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Black Coral
Black Coral
Published: 2012/06/02
Channel: TheBrothers Winn
Black Coral (1968)
Black Coral (1968)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
black-coral.mp4
black-coral.mp4
Published: 2011/03/01
Channel: Acharya Hargreaves
The Stills Young Band - Black Coral
The Stills Young Band - Black Coral
Published: 2011/12/27
Channel: ClassicBrazilianRock
Diving for Black Coral in New Zealand | Descending
Diving for Black Coral in New Zealand | Descending
Published: 2016/11/30
Channel: Outside TV
Polishing Black Coral Jewelry : Creative Jewelry Designs & Tips
Polishing Black Coral Jewelry : Creative Jewelry Designs & Tips
Published: 2014/05/08
Channel: ehowbeauty
Kodak Black - Tunnel Vision [Official Music Video]
Kodak Black - Tunnel Vision [Official Music Video]
Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: Kodak Black
Cata Black Coral Divers 8 6 14 hi res
Cata Black Coral Divers 8 6 14 hi res
Published: 2014/06/12
Channel: Hector Parra
Black Coral Rum
Black Coral Rum
Published: 2015/07/02
Channel: WPTV News | West Palm Beach Florida
Black Coral Bracelets
Black Coral Bracelets
Published: 2015/05/16
Channel: EverQuest Classics
Discovering black corals in Freycinet Commonwealth Marine Reserve
Discovering black corals in Freycinet Commonwealth Marine Reserve
Published: 2016/08/25
Channel: Marine Biodiversity Hub
Black coral (Antiphatarian) garden with a (Anthias anthias) soal
Black coral (Antiphatarian) garden with a (Anthias anthias) soal
Published: 2013/12/23
Channel: Oceana Europe
Scuba Diving Belize
Scuba Diving Belize's Black Coral Wall
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: Sport Diver magazine
Passman Black Coral Jewelry by Tchavdar Tchouchev
Passman Black Coral Jewelry by Tchavdar Tchouchev
Published: 2014/08/02
Channel: Tchavdar Tchouchev s Passman Black Coral Jewelry
Episode 16 - Black Coral Forest
Episode 16 - Black Coral Forest
Published: 2007/05/20
Channel: Don Stark
Black Coral
Black Coral
Published: 2011/07/11
Channel: OffTheChartFishing
Maui Jim black coral unboxing
Maui Jim black coral unboxing
Published: 2013/03/10
Channel: Otterbox123
Black Coral
Black Coral
Published: 2014/02/26
Channel: Rene Paulo Trio - Topic
Discovery of Black Coral in Tasmania
Discovery of Black Coral in Tasmania
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: Tasmanian Underwater Explorer
Black corals with Go Pro (Dahab - Ras Mamlah)
Black corals with Go Pro (Dahab - Ras Mamlah)
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: Nemo Dahab Behind the Mask
Black Soul Dream   Raiz Coral - Eu vou cantar
Black Soul Dream Raiz Coral - Eu vou cantar
Published: 2011/02/19
Channel: Moisés Ferreira
Complicated - Black Coral
Complicated - Black Coral
Published: 2016/11/23
Channel: DZP Music
Diving at the
Diving at the 'Black Coral'
Published: 2015/09/30
Channel: Peter Moore
"Se Liga"- Coral Kemuel no Natal Black
"Se Liga"- Coral Kemuel no Natal Black
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Showlivre
SPOTLIGHT-Black Coral Colocasia! // Fav Elephant Ear // Tropical Plant Party
SPOTLIGHT-Black Coral Colocasia! // Fav Elephant Ear // Tropical Plant Party
Published: 2017/07/29
Channel: Tropical Plant Party
The Black Coral
The Black Coral
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: Gary Clark
Maui Divers Black Coral part 1
Maui Divers Black Coral part 1
Published: 2014/09/19
Channel: Bud Moore
Black Coral - Live @ The Crown & Sceptre, February 22nd 2015
Black Coral - Live @ The Crown & Sceptre, February 22nd 2015
Published: 2015/03/10
Channel: Spoz Spozington
Stephen Stills - "Black Coral Rhapsody"  (Live 1976)
Stephen Stills - "Black Coral Rhapsody" (Live 1976)
Published: 2010/08/26
Channel: Manassas31
Magic Inch Black Coral Meerschaum (258 - Olive, 259 - Ring)
Magic Inch Black Coral Meerschaum (258 - Olive, 259 - Ring)
Published: 2014/08/21
Channel: EACareyEurope
Harlem Gospel Choir - Amazing Grace (EXCLUSIVE)
Harlem Gospel Choir - Amazing Grace (EXCLUSIVE)
Published: 2011/08/10
Channel: Premier On Demand
Black Coral - Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young
Black Coral - Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young
Published: 2014/06/21
Channel: boffohijinx
Black Coral Miracle of Nature
Black Coral Miracle of Nature
Published: 2016/09/11
Channel: Juan Alava Z
Black Coral
Black Coral
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: OfficialMauiJim
Product Review: Maui Jim Black Coral Polarized Sunglasses
Product Review: Maui Jim Black Coral Polarized Sunglasses
Published: 2014/04/15
Channel: glassesdotcom
Bintan Black Coral
Bintan Black Coral
Published: 2017/01/25
Channel: Aditya Zulfahmi
Esquenta Natal Black, com Coral Kemuel, Pregador Luo e Banda Dopa no Estúdio Showlivre
Esquenta Natal Black, com Coral Kemuel, Pregador Luo e Banda Dopa no Estúdio Showlivre
Published: 2016/11/23
Channel: Showlivre
BLACK CORAL GROOVE - Silver Dust
BLACK CORAL GROOVE - Silver Dust
Published: 2013/12/07
Channel: BLACK CORAL GROOVE
Calypso Reggie and Black Coral Band
Calypso Reggie and Black Coral Band
Published: 2014/08/29
Channel: ZIZRadioTV
Coral Black Melody - A Alegria (CBM Version)
Coral Black Melody - A Alegria (CBM Version)
Published: 2016/03/16
Channel: Coral Balck Melody
Maui Jim Black Coral Polarized H249-19M Sunglasses Review | SmartBuyGlasses
Maui Jim Black Coral Polarized H249-19M Sunglasses Review | SmartBuyGlasses
Published: 2016/07/13
Channel: SmartBuyGlasses
Black Coral
Black Coral
Published: 2015/03/26
Channel: OfficialMauiJim
Back in Black (Coral)
Back in Black (Coral)
Published: 2012/05/16
Channel: WhatYouOughtToKnow
fishing Bintan island, Kepri Indonesia ( BINTAN  BLACK CORAL )
fishing Bintan island, Kepri Indonesia ( BINTAN BLACK CORAL )
Published: 2015/08/27
Channel: Rhomy Mashari
Oval Black Coral & Diamond Ring 14K Gold, 1/5 cttw on QVC
Oval Black Coral & Diamond Ring 14K Gold, 1/5 cttw on QVC
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: QVCtv
Maui Jim Black Coral SKU:7896652
Maui Jim Black Coral SKU:7896652
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: Shop Zappos
A Trip to Bintan | Spearfishing ( Bintan Black Coral ) ikan bulat.. Kelong fishing
A Trip to Bintan | Spearfishing ( Bintan Black Coral ) ikan bulat.. Kelong fishing
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Rhomy Mashari
Black Coral Necklace
Black Coral Necklace
Published: 2014/11/17
Channel: The Diva Rocks Handmade Jewellery
Galaxy S7 Edge Black Pearl Vs Blue Coral Colour Comparison
Galaxy S7 Edge Black Pearl Vs Blue Coral Colour Comparison
Published: 2017/01/07
Channel: TechySaubhagya
Video Gelang Akar Bahar Black Coral Tali Arus Mas Kombinasi Kuningan Full Batu 1
Video Gelang Akar Bahar Black Coral Tali Arus Mas Kombinasi Kuningan Full Batu 1
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: M Imron Pribadi
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Black coral
Blackcoral colony 600.jpg
Black coral colony
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Subclass: Hexacorallia
Order: Antipatharia
Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1857

