Play Video
1
Golda Meir
Golda Meir''s Revenge Mossad Operation Bayoneta
::2014/02/02::
Play Video
2
Black September & the 1972 Munich Olympics
Black September & the 1972 Munich Olympics
::2012/02/04::
Play Video
3
Amerrica Black Listed Haqqani Network As A Terror Organization 08 September 2012
Amerrica Black Listed Haqqani Network As A Terror Organization 08 September 2012
::2012/09/08::
Play Video
4
Market Report With Rob Black - September 26 - Google, Apple & European Protests
Market Report With Rob Black - September 26 - Google, Apple & European Protests
::2012/09/26::
Play Video
5
5 Most Unbelievable Assassination Plots
5 Most Unbelievable Assassination Plots
::2013/11/16::
Play Video
6
Ukrainian Enshin Karate Organization in France. September, 3-15, 2013
Ukrainian Enshin Karate Organization in France. September, 3-15, 2013
::2013/10/13::
Play Video
7
Alpha Epsilon at CSUS Black Organization Night
Alpha Epsilon at CSUS Black Organization Night
::2012/09/29::
Play Video
8
Ellen Is the New Black
Ellen Is the New Black
::2013/09/16::
Play Video
9
Arnis Jordan  - With The Orphans From Al Baq
Arnis Jordan - With The Orphans From Al Baq'a Orphans Organization - September 2012
::2012/10/13::
Play Video
10
THE BLACK ORGANIZATION - Movie Entry
THE BLACK ORGANIZATION - Movie Entry
::2014/02/15::
Play Video
11
Stephen Kantrowitz -- "More than Freedom: Black Northerners and the Meaning of the Civil War"
Stephen Kantrowitz -- "More than Freedom: Black Northerners and the Meaning of the Civil War"
::2014/04/28::
Play Video
12
September Favorites 2013!!
September Favorites 2013!!
::2013/10/04::
Play Video
13
Rob Black
Rob Black's Market Opening Report September 24
::2012/09/24::
Play Video
14
CIA Lies, Dirty Tricks and Covert Propaganda: Robert Gates on Black Ops, KGB, Cold War (1996)
CIA Lies, Dirty Tricks and Covert Propaganda: Robert Gates on Black Ops, KGB, Cold War (1996)
::2014/05/30::
Play Video
15
Sphinx Organization, 2012 Grant for Young Artists 【Official Video】
Sphinx Organization, 2012 Grant for Young Artists 【Official Video】
::2012/10/01::
Play Video
16
Thrive II Session: Developing a Winning Strategy for Your Organization [9.4.13]
Thrive II Session: Developing a Winning Strategy for Your Organization [9.4.13]
::2013/09/05::
Play Video
17
Makeup Collection Storage & Organization | SHLINDA1
Makeup Collection Storage & Organization | SHLINDA1
::2014/02/17::
Play Video
18
What
What's in my Backpack♥ + Organization Tips!
::2013/08/13::
Play Video
19
Ikea Malm Vanity Makeup Table - Organization - Storage
Ikea Malm Vanity Makeup Table - Organization - Storage
::2011/02/25::
Play Video
20
UKRAINE UFO!!!  CONFIRMED US BLACK PROJECT(SKY DREADNOUGHT) TOP SECRET WEAPON OF NWO!!
UKRAINE UFO!!! CONFIRMED US BLACK PROJECT(SKY DREADNOUGHT) TOP SECRET WEAPON OF NWO!!
::2014/03/09::
Play Video
21
Shih Fu Gregg Zilb  " Black Sashes at Tiwanese / American Organization "
Shih Fu Gregg Zilb " Black Sashes at Tiwanese / American Organization "
::2009/05/26::
Play Video
22
Palestinian Liberation Organization accuses Israel of double-standards
Palestinian Liberation Organization accuses Israel of double-standards
::2013/08/27::
Play Video
23
Confronting racism face-to-face - BBC News
Confronting racism face-to-face - BBC News
::2014/05/17::
Play Video
24
Juan Rangel, CEO, United Neighborhood Organization
Juan Rangel, CEO, United Neighborhood Organization
::2014/02/23::
Play Video
25
Our History - Meet Neil Squire, the inspiration for the organization
Our History - Meet Neil Squire, the inspiration for the organization
::2014/05/14::
Play Video
26
"Super Soul Sunday" Returns Sunday, September 7 - OWN
"Super Soul Sunday" Returns Sunday, September 7 - OWN
::2014/06/27::
Play Video
27
