20 No.6. 
  5. ^ H.C. Flemming and J. Wingender (2010). The biofilm matrix. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 
  6. ^ C.R. Curds and H.A. Hawkes (1983). Ecological Aspects of Used-Water Treatment. The Processes and their Ecology Vol.3. 
  7. ^ P.W. Westerman, J.R. Bicudo and A. Kantardjieff (1998). Aerobic fixed-media biofilter treatment of flushed swine manure. ASAE Annual International Meeting - Florida. 
  8. ^ H. Odegaard (2006). Innovations in wastewater treatment: the moving bed biofilm process. Water Science Technology. 
  9. ^ G. Buelna, R. Dubé and N. Turgeon (2008). Pig manure treatment by organic bed biofiltration. Desalination. 
  10. ^ M. Heavey (2003). Low-cost treatment of landfill leachate using peat. Waste Management. 
  11. ^ M.G. Healy, M. Rodgers and J. Mulqueen (2007). Treatment of dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands and intermittent sand filters. Bioresource Technology. 
  12. ^ E.C. Jowett and M.L. McMaster (1995). On-site wastewater treatment using unsaturated absorbent biofilters. Journal of Environmental Quality. 
  13. ^ P. Talbot, G. Bélanger, M. Pelletier, G. Laliberté and Y. Arcand (1996). Development of a biofilter using an organic medium for on-site wastewater treatment. Water Science and Technology. 
  14. ^ Y. Bihan and P. Lessard (2000). Use of enzyme tests to monitor the biomass activity of a trickling biofilter treating domestic wastewaters. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnology. 
  15. ^ R. Lacasse (2009). Effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment technologies in the context of the new constrains imposed by lifestyle changes in north American families. NOWRA - 18th Annual Technical Education Conference and Expo in Milwaukee. 

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2015