Black corals (Antipatharia) are a group of deep water, tree-like corals.

Description and characteristics[edit]

Close-up on the polyps

They normally occur in the tropics. They are also found in rather dark water areas such as New Zealand's Milford Sound where they can be viewed from an underwater observatory or via SCUBA diving. There are about 280 known species[1] of Antipatharians in 42 genera.[2] The surface of the colony is covered with living material, the coensarc, out of which the polyps project. These vary in size and shape, with those living nearer the holdfast being less elongated than those near the periphery. The polyps each have six non-retractable, unbranched tentacles.[3]

Though black coral's living tissue is brilliantly colored, it takes its name from the distinctive black or dark brown color of its skeleton.[1] Also unique to black coral are the tiny spines that cover the surface of the skeleton, the origin of the nickname little thorn coral.[1] In the Hawaiian language, black coral is called ‘ēkaha kū moana and is the official state gem of Hawaii.[4] Black coral is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

Lifespan[edit]

In March 2009, scientists released the results of their research on deep-sea (depths of ~300 to 3,000 m) corals throughout the world. They discovered specimens of Leiopathes glaberrima to be among the oldest living organisms on the planet: around 4,265 years old. They show that the "radial growth rates are as low as 4 to 35 micrometers per year and that individual colony longevities are on the order of thousands of years".[5][6]

Ecology[edit]

Whip coral (Cirrhipathes species) host as many as six other species. Whip coral gobies and barnacles permanently inhabit the skeleton. The goby and shrimp quickly hide on the opposite side skeleton's when a threat approaches. The goby and damselfish lay their eggs on the skeleton. The damselfish bites off the polyps to expose the nesting site.[7]

Families[edit]

List of families according to the World Register of Marine Species :

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Opresko, Dennis. "Spotlight on Antipatharians (Black Corals)". NMNH.typepad.com. 
  2. ^ Tazioli, S., Bo, M., Boyer, M., Rotinsulu, H. & Bavestrello, G., 2007. Ecology of some common antipatharians from the Marine Park of Bunaken (North Sulawesi, Indonesia). Zoological Studies, 46, 227–241
  3. ^ Colin, Patrick L. (1978). Marine Invertebrates and Plants of the Living Reef. T.F.H. Publications. p. 294–299. ISBN 978-0-86622-875-6. 
  4. ^ Grigg, Richard W. (1993). "Precious Coral Fisheries of Hawaii and the U.S. Pacific Islands" (PDF). Marine Fisheries Review. Seattle, Washington: National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. 55 (2): 54. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  5. ^ Roark EB, Guilderson TP, Dunbar RB, Fallon SJ, Mucciarone DA (2009-02-10). "Extreme longevity in proteinaceous deep-sea corals". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 106 (13): 5204–8. PMC 2663997Freely accessible. PMID 19307564. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810875106. 
  6. ^ Graczyk, Michael (2009-03-25). "Scientists ID living coral as 4,265 years old". The Associated Press. 
  7. ^ Murphy, Richard C. (2002). Coral Reefs: Cities Under The Seas. The Darwin Press, Inc. ISBN 0-87850-138-X. 

External links[edit]

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