Now what? Korean football squad, organization undergoing restructuring
Now what? Korean football squad, organization undergoing restructuring
::2014/07/11::
Play Video
28
UFO Sightings of 2013 (September) Part 2
UFO Sightings of 2013 (September) Part 2
::2013/09/08::
Play Video
29
Ex-Gay Group
Ex-Gay Group 'Voice of the Voiceless' Makes Totally Straight Music Videos -- TakePart Live
::2013/10/04::
Play Video
30
Bill Eno of Save Mille Lacs Sport Fishing Organization Files Suit Against MN DNR
Bill Eno of Save Mille Lacs Sport Fishing Organization Files Suit Against MN DNR
::2014/04/24::
Play Video
31
Kevin Annett: Roman Cathoic Church is declared a Transnational Criminal Organization
Kevin Annett: Roman Cathoic Church is declared a Transnational Criminal Organization
::2013/07/23::
Play Video
32
Black Friday Haul!!!
Black Friday Haul!!!
::2012/11/24::
Play Video
33
Entrepreneurs
Entrepreneurs' Organization - Octane: The Art of Engaging
::2013/10/01::
Play Video
34
Islamic State in Bible Prophecy- Armies carrying black flags from Khurasan: Baghdadi the Antichrist?
Islamic State in Bible Prophecy- Armies carrying black flags from Khurasan: Baghdadi the Antichrist?
::2014/07/15::
Play Video
35
Virgin Galactic
Virgin Galactic's Virtual Job Fair September 2013
::2013/09/12::
Play Video
36
Venture Arts changed their name again! Venture/Lau International Organization Co.
Venture Arts changed their name again! Venture/Lau International Organization Co.
::2014/01/11::
Play Video
37
My Jewelry: Collection and Organization
My Jewelry: Collection and Organization
::2012/10/17::
Play Video
38
New Makeup Organization!
New Makeup Organization!
::2010/10/21::
Play Video
39
'CIA killed 9/11 author in black ops hit'
::2013/03/04::
Play Video
40
Explain Secure Creditor in Laymans Terms Webinar September/October 2014
Explain Secure Creditor in Laymans Terms Webinar September/October 2014
::2014/04/09::
Play Video
41
Serato - Crate Organization For Mobile, Club, & Event DJ
Serato - Crate Organization For Mobile, Club, & Event DJ's
::2013/12/08::
Play Video
42
iPhone 5S/5C - Apple Event September 10, 2013 Full Presentation
iPhone 5S/5C - Apple Event September 10, 2013 Full Presentation
::2013/09/10::
Play Video
43
Palestine Liberation Organization to appeal to UN over Israeli construction
Palestine Liberation Organization to appeal to UN over Israeli construction
::2014/06/05::
Play Video
44
MSNBC: Muslim Brotherhood is a civil, charitable organization
MSNBC: Muslim Brotherhood is a civil, charitable organization
::2013/12/28::
Play Video
45
NATO Secretary General Monthly Press Conference - 02 September 2013, Part 2/2
NATO Secretary General Monthly Press Conference - 02 September 2013, Part 2/2
::2013/09/02::
Play Video
46
Your Black World: Malik Zulu Shabazz and the MILLION YOUTH MARCH
Your Black World: Malik Zulu Shabazz and the MILLION YOUTH MARCH
::2013/06/21::
Play Video
47
Agenda Organization 2012 | Lilly Pulitzer "See you later"
Agenda Organization 2012 | Lilly Pulitzer "See you later"
::2012/09/24::
Play Video
48
Noam Chomsky & Kathleen Cleaver on Race, Gender and Class Issues - Black Panthers (1997)
Noam Chomsky & Kathleen Cleaver on Race, Gender and Class Issues - Black Panthers (1997)
::2013/10/02::
Play Video
49
How I Pack My Suitcase & Carry On
How I Pack My Suitcase & Carry On
::2013/10/20::
Play Video
50
Weird Happenings Organization - Space Orbital Ride Pilot
Weird Happenings Organization - Space Orbital Ride Pilot
::2014/06/11::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Black September (group))
Jump to: navigation, search
Black September Organization
Native name منظمة أيلول الأسود
Major actions September 1970 (1970-09)–September 1973 (1973-09)
Notable attacks Munich massacre (List of Black September attacks)
Status Inactive

The Black September Organization (BSO) (Arabic: منظمة أيلول الأسود‎, Munaẓẓamat Aylūl al-aswad) was a Palestinian violent non-state actor (VNSA), founded in 1970. It was responsible for the kidnapping and murder of eleven Israeli athletes and officials, and the fatal shooting of a West German policeman, during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, their most publicized event. These events led to the creation of permanent, professional, and military-trained counter-terrorism forces of major European countries, like GSG9 and GIGN, and the reorganization and specialization of already standing units like the Special Air Service of the UK.

Origin[edit]

Newsreel about the 1970 events

The group's name is derived from the Black September conflict which began on 16 September 1970, when King Hussein of Jordan declared military rule in response to a fedayeen coup d’état to seize his kingdom  — resulting in the deaths or expulsion of thousands of Palestinians from Jordan. The BSO began as a small cell of Fatah men determined to take revenge upon King Hussein and the Jordanian army. Recruits from the PFLP, as-Sa'iqa, and other groups also joined.

Initially, most of its members were dissidents within Fatah who had been close to Abu Ali Iyad, the commander of Fatah forces in northern Jordan who continued to fight the Jordanian Army after the PLO leadership withdrew. He was killed, allegedly through execution, by Jordanian forces on 23 July 1971.[1] It was alleged by them that the Jordanian prime minister at the time, Wasfi al-Tal, was personally responsible for his torture and death.[2]

Structure of the group[edit]

There is disagreement among historians, journalists, and primary sources about the nature of the BSO and the extent to which it was controlled by Fatah, the PLO faction controlled at the time by Yasser Arafat.

In his book Stateless, Salah Khalaf (Abu Iyad), Arafat's chief of security and a founding member of Fatah, wrote that: "Black September was not a terrorist organization, but was rather an auxiliary unit of the resistance movement, at a time when the latter was unable to fully realize its military and political potential. The members of the organization always denied any ties between their organization and Fatah or the PLO."

The denial described in Abu Iyad's claim was mutual: according to a 1972 article in the Jordanian newspaper Al-Dustur, Mohammed Daoud Oudeh, also known as Abu Daoud, a BSO operative and former senior PLO member, told Jordanian police: "There is no such organization as Black September. Fatah announces its own operations under this name so that Fatah will not appear as the direct executor of the operation." A March 1973 document released in 1981 by the U.S. State Department seemed to confirm that Fatah was Black September's parent organization.[3]

According to American journalist Charlie Cranston John K. Cooley, the BSO represented a "total break with the old operational and organizational methods of the fedayeen. Its members operated in air-tight cells of four or more men and women. Each cell's members were kept purposely ignorant of other cells. Leadership was exercised from outside by intermediaries and 'cut-offs' [sic]", though there was no centralized leadership.[4]

Cooley writes that many of the cells in Europe and around the world were made up of Palestinians and other Arabs who had lived in their countries of residence as students, teachers, businessmen, and diplomats for many years. Operating without a central leadership (see Leaderless resistance), it was a "true collegial direction".[4] The cell structure and the need-to-know operational philosophy protected the operatives by ensuring that the apprehension or surveillance of one cell would not affect the others. The structure offered plausible deniability to the Fatah leadership, which was careful to distance itself from Black September operations.

Fatah needed Black September, according to Benny Morris, who was at the time a professor of history at Ben-Gurion University. He writes that there was a "problem of internal PLO or Fatah cohesion, with extremists constantly demanding greater militancy. The moderates apparently acquiesced in the creation of Black September in order to survive".[5] As a result of pressure from militants, writes Morris, a Fatah congress in Damascus in August–September 1971 agreed to establish Black September. The new organization was based on Fatah's existing special intelligence and security apparatus, and on the PLO offices and representatives in various European capitals, and from very early on, there was cooperation between Black September and the PFLP.[5]

The PLO closed Black September down on September 1973, on the anniversary it was created by the "political calculation that no more good would come of terrorism abroad" according to Morris.[6] In 1974 Arafat ordered the PLO to withdraw from acts of violence outside the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Israel.

Munich massacre[edit]

The group's most infamous operation was the killing of 11 Israeli athletes, nine of whom were first taken hostage, and the killing of a German police officer, during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Black September's official name for the operation was "Ikrit and Biram", after the names of two Palestinian Christian villages whose residents had been killed or expelled by the Israeli military Haganah in 1948.[7][8]

Following the attack, the Israeli government, headed by Prime Minister Golda Meir, ordered Mossad to assassinate those known to have been involved.[9] What was then known as Operation Bayonet had begun. By 1979, during what became known as Operation Wrath of God, at least one Mossad unit had assassinated eight PLO members. Among them was the leading figure of Ali Hassan Salameh, nicknamed the "Red Prince," the wealthy, flamboyant son of an upper-class family, and commander of Force 17, Yasser Arafat's personal security squad. Salameh was behind the 1972 hijacking of Sabena Flight 572 from Vienna to Lod. He was killed by a car bomb in Beirut on 22 January 1979. In Operation Spring of Youth, in April 1973, Israeli commandos killed three senior members of Black September in Beirut. In July 1973, in what became known as the Lillehammer affair, six Israeli operatives were arrested for the murder of Ahmed Bouchiki, an innocent Moroccan waiter who was mistaken for Ali Hassan Salameh.

Recent remarks by Abu Daoud, the alleged mastermind of the Munich kidnappings, deny that any of the Palestinians assassinated by Mossad had any relation to the Munich operation,[10] this despite the fact that the list includes two of the three surviving members of the kidnap squad arrested at the airport.[1]

Other attacks[edit]

Other actions attributed to Black September include:

Letter bomb attacks and assassination of Ami Shachori[edit]

Dr. Ami Shachori was the agricultural counselor in the Israeli Embassy to the United Kingdom in the London district of Kensington. At the age of 44 he was assassinated in a letter bomb attack on 19 September 1972, perpetrated by Black September.

Eight bombs were addressed to embassy staffers. Four were intercepted at a post office sorting room in Earls Court,[12] but the other four letters made it to the embassy. Three of the letters were detected in the consulate post room [12] but Ami Shachori opened his, believing it contained Dutch flower seeds he had ordered. The resulting blast tore a hole in the desk and fatally wounded Shachori in the stomach and chest.[13]

In Shachori's memory an annual memorial lecture on agriculture in London was established.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Quandt, Jabber and Lesch, p.141.
  2. ^ Amos, 1980, p.222.
  3. ^ Jewish Virtual Library: State Department Documents PLO-Black September Link
  4. ^ a b Cooley 1973[page needed]
  5. ^ a b Morris 2001, p. 379
  6. ^ Morris 2001, p. 383
  7. ^ Elias Chacour: "Blood Brothers. A Palestinian Struggles for Reconciliation in the Middle East" ISBN 0-8007-9321-8 with Hazard, David, and Baker III, James A., Secretary (Foreword by) 2nd Expanded ed. 2003. pp. 44-61
  8. ^ Sylas, Eluma Ikemefuma (2007). Terrorism: A Global Scourge. United States: Author House. ISBN 978-1-4259-0530-9. 
  9. ^ BBC thisworld: The hunt for Black September
  10. ^ "الموساد قلعة التجسس الإسرائيلية" [Mossad the israeli spying citadel] (in Arabic). Aljazeera. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  11. ^ And Now, Mail-a-Death, Time, 2 October 1972. Accessed 5 September 2006.
  12. ^ a b BBC On this day 19 September: 1972: Parcel bomb attack on Israeli embassy
  13. ^ Time: And now, Mail-a-Death
  14. ^ TropHort: Agricultural research in Israel - achievements and trends. The eleventh Ami Shachori memorial lecture delivered in London, 19 October 1983
  • Cooley, J.K.: "Green March, Black September" : The Story of the Palestinian Arabs. Frank Cass and Company Ltd., 1973, ISBN 0-7146-2987-1
  • Bar Zohar, M., Haber E. The Quest for the Red Prince: Israel's Relentless Manhunt for One of the World's Deadliest and Most Wanted Arab Terrorists. The Lyons Press, 2002, ISBN 1-58574-739-4
  • Morris, B.: Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. Vintage Books, 2001.
  • Jonas, G. Vengeance. Bantam Books, 1985.
  • Khalaf, S. (Abu Iyad) Stateless.
  • Oudeh, M.D. (Abu Daoud) Memoirs of a Palestinian Terrorist.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014